HIS 12 - Lecture 18 - Kitchenware and Food Preservation
I. The Impact of Pottery on Cooking
A. Clay vessels could be formed to contain a wide range of food. B. Humans could eat plants that were otherwise inedible or toxic. C. Pots enabled cooks to capture juices of the food cooked. II. Before Pots
A. Neolithic humans living near geothermal springs cooked food in flaxen bags suspended in the water.
B. Advantages: less labor-intensive, cooks food thoroughly. III. Pit Ovens
A. Rock-lined pit filled with water.
B. Rock-lined pit with fire made at the bottom.
A. Clay pots became common around 10,000 BCE in South America, North Africa, and Japan.
B. Pots were used first for storage and then for cooking.
V. From Clay to Metal
A. Bronze Age: 3000 BCE
B. Egypt, Mesopotamia, China
C. Metal was expensive at first so it was only used for ritual feast. VI. Knives
A. Primary function of a knife is to cut. Don't forget about the age old question of What causes population to change?
B. Secondary function is to manipulate its power to cut.
VII. Bronze Age - Iron Age (3200 BCE - 500 BCE)
A. Bronze is too soft to hold edge.
B. Iron rusts easily and affects the taste of food.
C. Steel was the solution.
VIII. Carving the Meat
A. Europeans put more energy and knowledge into carving than pre-cooking cutting.
B. The carver was a prestigious position in medieval courts. C. Diners brought their own knives to the table.
D. By the 18th century, dinner knives were blunt in Europe. IX. Knife Culture We also discuss several other topics like Who painted "the last judgment"?
A. French and Italian cooking use particular knives for particular tasks.
B. The Japanese santoku had three uses: 1) cutting meat, 2) chopping vegetables, and 3) slicing fish.
C. Chinese dao: all-purpose knife.
X. Types of Preservation
XI. Preservation of Milk
A. Milk was preserved as cheese.
B. Milk was intentionally curdled to make it last long: yogurt. C. Milk was emulsified to butter.
XII. Preservation of Fish
A. Salted food was common since antiquity.
B. Salted cod industry rivaled sugar and tea up to the 20th century. XIII. Ice
A. Before the 19th century, people stored winter snow underground. B. Ice was industrialized in the 19th century.
A. The trifid: the spoon was adopted in Britain in the late 17th century.
B. Deeper bowl, flat handle.
A. The Italians first adopted the fork.
B. Forks were unusual in Europe until the 17th century.
XVI. Utensils as Culture
A. Forks, knives, spoons, and chopsticks are instruments of conformity.
B. Social rules determine when to eat with fingers, when to use proper utensils. If you want to learn more check out Define phylogeny.
HIS 12 - Lecture 19 - The History of the Modern Restaurant
I. The 3 Precursors of Modern Restaurants
A. Kitchen, food carts
B. Inns and hostels
C. Teahouses, taverns, cafés
II. The Big Picture
A. Street kitchens, inns, food carts, tea houses, taverns were the ancestors of the modern restaurant.
B. Ordinary people tended not to have indoor kitchens, because of danger of fire.
III. Street Kitchens
A. They were an alternative to the fire hazards of an indoor kitchen. IV. Ancient Roman Kitchens
A. Ordinary Romans did not have kitchens.
B. Only the wealthy had fixed rooms for preparing foods before 2nd century CE.
C. Most cooking done in open-air courtyards, but not everyone had a courtyard.
A. The city of Pompeii had numerous street kitchens where residents could buy prepared food.
B. Thermopolium means cookshop. Little evidence of private kitchens in dwelling places of humble and middling Romans. C. One of the mystery had to do with where people ate. This is hard to tell because seating is almost non-existent. Military chairs were packed up. Don't forget about the age old question of What is the equation of population standard deviation (sigma)?
D. It was only the rich that practiced Roman banquets and would have done that when they had people over to celebrate an anniversary. Otherwise, the frescos that survived showed that people were sitting up (drinking, playing games, etc).
E. Chairs were actually common, but they did not survive. They did not eat at tables.
VI. Food Carts
A. Cities in medieval Europe had food carts and cookshops. In the countryside, people would cook outdoors. Did more home cooking.
B. Located in most densely populated districts.
C. But few cookshops along trade routes outside of city.
D. Mostly inns.
E. Food carts took took bread to the people.
F. Japanese food carts (yatai) served and still serve hot food to pedestrians.
G. Prepared food for office workers, students, and merchants. VII. Inns and Hostels
A. Locations that provided services for travelers, especially merchants. If you want to learn more check out If accumulation is more significant than ablation, what will happen at the front of the glacier?
