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AU / Biology / BIOL 1030 / What are the five major types of phyla?

What are the five major types of phyla?

What are the five major types of phyla?

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School: Auburn University
Department: Biology
Course: Organismal Biology
Professor: Debbie folkerts
Term: Fall 2018
Tags:
Cost: 50
Name: Organismal Biology Exam 3 Study Guide
Description: These notes cover everything discussed in lecture with designated Phyla bolded, as well as key terms and characteristics! Topics are fungi animals.
Uploaded: 11/12/2018
9 Pages 48 Views 5 Unlocks
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Fall 2018 Dr. Finger


What are the five major types of phyla?



BIOL 1030 EXAM 2

1. CHAPTER 31: FUNGI

A. Phyla: 5 major (CZGAB)

i. P. Chytridiomycota (Chytrids): flagellated spores

ii. P. Zygomycota (Zygomycetes): zygosporangium at sex stage are resistant  iii. P. Glomeromycota (Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Fungi): arbuscular mycorrhiza  formed with plants

iv. P. Ascomycota: ascus ???? asci sacs have ascospores (sexual spores) made  internally, produce conidia (asexual spores) externally {yeasts etc}

v. P. Basidiomycota: basidiocarp (fruiting body) contains basidia, produce  basidiospores (sexual spores), chitin cell walls {most mushrooms}

B. Characteristics: mostly multicell (mycelium mass of hyphae cell filaments)


What is the meaning of p. chytridiomycota?



i. Hyphae: filamentous stack of cells, can be septate (separated by a wall with  pores) or coenocytic (shared, no wall)  

1. Structure of hyphae: finger-like, with exocytic vesicle at tip, microtubules  and actin microfilaments running down it, and endocytic vesicles

moving down the hypha with things inside.

ii. Heterotrophs: use exoenzymes (digest outside of body) to absorb nutrients iii. Haplontic Life Cycle/ Zygotic Meiosis: n organism, 2n zygote, makes n spores. C. Reproduction: perfect (asexual or sexual) or imperfect (only asexual) We also discuss several other topics like Why do we care about measurements?

i. Asexual (mycelium, mitosis ???? spores, germinate ???? new hyphae) 1. imperfect fungi: molds and yeasts


What is the meaning of p. zygomycota?



a. yeasts: no mycelium, instead parent cell???? bud

ii. Sexual “Zygotic Meiosis” (n organism, fertilized (plasmogamy: 2+ nuclei in  fused cell, then karyogamy: nuclei fuse into one)????  2n zygote, meiosis ???? spores, germinate into hyphae, mitosis ???? multicell mycelium)

1. Perfect fungi only

D. Lifestyles: (and symbiotic relationship description)

1. Symbiotic relationship: between 2 close organisms

a. Commensalism: one benefits ☺ other unaffected ????

b. Parasitism: one benefits, other harmed ☹

c. Mutualism: both benefit ☺ ☺ Don't forget about the age old question of How to calculate the doppler effect?

ii. Decomposers: break down organic material for reuse (commensalism ☺????)If you want to learn more check out What is the basis for the story of the ring of the nibelung?

iii. Parasites: steal nutrients from host (parasitism ☺☹)

iv. Mutualists: form mycorrhizae with green plants (mutualism ☺☺) E. Ecosystem Heat flow:  

i. Chemicals – heat ???? producers (plants) – heat ???? decomposers OR consumers  (herbivores, carnivores) – heat ???? decomposers – heat ???? chemicals  

2. CHAPTER 32: ANIMALS

A. Kingdom Animalia (Metazoans): 1.3 million species

i. Diplontic life cycle/ Gametic Meiosis: 2n organism, meiosis ???? n gamete,  fertilization ???? 2n zygote

ii. Characteristics

1. Multicellular, eukaryotes, chemoheterotrophs

2. no cell wall but collagen holds cells close, with integrin protein and  microfilaments for support If you want to learn more check out What is the meaning of experimental design?

3. Special tissue (besides the other 2 tissue types: connective & epithelial) a. Nervous tissue: neuron (cell) receives and sends signals

b. Muscle tissue: self- directed movement without need for wind/water iii. Categorization

1. Symmetry

a. Asymmetry: no center, sponge

b. Radial symmetry: planes/slices of symmetry around a center, polyp c. Bilateral symmetry: 2 sides, beetle

i. Dorsal: top | Ventral: bottom

ii. Anterior: front | Posterior: back  

2. Tissues

a. Eumetazoans/ Histozoans: animals with tissues

b. Poriferans (sponges): only animals without tissues

3. Embryogenesis (origin of embryo)

a. 2 to 4 germ layers (ecto/meso/endoderm) develop into tissues, organs i. Ectoderm: outermost

