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UGA / Geography / GEOG 1101 / What are demographic measures?

What are demographic measures?

What are demographic measures?



what are demographic measures?

∙ The “Day of 7 Billion” was declared by the Population Division of the United  Nations to be October 31, 2011.

∙ Imbalance between male and female population is because females tend to  have longer life expectancy than males.

∙ Fastest rate of increase: Africa

∙ Largest absolute increase: Asia

∙ Significant increase in the overall world population in the global south  countries.

∙ Little increase in the overall world population in the global north countries.

∙ Population increase is more like an S shaped curve which means that the  world population is increasing but in a slower rate.

∙ In India, nearly 1 million people will turn 18 every month until 2030.

What are age and sex structure?

∙ Eventually most of the World’s population will be in either Asian or African  countries  

∙ 3 phases of Human Population Growth

o Phase 1: 8,000 BC to 1750 AD

 Invention of Agriculture

 Growth rate: 1% per year

∙ Phase 2: 1750 to 1950

 Industrial Revolution

 Growth rate: 1.3% per year

∙ Phase 3: Post 1950

 Growth rate: 2.9% per year

 Medical Revolution

∙ Discovery of antibiotics

∙ Reduced death rates

∙ Fight bacteria

∙ Geography of Human Population Change since 1945

o Rapid Population Growth  

What are the social consequences because of the growth of imbalance?

We also discuss several other topics like What is linear electron flow?

 Global Population doubled between 1950-1990

∙ 85% of the population growth has been in the Global South

∙ Most growth is concentrated in URBAN areas in both global north and  south  

 Migration (rural to urban)

 Fertility tends to be higher in the rural areas


1) Crude Birth Rate (CBR) / Crude Death Rate (CDR)

∙ Crude Birth Rate refers to the total number of live births per 1,000  people per year.

o Rate of Natural Increase (RNI): Difference between CBR and CDR o Total population of year 2 = Population of year 1 + number of births – number of deaths + number of immigrants – number of emigrants

o On a planetary scale, the global birth rate is always higher than the global  death rate.

o Population will increase

o High rates of smoking and alcohol consumption in Russia are considered as  major problems in Russia due to the quality of life and the collapse of Soviet  Union.

o The most common cause of death in 2013 is due to heart disease.  o Russia, Ukraine and many of the Western European countries have negative  RNI.

2) Total Fertility Rate (TFR) We also discuss several other topics like Give an example of interest rate and bonds.

∙ Total Fertility Rate refers to the average number of children women will have during their child bearing years (15 -4 49).

o Replacement Level Fertility

∙ Replacement Level Fertility is the total fertility growth where it neither  increases nor decreases the population growth.

∙ It is the Zero Population Growth

∙ It is the number of births per woman that will replace a population  without increasing it.

o To achieve a Zero Population Growth globally, the fertility rate should be  about 2.1%.

o Higher the Total Fertility Rate does not mean high population growth rate. 3) Net Reproductive Ratio If you want to learn more check out How are health and education related?

∙ Looks at the number of female children who will become potential  mothers in the next generation as there are in the current generation. ∙ If NPR > 1 or higher, it indicates a rapid population growth 4) Infant Mortality Rate We also discuss several other topics like What is hund's rule?

∙ Average number of deaths of infants less than one year of age  compared to the number of live births.

∙ For every 1000 children, 32 children die before their first birthday. ∙ Low IMR in Global North countries

∙ High IMR in Global South countries

∙ Most dangerous country a child can be born in is in Angola. ∙ Reasons for high IMR?

i. Poverty

ii. Age/youth of mothers

∙ Younger mothers tend to have high IMR.

5) Life Expectancy at Birth

∙ Average number of years a newborn infant can expect to live under  current conditions.

∙ High IMR leads to low life expectancy and vice versa.

∙ Good health care for old people leads to high life expectancy. ∙ IMR is inversely proportional to the life expectancy.

∙ Most of the people living with AIDs are living in Sub-Saharan Africa. ∙ Leading cause of death in Africa due to AIDS was because of the sexual relationships.

∙ Leading cause of death in Europe due to AIDS was because of needle  exchange.

∙ Wealthier men can expect to live longer than their parents did  (because of decline in smoking), while life expectancies for the poor  men have not changed.

∙ Wealthier women can expect to live longer than their parents did, while life expectancies for the poor women have declined. If you want to learn more check out What are borderless diseases?

∙ A lot of differences in the life expectancy is because of the different  levels of poverty.

6) Doubling Time

∙ Tells us how long it takes for a population to double in size. 7) Median Age

∙ Age at which half the population is younger, and half the population is  older.

∙ Higher the median age, the older the population.

∙ Fertility rates going down (decreasing birth rates) and increasing life  expectancy leads to increasing median age.

o How can the issue of social contract be solved?

i. Increase the retirement age

 Consequence: fewer jobs for younger people We also discuss several other topics like List the different types of microscopy.

ii. Raise taxes

a. Raise the rate of social security tax overall

i. This would affect the poor and middle-class  


b. Increase the amount of wages on which people pay social  

security tax

i. Raising or eliminating the cap would affect richer  


iii. Cut benefits

a. This would affect poor Americans.

iv. Find new groups of young workers from somewhere or  


∙ There is a significant change in the migration patterns over the last decade.  According to the 2010 census:

o India was ranked one with 28% of people migrating from India. o China was ranked two with 23% of people migrating from China. o Philippines was ranked three with 17% of people migrating from  Philippines.

o Mexico was ranked four with 14% of people migrating from Mexico. ∙ States with largest and fastest growing immigration population was in the  South (#1 North Carolina and #2 Georgia).

