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FAU / Art History / ARH 2000 / Who made christianity legal, and then it later became the official rel

Who made christianity legal, and then it later became the official rel

Who made christianity legal, and then it later became the official rel


Exam 2 Study Guide 

Who made christianity legal, and then it later became the official religion?

Minoan and Mycenaean Art: 

∙ Exists at 1500 BC

∙ Cycladic world is the island/Crete (Minoan) people; Helladic world is  the main land (Mycenaean) people

∙ Marble is used a lot in Minoan artwork

o Cycladic idols represent fertility and have very simple features o Metamorphic state of limestone

o Birthing-chair sculpture is made of marble

∙ Very little Minoan architecture exists

o Has columns, post & lintel system, and townhouse-like structures  Island had two earthquakes at 1600 and 1400 BC;  

everything was destroyed and became uninhabited

What is a dolphin mural?

∙ Only bad thing about the Minoan civilization

∙ Minoans lived a happy and stress-free life

∙ Minoan architecture is highly painted and decorated

o Beautiful sculptures and wall paintings all over; they had a lot of  murals

 Dolphin mural shows dolphins swimming among fish and  coral; it’s a mural, not a fresco

∙ Minoans were not warlike. They were a very calm and peaceful people. ∙ Minoans had a lot of free-time

o Boxing was a rite of passage, but was a sport, which was done  for fun

∙ La Parisienne: woman of the night; painting of a woman wearing  makeup and hair down

What is a written language for the minoans, composed of symbols?

∙ If pottery was lopsided, it meant that people were worried ∙ Pithos jars were large and created to hold things, well-made which  shows the good temperament of society at the time

o Early pottery was baked by the sun and decorated; many of the  decorations represent nature

 Octopus vase was the most famous vase (free-form  We also discuss several other topics like What is empirical probability?

decorative pattern)

∙ The bull was used as a sport and domesticated by Minoans o Paintings showcasing this represent how men are superior to  everything

∙ There was trade going on between India and the Minoans because of  ivory being used

∙ Linear B is a written language for the Minoans, composed of symbols ∙ Snake goddess: has a long skirt, open bodes, eye makeup, and  holding two snakes

o Trying to control nature; put into households to scare away evil  spirits

∙ Gold was not uncommon in the ancient world because it was easy to  find and work with

∙ Mainland Greece is much harsher, where the Mycenaeans lived o Famous lions’ gates=animals of might and power If you want to learn more check out What is a measure of an atom's ability to attract the shared electrons in a chemical bond?

 Both Minoans and Myceneans used animals as decorations  ∙ Beehive tomb looks like a beehive and has very precise cuts o Mycenaean artwork comes from circle graves/tombs

∙ Gold disks started appearing; decorated with animals and had different weights; this was a type of currency

∙ Minoans and Mycenaeans had gold jewelry

Greek Art: 

∙ Geometric, archaic, classical, Hellenistic

∙ On the Mediterranean and Aegean Seas

∙ Fertility figures were made of marble

∙ Many geometric figures

o Geometric horses: made of bronze and all one piece; serve as  decoration

∙ Greeks believed the Gods were always watching; men were punished  for disobeying the gods; there was civil law, but Gods above that ∙ Centaur=half man, half horse

∙ Apollo figures were often placed inside of temples

∙ Geometric art and eye makeup= Archaic period If you want to learn more check out What is electron centrifugation?

∙ Amphoria: most commonly shaped vase, often with geometric  patterns and told a story

o Orientalizing: saw something; use of Mesopotamian oriental art and put it in art

∙ Kouros figure is from the Archaic period

o male votive/praying figure placed in temples

o Kore is a female votive figure

o Cornrow hair is archaic

∙ Calf-bearer: man holding a calf to give birth to the gods; has  cornrows, smiling, thick legs===Archaic

∙ Contrapposto: the natural way of standing that indicates a spine ∙ In the classical period, people were painted/sculpted to look beautiful ∙ Bronze is rare, but when used, allowed for freer sculptures o Found in the sea and a prized possession We also discuss several other topics like What is alpha 1,6 glucosidase?