1. Epidermis, skin accessories (glands or follicles)

2. Nervous and sensory systems

3. Pituitary gland, adrenal medulla, jaws and teeth

ii. Mesoderm: middle layer, only in triploblasts

1. GI tract We also discuss several other topics like What is aristarchus known work?

2. Skeletal, muscular, circulatory, lymphatic, excretory, and  

reproductive systems

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3. Dermis of skin

iii. Endoderm: innermost

1. Thymus, thyroid, epithelial GI tract lining

2. Respiratory, excretory and reproductive tracts/ ducts

b. Diploblasts: Ectoderm and Endoderm

c. Triploblasts: Mesoderm, Ectoderm and Endoderm

i. Coelom: Space in between mesoderm and endoderm (body  cavity) suspending internal organs  We also discuss several other topics like What is a federal reserve note worth of?

1. Acoelomate: no space in between meso/endo (flatworms)

2. Pseudocoelomate: muscle later separates mesoderm only,  

endoderm is not separated (roundworms)

3. Coelomate: mesoderm lines internal organs and coelom  

(mollusks, annelids, arthropods, echinoderms, chordates)

ii. Deuterostomes or Protostomes (opening of triploblasts) 1. Protostomes: blastopore develops mouth first (mollusks,  

annelids)

a. Zygote at 8 cell stage: spiral cleavage (fan-like growth),  

determinate development 

b. Gastrulation: blastopore (later will be mouth) opens into  

“archenteron pocket” with two mesoderm bubbles (coelom

inside) at the opening  

i. Solid masses of mesoderm split to make the coelom

c. Schizocoely

2. Deuterostomes: blastopore develops anus first (echinoderms,  

chordates)

a. Zygote at 8 cell stage: radial cleavage (central point, grows  

outward), Indeterminate development 

b. Gastrulation: blastopore (later will be anus) opens into  

“archenteron” partly lined by mesoderm folds (like a 3) with  

coelom area inside the 3 shape???? will stretch out and form the  

digestive tube.  

i. Folds of archenteron make the coelom cavity

c. Enterocoely

3. INVERTEBRATES

A. General Phylogeny tree

i. Chonoflagellates

ii. Animals

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1. Eumetazoa????  P. Cnidaria & (Deuterostomia & (Lophotrochozia &  Ecydozoa)  

2. Sponges ???? P. Porifera

B. Organ Systems

i. Circulatory???? for transport of blood

1. None: things diffuse in & out; ex: sponges, diploblasts, some triploblasts  (invertebrates) 

2. Open: fluid not always contained, blood= hemolymph in hemocoel,  tubular heart (lymphatic + circulatory system combined) (invertebrates) 3. Closed: fluid always contained in vessels, separate lymphatic system  (interstitial fluid suspends small branch vessels, carry blood through  auxillary heart(s) to organs) (vertebrates) 

ii. Excretory ???? osmoregulation for optimum salt/water balance 1. Protonephridia (tubules) expel water through a flame bulb (tubule cell and cap cell with cilia inside), in platyhelminthes and syndermata iii. Nervous ???? detection and response

1. Central + Peripheral: centralized area for integration, most organisms 2. Nerve net: no centralized area, in sea anemone 

iv. Digestive???? digestion and absorption

1. Incomplete gut: only the gastrovascular cavity and mouth/anus (one) 2. Complete gut: mouth and anus are separate, alimentary canal in middle v. Skeleton types

1. Exoskeleton: external, in invertebrates

2. Endoskeleton: internal, in animals

3. Hydrostatic: supported by fluid pressure

C. Phylum Porifera ???? sponges

1. Characteristics of sponges:  

a. No true tissues, filter feeders

b. Water flow: Ostia (pores)???? spongocoel (inside)???? osculum (top hole) c. Sessile as adults

d. Life cycle: (hermaphrodites; both female and male on 1, self fertilize) i. Sperm fertilize in mesohyl (sponge inside)???? free swimming  larva ???? young sponge ???? grows into female or male  

1. Male: sends sperm to female mesohyl, fertilize into larva

2. Types of cells

a. Amoebocytes: provide nutrients

b. Porocytes: water entry

c. Sclerocytes: skeleton

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d. Choanocytes: feeding  

-Eumetazoans

D. Phylum Cnidaria: Jellies, corals, hydras

i. Two clades

1. Medusozoans: produce a medusa, 3 classes

a. Hydrozoa: polyp, medusa, portugese man-o-war

b. Scyphozoa: true jellyfish, some only medusa

c. Cubozoa: box jellyfish (medusa is box shaped), toxic

i. Sea wasp or irukandi jellyfish: irukandi syndrome

2. Anthozoans: sea anemones and corals (soft and stony), only polyp a. Many symbiotic relationships,

i. Mutualistic ☺☺: coral and zooanthellae (single celled  

dinoflagellate algae)