B. Room and board. “Hostel,” “hotel” both derived from Indo European words for “guests” and hosts.”
C. They were the first combination of a restaurant and a hotel. D. They were common throughout the world.
E. They adapted and become more urban. Boarding houses formed where individuals could rent out their rooms for travelers. If you want to learn more check out What is a narrow band of electromagnetic radiation that can be conceptualized as a wave or a stream of electrically charged particles called photons?
A. Modern hotels emerged in the U.S. and Paris in the 19th century. B. Different from boarding houses, inns in level of comfort and exclusivity.
C. Price of a room included meals.
IX. Table D’Hôte (The Host’s Table)
A. One common eating table.
B. One fixed menu of dishes.
C. One serving time.
A. It is essentially a Japanese version of an inn, which has similar characteristics of inns in the west. They emerge in the 17th century which is where merchants were traveling throughout Japan.
B. They are popular today since it brings that feeling of going back to a golden age.
XI. Qingming Festival Scroll
A. People are sitting in tables outdoors.
B. These kinds of places were popular in China.
A. In the 11th century CE, they catered to traveling merchants. B. Sites of socializing outside the family.
C. Theatrical productions offered in tea houses.
D. Variety of food available for purchase.
XIII. Restaurants in Japan and China
A. Eating establishments separated from inns in the 18th century. B. Restaurants first appeared in China in 1880s (when they appear outside of China as well).
XIV. Chinese Food Outside of China
A. First Chinese restaurant in Europe opened in 1884 in London. B. Chinese food became popular in San Francisco, New Orleans in 1920s. New Orleans has some of the oldest German, French, Italian restaurants.
C. Some of the best Vietnamese and Cambodian cuisine is found in
New Orleans due to the large amount of migrants found there. D. Popularity of Chinese food became global after 1945.
XV. Taverns and Cafés in Europe
A. Places to consume ale, wine, spirits, or coffee.
B. In mid-18th century, many taverns and cafés began to serve basic prepared food.
C. Traiteurs delivered their food to taverns.
D. No choice of dishes.
A. Traiteurs in French.
B. Origin of Italian word trattoria.
C. Prepared food and delivered it to taverns, inns, and private dwellings/
D. Powerful guild.
XVII. The Modern European “Restaurant”
A. The word “restaurant” comes from the word restaurar which means to restore.
A. Restorative broth (bouillon)
B. In 1765, the first establishment opened to provide restorative broths.
C. By 1800, custards, macaroni, egg dishes were also offered. XIX. The Rise of the Restaurant in Western Europe
A. Businesses that sold restorative broths to patrons.
B. Monsieur Boulanger opened first restaurant in Paris in 1765. C. By 1830s, restaurants opened in London and in the U.S. XX. Differences Between Restaurants and Previous Forms A. High quality, high status meals for anyone who could pay. B. Restaurant chefs prepared the food. Tavern keepers and innkeepers did not.
C. “A la carte” means on the menu.
D. Diners sat at their own tables.
A. First prominent restaurant in the U.S. It catered to people with money and provided a selection of luxury foods that they could eat.
B. Opened in 1837 on this site at 2 William St in NYC.
HIS 12 - Lecture 20 - How to Make a National Cuisine
A. Stew = Protein + Carbohydrate + Plant
B. In North Africa, there is the Tagine and in China, there is wok and there is olla in Spain. There are several variations that vary across cultures.
II. Age-Old Traditions
A. Potato Latkes (Ashkenazi Jews, Eastern Europe), Tomate marinara sauce (Naples, Italy), and Egyptian Koshari (rice and lentils in tomato chili sauce)
B. What all of these three dishes have common is that the ingredients came from the Columbian exchange. They did not have potatoes in Europe.
III. Italian Cuisines
A. Tuscany, Emilia Romagna, Piedmont, Umbria, Lazio, Calabria, Sicily
B. Each one of these areas have their own dialect, their own traditions, their own food and ingredients, but they also embrace products from the New World who incorporated them at different times in different degrees.
IV. Influences on Italian Cooking
A. Muslim conquest of Sicily: the Muslims added a few important ingredients where they introduced eggplant, citrus, olives, and almonds. Almond candies were part of the Muslim legacy.
B. Norman conquest of Sicily: the Normans introduced meat-eating. They were very violent, mobile, and settled. They were
descendants of Vikings. They imported spices from the markets they conquered in the Near East.
C. Spanish conquest of Sicily
V. Spanish Rule Over Southern Italy
A. New World ingredients: tomatoes, corn, potatoes
B. Each ingredient formed a special Italian dish such as polenta and tomato sauce.
VI. 14th Century Pasta
A. Growing availability of wheat flour led to increase in pasta consumption in cities.
B. Too expensive for the poor and peasants in countryside. C. As price of wheat rose, pasta became unaffordable throughout Italy.
