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UIC / Biology / BIOS 100 / What is initially linked to the evolution of life?

What is initially linked to the evolution of life?

What is initially linked to the evolution of life?

Description

School: University of Illinois at Chicago
Department: Biology
Course: Intro to Biological Sciences
Professor: Tbd
Term: Spring 2019
Tags:
Cost: 50
Name: BIO 100 exam 1
Description: Exam 1
Uploaded: 11/13/2018
4 Pages 21 Views 1 Unlocks
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"}.lst-kix_45y24ut3d8cu-5 > li{counter-increment:lst-ctn-kix_45y24ut3d8cu-5}.lst-kix_den8s0xyrbpz-0 > li:before{content:"- "}.lst-kix_den8s0xyrbpz-1 > li:before{content:"- "}.lst-kix_45y24ut3d8cu-3 > li{counter-increment:lst-ctn-kix_45y24ut3d8cu-3}.lst-kix_den8s0xyrbpz-8 > li:before{content:"- "}ol.lst-kix_45y24ut3d8cu-5{list-style-type:none}.lst-kix_den8s0xyrbpz-4 > li:before{content:"- "}.lst-kix_den8s0xyrbpz-5 > li:before{content:"- "}ol.lst-kix_45y24ut3d8cu-6{list-style-type:none}ol.lst-kix_45y24ut3d8cu-3{list-style-type:none}ol.lst-kix_45y24ut3d8cu-4{list-style-type:none}ol.lst-kix_45y24ut3d8cu-1{list-style-type:none}.lst-kix_den8s0xyrbpz-2 > li:before{content:"- "}.lst-kix_den8s0xyrbpz-3 > li:before{content:"- "}.lst-kix_den8s0xyrbpz-6 > li:before{content:"- "}.lst-kix_den8s0xyrbpz-7 > li:before{content:"- "}ol.lst-kix_45y24ut3d8cu-2{list-style-type:none}ol.lst-kix_45y24ut3d8cu-0{list-style-type:none}ol.lst-kix_45y24ut3d8cu-1.start{counter-reset:lst-ctn-kix_45y24ut3d8cu-1 0}.lst-kix_1ja079q4lhnk-8 > li:before{content:"- "}ol.lst-kix_45y24ut3d8cu-7.start{counter-reset:lst-ctn-kix_45y24ut3d8cu-7 0}.lst-kix_1ja079q4lhnk-7 > li:before{content:"- "}.lst-kix_1ja079q4lhnk-6 > li:before{content:"- "}.lst-kix_1ja079q4lhnk-3 > li:before{content:"- "}.lst-kix_1ja079q4lhnk-4 > li:before{content:"- "}.lst-kix_1ja079q4lhnk-1 > li:before{content:"- "}.lst-kix_1ja079q4lhnk-5 > li:before{content:"- "}ul.lst-kix_1q1kkbpn0lfw-0{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_1q1kkbpn0lfw-2{list-style-type:none}.lst-kix_1ja079q4lhnk-2 > li:before{content:"- "}ul.lst-kix_1q1kkbpn0lfw-1{list-style-type:none}ol.lst-kix_45y24ut3d8cu-0.start{counter-reset:lst-ctn-kix_45y24ut3d8cu-0 0}ul.lst-kix_1q1kkbpn0lfw-4{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_1q1kkbpn0lfw-3{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_den8s0xyrbpz-2{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_den8s0xyrbpz-3{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_den8s0xyrbpz-4{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_den8s0xyrbpz-5{list-style-type:none}.lst-kix_1q1kkbpn0lfw-2 > li:before{content:"- "}.lst-kix_1q1kkbpn0lfw-4 > li:before{content:"- "}ol.lst-kix_opbsgsr3cnq5-0.start{counter-reset:lst-ctn-kix_opbsgsr3cnq5-0 0}ul.lst-kix_den8s0xyrbpz-0{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_den8s0xyrbpz-1{list-style-type:none}.lst-kix_1q1kkbpn0lfw-0 > li:before{content:"- "}.lst-kix_1q1kkbpn0lfw-6 > li:before{content:"- "}.lst-kix_1q1kkbpn0lfw-8 > li:before{content:"- "}ul.lst-kix_den8s0xyrbpz-6{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_den8s0xyrbpz-7{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_den8s0xyrbpz-8{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_whq49rrr02dg-7{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_whq49rrr02dg-8{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_q3vkh99txww-0{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_q3vkh99txww-1{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_q3vkh99txww-2{list-style-type:none}.lst-kix_yatg8oclj21l-8 > li:before{content:"- "}ul.lst-kix_q3vkh99txww-3{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_whq49rrr02dg-1{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_whq49rrr02dg-2{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_whq49rrr02dg-0{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_whq49rrr02dg-5{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_whq49rrr02dg-6{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_whq49rrr02dg-3{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_whq49rrr02dg-4{list-style-type:none}.lst-kix_opbsgsr3cnq5-4 > li:before{content:"" counter(lst-ctn-kix_opbsgsr3cnq5-4,lower-roman) ". "}.lst-kix_yatg8oclj21l-0 > li:before{content:"- "}.lst-kix_yatg8oclj21l-4 > li:before{content:"- "}.lst-kix_q3vkh99txww-4 > li:before{content:"- "}.lst-kix_opbsgsr3cnq5-0 > li{counter-increment:lst-ctn-kix_opbsgsr3cnq5-0}ul.lst-kix_q3vkh99txww-4{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_elytfbcz2iat-3{list-style-type:none}.lst-kix_opbsgsr3cnq5-6 > li:before{content:"" counter(lst-ctn-kix_opbsgsr3cnq5-6,lower-latin) ". "}ul.lst-kix_q3vkh99txww-5{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_elytfbcz2iat-2{list-style-type:none}ol.lst-kix_opbsgsr3cnq5-8.start{counter-reset:lst-ctn-kix_opbsgsr3cnq5-8 0}ul.lst-kix_q3vkh99txww-6{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_elytfbcz2iat-5{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_q3vkh99txww-7{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_elytfbcz2iat-4{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_q3vkh99txww-8{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_elytfbcz2iat-7{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_elytfbcz2iat-6{list-style-type:none}ol.lst-kix_45y24ut3d8cu-7{list-style-type:none}.lst-kix_yatg8oclj21l-6 > li:before{content:"- "}.lst-kix_q3vkh99txww-6 > li:before{content:"- "}ul.lst-kix_elytfbcz2iat-8{list-style-type:none}ol.lst-kix_45y24ut3d8cu-8{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_bh16lnqvmg4d-1{list-style-type:none}.lst-kix_4fwet8h9949q-7 > li:before{content:"- "}ul.lst-kix_bh16lnqvmg4d-2{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_bh16lnqvmg4d-3{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_bh16lnqvmg4d-4{list-style-type:none}.lst-kix_opbsgsr3cnq5-8 > li:before{content:"" counter(lst-ctn-kix_opbsgsr3cnq5-8,decimal) ". "}.lst-kix_4fwet8h9949q-5 > li:before{content:"- "}ul.lst-kix_bh16lnqvmg4d-0{list-style-type:none}.lst-kix_q3vkh99txww-8 > li:before{content:"- "}ol.lst-kix_45y24ut3d8cu-8.start{counter-reset:lst-ctn-kix_45y24ut3d8cu-8 0}.lst-kix_4fwet8h9949q-3 > li:before{content:"- "}.lst-kix_yatg8oclj21l-2 > li:before{content:"- "}.lst-kix_elytfbcz2iat-0 > li:before{content:"- "}.lst-kix_elytfbcz2iat-2 > li:before{content:"- "}ul.lst-kix_fhmt1j5ln5u2-3{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_fhmt1j5ln5u2-2{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_fhmt1j5ln5u2-1{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_fhmt1j5ln5u2-0{list-style-type:none}.lst-kix_elytfbcz2iat-4 > li:before{content:"- "}.lst-kix_elytfbcz2iat-6 > li:before{content:"- "}ul.lst-kix_bh16lnqvmg4d-5{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_bh16lnqvmg4d-6{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_bh16lnqvmg4d-7{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_bh16lnqvmg4d-8{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_elytfbcz2iat-1{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_elytfbcz2iat-0{list-style-type:none}.lst-kix_q3vkh99txww-2 > li:before{content:"- "}.lst-kix_opbsgsr3cnq5-2 > li:before{content:"" counter(lst-ctn-kix_opbsgsr3cnq5-2,decimal) ". "}ul.lst-kix_4fwet8h9949q-2{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_4fwet8h9949q-1{list-style-type:none}.lst-kix_fhmt1j5ln5u2-2 > li:before{content:"- "}.lst-kix_fhmt1j5ln5u2-4 > li:before{content:"- "}ul.lst-kix_4fwet8h9949q-4{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_4fwet8h9949q-3{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_4fwet8h9949q-6{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_4fwet8h9949q-5{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_4fwet8h9949q-8{list-style-type:none}.lst-kix_q3vkh99txww-0 > li:before{content:"- "}.lst-kix_opbsgsr3cnq5-0 > li:before{content:"" counter(lst-ctn-kix_opbsgsr3cnq5-0,lower-latin) ". "}ul.lst-kix_4fwet8h9949q-7{list-style-type:none}.lst-kix_fhmt1j5ln5u2-0 > li:before{content:"- "}.lst-kix_fhmt1j5ln5u2-6 > li:before{content:"- "}.lst-kix_fhmt1j5ln5u2-8 > li:before{content:"- "}.lst-kix_45y24ut3d8cu-0 > li:before{content:"" counter(lst-ctn-kix_45y24ut3d8cu-0,decimal) ". 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CH 2We also discuss several other topics like What does every atom have?

