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OHIO / Geology / GEOL 2150 / What are the two types of shorelines?

What are the two types of shorelines?

What are the two types of shorelines?


School: Ohio University
Department: Geology
Course: Environmental Geology
Professor: Greg nadon
Term: Fall 2018
Tags: Geology
Cost: 50
Name: Study guide for November 14 exam
Description: These notes cover what will be on our exam. They cover material starting from October 22.
Uploaded: 11/12/2018
6 Pages 101 Views 1 Unlocks

Exam on notes starting from the 22

What are the two types of shorelines?

Implication of drawdown(5)

lower regional water table

-potential irrigation problems

changes water flow direction

-potential health problems  

Could cause streams to change from effluent to influent Saltwater contamination along coast

-costal cities could see water shortage  

Land subsidence (aquifer compacting)

-reduction of porosity and permeability

-potential loss of surface aqueduct flow

-potential increase in salinization


Dissolution of minerals (geological)

-adds elements such as arsenic

Precipitation of minerals (geological)

Addition of chemicals and nutrients (human) (5) -oxygen demanding waste  

What are the phases of extraction?

If you want to learn more check out What is hartree orbitals?


Nutrients -phosphorous, nitrogen

Petroleum-spills, gas tanks

Toxic waste-radioactive  


Point source  

Non point source

Pretreatment studies  

DNAPL -dense, sinks  Don't forget about the age old question of Does neuroscience really bear on the truth of theories of moral motivation?
Don't forget about the age old question of What is paranoid pd?

LNAPL -lights, floats  

Characterize aquifer


Hydrologic characteristics  

Flow direction and rate

Discharge and recharge conditions




Injection and pumping  If you want to learn more check out What is the difference between brands and grades?

Hazard impact (3)

Amount of contaminant

Concentration or toxicity

Degree and duration of exposure

What are the 3 types of delta rivers?

Maximum contaminant level (MCL) legal limits

Secondary MCL-advisory (changing skin color)

Karst- dissolution of carbonate rocks (limestone and dolomite) -sinkholes

-disappearing streams  

Mineral recourses (excludes oil and coal)

Prospect vs ore

Metallic vs non metallic  

Phases of extraction (4)


Reserve estimation

Extraction costs  

Types of mining

-strip min- low concentration/ high volume

disseminated ore  

-subsurface mine-high concentration low volume -placer deposits (gold, diamonds)


Labor costs

Transportation costs

Environmental costs Don't forget about the age old question of What is the concept of reaction yield?

Future value of recovered material  

Nonmetalic materials (3 groups)  

1)Building materials


2)Industrial minerals

-Gravel, salt, REE



Plate tectonics

-prospects made where there is heat + fluid flow -igneous intrusions


Convergent margins  

Timeline for use-will we run out-no

Resource pyramid


-two types- (steep slope, gentle slope)

-3 forces (wave, tide, river)


->3 km/hr

-Height, wavelength, period affected by 3 things (wind speed, wind duration,  fetch (time wind blows))

Wave refreaction( waves try to hit shore headon)

Depth of wave energy (= ½ of wavelength)

Beach has two zones – foreshore and backshore

Beach angle higher in lowstorm season

Lower in high storm season  

Longshore drift  


-moon and sun gravity

complex interaction  

-tide rage can be 0

-reaches a max in costal embayments

Deeper the bay bigger the risk

Microtidal (<2 m) long continuous barrier island shorelines Mesotidal If you want to learn more check out What does confidence interval denote?



Deltas (3) types

-river( Mississippi)



Envirnometal risks

Steep coast cliff

Low angle coasts


-longshore drift


-Susidence (deltas)

Geoindicators- factors which allow a quantitative measue of risks along  shorelines.  

Results in high, medium, or low risk

Mitigation (6)





Soft stabilization..

Hard stabilization ..

Modification of structures


Glacial Ice  

Ice forms from snow

-brittle if<50m thick

-Plastic if >50  

Glacial budget

-Zone of accumulation

-Zone of ablation (melting)

- retreat melts faster than ice coming in

-ice cant move uphill  

Continental ice sheets

-Moraines-made of till( rock= diamictite)




Sriations (grooves made by ice into rock)


Direct evidence of glaciation in the past



Indirect evidence

-sea level change


-river incision/drowning

Oldest evidence > 2 billion years

Causes of glaciation

-energy from the sun

-distance from the sun

solar radiation  

Milankovitch cycles  

Continent motion -albedo reflection of energy to space -water low

-rock medium

-ice high

Continet moves over the equator cooling occurs

Continent over a pole even more cooling  

If ice forms even more cooling positive feedback snowball earth

Atmospheric gasses

-greenhouse gasses end snowball earth methane CO2 water vapor CO2 emitted by volcanoes consumed by weathering rocks  

Formation of limestone absorbs CO2

Ice Sheets form slowly

Ice sheet smelt quickly

Energy resources  




-Fossil Fuels

Energy type used varies because of


-population density  


Wind uses low velocity but sustained flow

Solar works best where there are few clouds

Geothermal works best where there is a hallow source of heat such as: -Mid-ocean ridges

-Convergent zones

Hydroelectric -needs a location to build a dam

-dams have a limited life span

-damns displace people and have environmental impacts


-Efficient but has a waste problem  

Fossil fuels

Maturation of organic matter (heat and time)

Coal- maturation of terrestrial plant matter

-different plants make different coal types

-Impurities make different coal grades

-amount of heating makes different coal ranks (peat vs. anthracite) -Hydrocarbons (oil and gas)

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