D. Prior to the 19th century, almost all pasta was fresh pasta. If it was about to be dry, it had to be used quickly so that it would
not go bad.
VII. Renaissance Italy (15th-17th Centuries)
A. Ordinary people could not afford to roast or bake often.
B. Boiling or stewing most economical.
C. Grains: wheat in the south, buckwheat in the north.
D. Olive oil was expensive.
E. Butter was cheaper.
F. Protein came from lamb, goats, and pigs.
VIII. Italian Etiquette
A. Guests shared bowls, goblets, and trenchers.
B. Spoons were used to serve soups and sauces.
C. Diners used their fingers to eat.
D. Popular spices: cinnamon, ginger, pepper.
E. Forks were not used until later. Etiquette spread slowly to surrounding areas.
F. In a wealthy household filled with servants, it is convenient to have a table in a hall with everyone seated on one side of the table and servants approached the table to put food in front of the diners.
G. There is a performative aspect to meals. It is a way for the family of a household to display their status. This is a symbol of upward mobility or affluence.
IX. Impact of Columbian Exchange (16th Century)
B. Corn: it became one of the cheap grains in Italy. Some of medical problems had something to do with the way corn was being treated.
C. Tomatoes (mostly in the south): people thought tomatoes were toxic and initially used as decoration. Eventually they got around to eating them.
D. Potatoes (popular in 18th century)
X. By the 19th Century...
A. Corn was grown all over Italy and was cheaper than other grains. B. In southern Italy, price of wheat rose steadily until late 19th century, and then it dropped.
C. Pasta was for special occasion, except for the affluent.
D. Rural poor ate vegetables and whole grain bread.
XI. Italian Cuisines
A. Food of the affluent differed from the food of the poor.
B. Food of the north differed from food of the south.
C. Pasta for the longest time simply stayed in the south and was not eaten except on feast days. There was no such thing as a pasta bowl nor twirling it with a fork. It was a hand food, which was eaten with no sauce.
XII. The First Mechanization of Pasta
A. First phase: pasta dries in the sun.
B. Second phase: pasta stored in cool location to absorb remaining moisture.
C. Third phase: final drying in open air, not exposed to sun. D. The first efforts to commercialize pasta did not allow easily for the transport of pasta to faraway since it can still go bad despite efforts to remove moisture.
XIII. After 1880: Economic Depression
A. Average daily calories of southern Italian agricultural workers dropped from 2,647 to 2,100.
B. Wheat became unaffordable to all except wealthy.
C. Italian emigration to western hemisphere greatly increased. XIV. Industrialization at the Turn of 20th Century
A. In the south, pasta production was mechanized: wheat sifter, mechanical kneader, drier.
B. Pairing pasta with tomato sauce spread north in early 20th century.
XV. Pasta Eaters
A. Poor families that left southern Italy before 1880 ate pasta regularly before they emigrated.
B. Poor families that left southern Italy after 1880 rarely if ever ate pasta before they left Italy. Pasta was simply too expensive that the rich in southern Italy ate.
XVI. Italian Immigrants Meet Pasta in the World
A. Between 1880-1939, nine million Italians emigrated.
B. By 1908, 1.2 million Italians immigrated to the U.S.
C. By 1915, 3 million more.
D. The ports of New York and New Orleans had largest Italian communities.
XVII. Italian Cuisine in America
A. Poor Italian immigrants ate food from Italy that they couldn’t afford in Italy.
B. Festival food in Italy became daily food in the U.S.
C. A large proportion of Italians that came to the U.S. became Italian grocers, started cafes, and opened restaurants. They became associated with food.
XVIII. Meanwhile, Back in Italy in Early 20th Century…
A. In World War I, Italian government supplied cheap, dried pasta to troops from all over Italy. Pasta became the national
carbohydrate of Italy. Before that, it was not. Military service exposed Italians from all over Italy to pasta.
B. Military service during war unified sense of Italian cuisine for the
C. Regional variation in shapes and dough.
XIX. Repatriation of Migrants
A. Between 1900-1920, 50% of Italian immigrants to the U.S. went back to Italy. 80% were from southern Italy.
B. They brought back Italian-American recipes.
C. Italian and Italian-American cuisine blended to form a new cuisine with variations in each country. Italian cooking is a hybrid of techniques and the New World.
A. 19th century migrants enjoyed a higher standard of living in new country than they did in their country of origin.
B. In their adopted country, migrants could afford food only the wealthy a=could afford in their homeland.
C. Repatriation of immigrants introduced new expectations to their homeland.