1. Stress causes bleaching of coral (less algae, less green coloration)

ii. Clownfish and sea anemone

ii. Characteristics: true tissues (definition of Eumetazoa)

iii. Diploblastic, radial symmetry

iv. Gastrovascular cavity

v. General anatomy (out ???? in)

a. Epidermis (from ectoderm) on the outside

b. Mesoglea (from mesoderm) in between

c. Gastrodermis (from endoderm) lining the stomach (gastrovascular cavity) on the inside

d. Tentacles made up of ecto and endoderm layers only

vi. Body Types

1. Medusa: motile, looks like a flat flower

i. Tentacles on bottom surround the underside mouth/ anus 2. Polyp: sessile, looks like a trunk, sticks to substrate (aboral end= bottom,  opposite from the mouth)

a. Layers (out ???? in):  

i. Tentacles on the top surround the Mouth/ anus (also on top) vii. No nervous system or brain ???? Nerve Nets instead, for simple behaviors 1. Prey capture: tentacles have CNIDOCYTES (explosive cell) with  nematocysts (unique type of cnidae: secretory organelle) which release a  barbed or venomous thread through an operculum opening

E. P. Ctenophora “comb jellies”

i. True tissues, radial symmetry

ii. Movement by 8 rows of ciliated combs (called Ctenes)

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iii. Tentacles have colloblast cells which have a spiral filament in the epidermis,  which shoots out and wraps prey with adhesive granule (for eating) iv. Complete digestive system/ gut

F. DEUTEROSTOMIA: bilteral invertebrate group  

1. P. Hemichordata, P. Echinodermata, P. Chordata

G. LOPHOTROCHOZOA: bilateral invertebrate group with 6 phyla (next to Ecydozoa)

i. Mostly coelomates (w/ molluscs, annelids, arthropods, echinoderms, chordates) ii. Lophophore: filter feeding structure (looks like a fan brush), and respiration iii. Trochophore: larvae body (anus on bottom, mouth on the side, cilia tuft on top) iv. P. Platyhelinthes: flatworms

1. Dorsoventrally (top to bottom) flattened, only a few cells thick 2. Acoelomates, gastrovascular cavity only has one opening (no anus) 3. nervous system: integrated, network of nerves and brain with some light  sensing organs

4. Protonephridia (flame cells) on tubules for osmoregulation, removes  water by a flame bulb that draws it in and expels it

v. P. Syndermata: rotifers

1. Structure: mouth (surrounded by corona: crown of cilia), jaws, cerebral  ganglion, mastax, digestive gland, pseudocoel covering stomach, intestine,  anus, foot (end of tail), two “toes”

2. Dioecious, Reproduction: asexual and sexual

a. All females can reproduce asexually (parthenogenesis): 2n zygote  grows into organism, grows and releases zygote, repeat.  

vi. P. Ectoprocta, P. Brachiopoda, P. Mollusca, P. Annelida

vii. Molluscs

1. Snails, slugs, chitons, oysters/ clams, cephalopods

2. Characteristics

a. Soft body, secretes a hard shell, 3 main parts:  

i. Foot: movement and attachment, can modify into arms ii. Visceral mass: internal organs (stomach, digestive tract,  intestine, gonads, heart, coelom, metanephridium, gill, anus) 1. Open/ closed circulatory system: heart inside coelom (formed  

from mesoderm)

2. reproductive/ digestive/ excretory system as well

3. nerve cords in foot connect to top of mouth

iii. Mantle: covers visceral mass, forms into mantle cavity at the  “butt” where the anus and gill are, for respiration

b. Trochophore larvae (small, free swimming with cilia)

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c. Radula: tongue-like organ with tiny teeth used to scrape food off of  surfaces, NOT in bivalves

i. Squids/ octopuses have beak instead of radula

3. Classes of molluscs (all have open circulatory system) a. Polyplacophora: “chitons”

1. Dorsoventrally flattened, radula + ventral (bottom) foot to attach 2. Mantle secretes 8 dorsal plates on top (Derived characteristic) b. Gastropoda: snails and slugs

1. Ventral (bottom) foot to move vertically,  

2. Mantle cavity with lungs or gills and respiratory pore

3. 2 pairs of Tentacles: ocular hold eyes for slugs/ “eyespots” for  snails, sensory (in slugs, like whiskers)

4. Radula in many  

5. Torsion: rotation of visceral mass/ digestive tract ???? anus turns  forward and meets with mouth, (mantle cavity is anterior, leads  to asymmetrical arrangement) derived 

6. Aquatic species: cone snails (genus Conus)

7. Venomous, radula has a harpoon which shoots out a neurotoxin  and attacks the nervous system

c. Bivalvia: clams, scallops, oysters, mussels

1. 2 valves / shells laterally compressed (taller rather than wider) 2. No “head”/ cephalization (no neuron cluster anywhere), central  nervous system is instead diffused out.  

