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NICHOLLS - HIST 150 - Study Guide - Midterm

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NICHOLLS - HIST 150 - Study Guide - Midterm

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background image Lecture 13 Plato ­ Philosopher/Student of Socrates ○ Wrote a lot of works ○ All of his writing are searching for one thing, the ideal version. ■ What is the best form of the thing being questioned? The Republic ­ Plato’s most famous piece ■ Asks the question, “What is the most ideal form of government?” ■ Hellas has all kinds of different forms of government due to the city­state  system ■ Plato argues that democracy is a terrible form of government ■ You may think that a monarchy is better, but in the end it is also a bad  form of government. ■ Plato believed that the “philosopher king” was the ideal form of  government. ● Best of both worlds (democracy and monarchy) ● Monarchy in which the king is also a philosopher ● Has the power of a monarchy and the compassion of democracy ● Not real, but his ideal version ● We won’t ever see a philosopher king, but we can work towards  achieving it to make the world a better place The Symposium ­ Another one of Plato’s works ■ Addresses the question, “What is the ideal love?” ■ He believes homosexual love is the best ■ His reasoning: ● Heterosexuals always have the desire for sex, and as long as there  is that desire, people are no better than animals (carnal 
● Love will always be polluted by the sexual desire ● Believes there is no sexual desire in homosexual love, so this  makes it ideal/pure ■ Platonic relationship ­ Relationship without desire ● Plato is where we get this term from ● Side Note: We can’t judge people of the past with current values ● Fall of Hellenic society ○ The Hellas dies out violently because of the constant war between each of the  city­states ○ Ionian Revolt → Persian War → Peloponnesian War → Civil War
○ By 339 B.C. the land had been in constant war for a century and a half
■ Entire generations of young men die in the constant wars ■ Without young men there is no reproduction, so by 339 B.C. the Hellas  had bled themselves dry
background image ■ This lack of young men and the inability to maintain the population made  them easy pickings for invaders  Philip II (the Great) of Macedon ■ From the barbarian lands north of the Hellas ■ Invades Hellas and conquers the city­states one­by­one, bringing an end to the Hellenic Age ■ This was not his goal though, but just the beginning ■ His dream was to obtain global conquest ■ He didn’t have the chance though because he was assassinated ■ The throne then passed to his son, Alexander Alexander the Great ■ Son of Philip the Great ■ Since his father was a warrior king, he spent his entire childhood in  military camps ● All of his friends, education, and other things were military related ■ He carries out his dad’s dream of global conquest ■ Constantly won battles that he should have lost because of his military  upbringing ■ Conquered nearly all of the known world until he came upon India ● It took about 10 years to make it to the borders of India ● The soldiers were homesick  ● Alexander wanted to conquer India, but we still wouldn’t be happy with just that ● The soldiers rebelled against Alexander  ● He was forced to understand that the campaign was done ■ He was mad though, and on the journey home he led his men through the  Persian desert where they died by the thousands ■ When they made it back to the Hellas he died at the age of 32 ■ By 32 Alexander had conquered pretty much the entire known world ■ Through his conquests we have 3 continents together at the same time and  place ■ Different cultures were coming together and trading ideas ■ Society will at this time evolve into what is known as the Hellenistic Age Hellenistic Age ­ “istic” means ish/like, so it means Greek like. No longer pure Hellenic, 
but a hybrid
■ Alexandrian cities ­ Military necessity ● Alexander couldn’t leave conquered territories alone, so he  established cities in these places ● He creates no less than 24 new cities ● All of them have the same name, Alexandria ● Alexandra, Egypt is the only important one left ● He leaves Greco­Macedonian leaders in these cities
background image ● Through these cities Greco­Macedonians come into contact with  Asia and Africa ● The different people learn from each other, embracing the ideas  they liked and ignoring the ones they didn’t like Silk Road ○ Made of dozens of routes ○ More correctly it should be the “Silk Network” ○ All about commerce and profit However, there were many difficulties with traveling the Silk Road

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School: Nicholls State University
Department: Art History
Course: Word History
Professor: Scott Phipps
Term: Fall 2018
Tags: Histroy 150
Name: History 150, week 4 notes
Description: These notes cover whats going to be on the next exam starting tomorrow.
Uploaded: 11/08/2018
8 Pages 103 Views 82 Unlocks
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