Water and Carbon: chemical basis of life

Chemistry is intimately linked to the evolution of life

  • Structure of atoms, ions and molecules
  • How are atoms bonded together in molecules
  • Examining unique properties of water 2.2
  • How do chemical reactions occur? 2.3
  • Current models for chemical evolution 2.4
  • Carbon: the most versatile atom on earth 2.5

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Biochemical interactions

  • Covalent
  • Non-covalent
  • Rules for assembly

Don't forget about the age old question of What are the three phases of human population growth?

Atoms, ions, and molecules

  • The building blocks of everything
  • Just 4 types of atoms make up 96% of matter in organisms - hydrogen, carbon, oxygen, nitrogen
  • To understand how simple substances evolve into complex structures in living cells, we must ask:
  1. What is the physical structure of hydrogen, carbon, nitrogen, oxygen?
  2. What is the structure of the simple molecules - water, carbon dioxide, etc. that serve as the building blocks?

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Basic atomic structure

  • Atoms are composed of
  • Protons - positively charged particles
  • Neutrons - neutral particles
  • Electrons - negatively charged particles

- protons and neutrons are located in the nucleus (also called nucleons)We also discuss several other topics like How is risk evaluated through loss severity?

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- electrons are found in orbitals surrounding the nucleus

- when an atom has an equal number of protons and electrons the charges balance

- the entire atom is electrically neutral

- electrons move around atomic nuclei in specific regions called orbitals

Orbitals

  • Orbital can hold up to 2 electrons
  • Orbital are grouped into levels called electron shells

Electron shells

  • Are numbers 1,2,3 and so on.
  • Numbers indicate their relative distance from the nucleus
  • Smaller numbers are closer to the nucleus

Each electron shell contains a specific number of orbitals

  • An electron shell comprising a single orbital can hold up to 2 electrons
  • A shell with 4 orbitals can contain up to 8 electrons

The electrons of an atom fill the innermost shell 1st and then fill the outer shells

The outermost shell of an atom is the valence shell

Electrons in this shell are valence electrons

The number of unpaired valence electrons is called the valence of an atom

Different atoms have different numbers of unpaired electrons

H, C, N, O, P, S

(Most abundant elements in organisms)

How does covalent bonding hold molecules together?

  • Atoms are most stable when their valence shells are full
  • Shells can be filled by formation of chemical bonds
  • Attractions that bind form when unpaired valence electrons are shared by two atoms
  • This effectively gives atom a full outer shell

Hydrogen atoms each                                 H2 molecule has 2 shared electrons

Have one unpaired electron                                more stable together

Nonpolar and polar bonds

  • Electrons are not always shared equally
  • Atoms may have different electronegativities
  • (the strength with which they pull electrons towards themselves)
  • Differences in electronegativity dictate how electrons are distributed in covalent bonds
  • Nonpolar covalent bond
  • (equally)
  • Electrons are evenly shared between 2 atoms
  • The bond is symmetrical
  • Ex C-H bond
  • Polar covalent bond
  • (unequally)
  • Electrons are shared unevenly
  • ex O-H
  • Delta symbol S+, S- refer to partial charges that arise owing to unequal electron sharing
  • associated with polar covalent bonds

  1. nonpolar covalent bond  in hydrogen molecule
  • H➗H
  • Electrons are halfway between the 2 atoms, shared equally
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