3. No radula, siphon (tube) for filter feeding, opposite of foot 4. Adductor muscles in visceral mass for Movement: muscular  foot moves clam into sand substrate or scallop shells clap in the  water and move by making a water jet opposite of direction of  movement

d. Cephalopoda: nautiluses, squids, octopuses, cuttlefish

1. Foot near head, posterior visceral mass (in the back) with anterior head and arms (in the front) ???? 2 types of limbs:

a. Arms (8 in octopuses), have suction disks all throughout

2. Tentacles (2 in squids), have suction disks only at the tips 3. Modified foot has siphon/ funnel, shoots out water for jet  propulsion

4. Closed circulatory system, allows for quick movements (3  hearts)

5. Color change: pigmented cells (chromatophores, iridophores,  leucophores)

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6. Radula is modified/reduced into a beak made of chitin

7. Largest invertebrates in this class

a. Longest: Giant Squid | Heaviest: Colossal Squid

viii. Annelids: segmented worms

1. Body: cephalization, segmentation and 2 layers of muscle: outer circular  and inner longitudinal

a. Segments elongate (go forward) by constriction of circular muscles,  and get shortened by constriction of longitudinal muscles (pulls  

trailing segments forward)  

b. Alimentary canal and closed circulatory system (hemoglobin) 2. Hydrostatic skeleton: water pressure supports muscle/ body structures H. ECDYSOZOA: bilateral invertebrate group with 2 phyla

i. P. Nematoda: roundworms, nematodes

1. Cylindrical, worm like but NOT segmented, bilateral

2. No cilia or circulatory system

3. Pseudocoelom, alimentary canal with stylet “mouth”, penetrates into  plant cells like a needle (derived characteristic)

4. Covered in cuticle, made by hypodermis (syncytium fusing)

a. Periodically shed exoskeleton (ecdysis)

b. Layer of longitudinal muscle (not circular!) inside cuticle

c. Incompressible Pseudocoelom cavity around gut lined by peritoneum 5. Hydrostatic skeleton, movement

6. Parasites: filarial worms cause Filariasis (elephantiasis) by microfilariae in lymphatic nodes, swelling of legs and feet

a. Primary host: human | Secondary host: mosquito, arthropods b. Injection into human???? Mosquito eats (blood) with larvae which go  into the skin, grow into adults in lymphatics which produce sheathed  microfilariae that migrate into lymph and blood channels

c. Contamination of mosquito???? bites human, microfilariae go inside and  migrate into thoracic muscles, grow into larvae which go into  

mosquito head

ii. P. Arthropoda: ”joined legs” 4 subphyla

a. Have joined appendages, NOT bones, with up to 5 joints on one limb,  bend with antagonistic muscles (work opposite each other)???? flexors  (close) and extensors (open)

i. Podomere allows for movement

b. Body segments (tagmata)????head, thorax (or cephalothorax), abdomen c. Exoskeleton: protection/support, prevent water loss, muscles attach i. Cuticle:

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1. Epicuticle: on the very top

2. Procuticle: exocuticle + endocuticle (bottom), chitin and calcium 3. Epidermal cell layer beneath cuticle

ii. Sclerites: plates of cuticle

1. Ecdysis: periodic shedding allows for organism to grow

d. Nervous system

i. Central: brain, central nerve cord

ii. Peripheral: eyes, olfaction, antennae

e. Circulatory system

i. Some use hemocyanin to carry oxygen, binds to copper and  gives blue color to blood

2. SubP. Chelicerata: chelicerae

a. 2 body segments: cephalothorax and abdomen

i. Cephalothorax has 6 pairs of appendages: 1 pair of  

chelicerae, 1 pair of pedipalps, 4 pairs of walking legs

b. Class Arachnida: spiders, ticks, mites, scorpions, harvestmen i. Release digestive enzymes over prey to eat, suck up the  digested remains

ii. Order Aranae???? spiders

1. Venomous fangs, Silk glands (for transport or prey capture)

released by spinnerets (near anus), 8 simple eyes, 1 lens

2. Mostly carnivorous

3. Book lungs to maximize surface area for respiration, lamellae  for blood flow in between air spaces

iii. Order Opiliones???? harvestmen/ daddy longlegs

1. Look like spiders but aren’t, no venom or silk glands

2. Don’t release digestive enzymes over prey

iv. Order Scorpions

1. Pedipalps as pincers (claw-like)

2. Venomous stinger

3. No eggs, give birth to live young

I. Plant cell wall: cellulose | Fungi cell wall: chitin | Animal cell wall: none, collagen

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