∙ Hairstyles begin to change in the year 500 BC; also begin to look like  sculptures are inhaling

∙ In the classical era, there was a math equation created for the height  of your body

o Head x 7.5

o Canon of proportions

∙ Amazons: women of beauty, strength, and desirability and intelligence ∙ Doric (plain), ionic (scrolls), and Corinthian (leaves) are the three  orders of columns

∙ Foundation, façade, column, pediment, cella=parts of a temple ∙ Start seeing beautiful and handsome head sculptures around the 5th century

∙ 5th century BC=Classical Era=most important to remember ∙ Greeks built temples to pay homage to the Gods If you want to learn more check out William hershel counted stars in how many regions?

∙ Column: single-carved stone pillars that support the horizontal o Made of multiple sections, not just one piece

∙ Greek temples are made of limestone

∙ Pediment is the triangle in front; used to be painted ∙ Cella is inside, where the people worship the Gods

∙ Capital is the top of the column; three different orders (Doric, ionic,  Corinthian)

∙ Most Greek temples were decorated with sculptures

∙ The front of the temple is the façade

∙ Acropolis in Athens; means “high town”

∙ The Parthenon is a Doric Greek temple; statue of Athena was inside o Athena: goddess of wisdom and war; Athena Nike is the small  sidekick If you want to learn more check out Where do stars tend to form?

∙ Caryatid: column that is the shape of a woman; head is the capital ∙ During the Hellenistic era, the figures became more heroic ∙ Sculptures often made in groups to tell a story (Hellenistic) ∙ Hellenistic era: 1st-3rd century, before the Greeks were defeated by the  Romans

∙ Female figures began to take on a theatrical look

∙ Slip: a liquid clay with a silicon base that would be put in a kiln and  then come out with a glaze; introduction of ceramics

o Black figures: has black figures, painted with slip

o Red figures: has red figures, painted with slip

o If you want to paint something black, you painted it with slip o To make red figures, you painted the background black with the  slip

∙ 50 BC-1 BC: the boxer, bronze Hellenistic figure

o Communication between viewer and sculpture

∙ Laocoon: story relates to the Trojan war: he was a prophet that said,  “beware of Greeks bearing gifts,” made Gods mad, and they ordered  him to be dead; figure depicts him, and his two sons being straggled  by serpents; made of one piece of marble

o Example of Hellenism

∙ The Romans were the first people to make portraits

Etruscan and Roman Art: 

∙ Etruscans lived in central Italy

∙ Etruscans copied a lot of what the Greeks did

∙ Tufa: material that is volcanic and make structures

∙ Etruscans were wall painters

∙ Apollo of Veii is the largest statue left standing; made of terra cotta  clay and made in several pieces

∙ Couples tombs were the most telling sculptures

∙ Cinerary urns hold a person’s cremated remains; Etruscans believed  in cremation

∙ The Etruscans cast metals.

∙ The Etruscans has gold.

∙ Roman Empire: 600 BC-400 AD

o She-wolf is the symbol of Rome

∙ The Romans built temples with the same orders that Greece did ∙ The Romans added engineering to their architecture

o arch, dome, used cement/brick & mortar, created viaducts  (moved water)

∙ Romans had different types of outdoor temples

∙ Romans made portraits (sculptures of a specific person) ∙ The Romans copied the Greeks as well

∙ Pompeii, located in the Mediterranean, was located next to Mt.  Vesuvius. This volcano erupted in 79 AD and destroyed the whole city,  covering it in ashes and preserving a lot of stuff under it

o when everything was dug up, it was all in the same position that  the people died in (freeze frozen in time)

∙ Christianity rose towards the end of the Roman empire o Constantine made Christianity legal, and then it later became the official religion

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