∙ Immigrants are a growing part of the US labor force.

o Immigrants make up 13% of the population.

o Immigrants make up 16.5% of the labor force.

∙ Immigration’s influence on Birth Rates (2009)

o By age, foreign born population and the proportion of people in their  middle age are larger than the native born.

∙ Children born per 1000 women by nativity, 2010

o Fertility rates of foreign born are more than the native born.

∙ The states in the east of UU have higher median age than the states in the  west of US.

∙ Scottsdale county of Arizona have the highest median age of 45.4 ∙ Provo county (college county) of Utah have the lowest median age of 23.3.


∙     Age and sex structure tell us if the population is stable, expanding or  contracting.

1. Age Structure

o Dependent Population: People not in the labor force who are supported  by the people who are in the labor force.

o Dependency Ratio: Number of descendants per 1000 people aged 15 –  64 years.

o Utah is the state with the highest dependency ratio.

o District of Columbia has the lowest dependency ratio.

o Aging population will reshape the geography of disease.

 As we age, we face different diseases.

 A lot of people die because of parasitic infections.

2. Sex Ratio: Number of males per 100 females.

o World: 107:100 at birth.

 According to the number of births in the world, more males are being born  than females.

o 67:100 age 65 & over

 As the population ages, more females than males.

 This is because females have a longer life expectancy than  


o Implications?

 Health policy

 Widowhood leads to poverty for many women in the United  

States (Feminization of poverty).

 Females have a much more rate to be poor than males.\

o What are the two characteristics of economic migrants?

 Tend to be of working age.

 Tend to be males.

o Reasons for more males than females in certain situations is due to:  Economic migrants (Impact of migration)

 Male children favoritism than over female children.

 Cultural preference to have male child than female child.

o Reasons for less males than females in certain situations is due to:  Females have longer life expectancy than males.

 Could be due to impact of Civil War.

 Could be due to impact of World War II.


∙     Graphical representation of population dynamics.

∙     Population pyramids divide the population into 5-year cohorts by sex. o 0 – 4

o 5 – 9

o 10 – 14

o 15 – 19

o 20 – 24 etc.

∙     Population pyramid of US can be classified based on the ages of the people  as:

o Young dependents (0 -1 5)

o Labor Force (15 – 65)

o Old dependents (65+)

∙ Labor force is wider than the younger and old dependents due to the baby  boom.

∙ Young dependents have more males than females and this is because males  have a larger birth rate than females.

∙ Older dependents have more females than males and this is because females have higher life expectancy than males.

∙ Expanding population pyramid  

o Example: Brazil

o High fertility rates

o High IMR leading to a negative impact on life expectancy.

o Tend to have more male children at birth than females.

o Doubling time will be short.

o Significant inequality in wealth

∙ Stable population pyramid

o Example: Canada

o Low fertility rate

o High life expectancy

o For most parts, the cohorts are quite even.

o Low IMR

∙ Contracting population pyramid

o Example: West Germany

o Population is declining  

o Low fertility rates

o Crude birth rate will be low

o Imbalance between males and females

∙ China’s One Child Policy

o 1970 – Government introduced “Later, Longer & Fewer” policy. o 1979 – One child policy was introduced.

o 2015 – Government announced it was changing its one child policy to a two-child policy effective from Jan 1, 2016.

∙ “Great Leap Forward” of China (1958 – 1961)

o Spike in death rate

o Decline in population

o Decline in birth rate/fertility rate

o These impacts were due to the efforts to rapidly industrialize the  country and also a significant famine took place during that time. ∙ There is a rise in China’s sex imbalance.

∙ There is a wide variation in the sex ratio of China.

∙ The sex ratio for first births is lower than the subsequent births. ∙ The sex ratio gets more imbalanced as the parents get more desperate for a  son.

∙ There was no significant national one child policy. It was implemented  differently in different places/provinces.

∙ In the larger cities (Beijing and Shanghai) only one child was allowed. ∙ In the rural areas, there were 3 main variants of policy:

o Type 1 (Strictest) regulation: Medium sex ratios were most common.  These provinces were wealthier

 Levels of education were higher

 Traditional preferences of having a male child is changing  More people have pensions

o Type 2 (Medium) regulation: allowed couples to have a second child  after a girl.

 Highest sex ratios for second-order births and overall highest  sex ratio.

 Not rich enough to flout the rules.

 More traditional

 Greatest imbalance

o Type 3 (Most permissive) regulation: least imbalance is seen  Sparsely populated and poor

 Inhabited partly by ethnic groups

∙ What are the social consequences because of the growth of imbalance? o Rise of phenomenon of “Little Emperors”

 Increase in the number of families having one child is focused  Single sons have a hard time interacting with others.

 Many employers specify “no single children” in job postings. o Imbalance in the number of girls and boys in rural areas. o Lack of brides for men.

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