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UCLA / Chemistry / CHEM 20 / What is the difference between interference and diffraction?

What is the difference between interference and diffraction?

What is the difference between interference and diffraction?

Description

School: University of California - Los Angeles
Department: Chemistry
Course: Chem20A
Professor: Professor scerri
Term: Fall 2018
Tags: General Chemistry, Quantum Chemistry, and AtomicStructures
Cost: 50
Name: CHEM20A Study Guides Midterm2 Chapter4-6
Description: These notes cover the material in Lecture week4-7 and textbook chapters 4-6.2
Uploaded: 11/18/2018
3 Pages 25 Views 1 Unlocks
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CHEM 20A 2018 FALL STUDY GUIDE


What is the difference between interference and diffraction?



MIDTERE TWO

rotectes

pop

y 4: How nauch 8-a

tes

-Y=F-2030.

2

h

CHAPTERS. QUchum. Mechanics I Atomic Structure

Sul The Hydrogen. Atom

Xone-electron model the energy very depends only on the


What is the principle quantum number?



distance of electron from the nucleus.

No angular orientation *Spherical Cordelicates

2 0. How much Z-axis fX=sind cose I y = nsino.sing We also discuss several other topics like Does neuroscience really bear on the truth of theories of moral motivation?

* T: distance Txty + 3 = 12 * Energy levels

E=en=- enzt;2133-+-). simplify the constants


What is hartree orbitals?



En=- (Ruelbery) TRydberg = 2,198 x 10 J=13.6ev.

nis called principle quantum number _Eclepenels only.onn as povertical depends only onk. If you want to learn more check out What are the 3 clusters of pds?

Schöchinger Equestion. caliso quantizes Esquerer h eutt) 2 3 4 = 0.12 ha)

Progean = mzt e Tm=-2,741, ... 0-1,... 1-1, 1) We also discuss several other topics like What are the forms of integration at the farmer?

e is called angulier momentiun quicultura munbec Whis called magnetic_quan _kumber For natuttom=of +8et of thitimt)=n For n=27t-to-m=0 tit=t-m=O-t-7)] 4 sets.=n? - conventional label method to:s ble plz:d l=3R. *Wave Functions

- spherical harmonics 461-00) = Baiba Kemlere spherically symmetric potential We also discuss several other topics like How can we identify dipole-dipole forces?

- Racial Angular energy function. Probability density at a particular-point

themel& P = Rmx-PC Lambec61d6. dl-cxcy.cz

=tšinódriloc

LAND

center

probabilioy of fineling ian electimai Niepdv = US 140Xy.33l?dzdy dz. 140%. yo ;)| x Volume Searches * Sizes & Shapes of Orbitals We also discuss several other topics like What does confidence interval denote?

10 ) for Z=1.0=tat the first Bohr abit of Hector Radial behavior or Contair Plant --R4 1 00 noeffect Don't forget about the age old question of What are the strong acids?

I -sabitals e=0

to_Y=onstant -

radial nodes =n-1-1=0

x-axis

uxi's

radiat probability density. (Elnur Radial

volume density - porbitals. 671 hot spherically symmetrit

che cosoáz (0-0-0= TU max_co=&min – Z-axis. Same shape şi

epey Ypx=a(Y +Y, YP = C2 CYA-14)

TABAT

AT AT TEST I W Lorena - I orbituls l=2

dxy dyz. dxz czy m=224 TL+2, de 2 m=0 *n increases. General reclius_thereases * l angular nedes Incl-l radiel nocles ancltotal nodes. *1 0 yenilm) vanishes for all except scortatals - Electron Spin Mg=ts Spin quantion number

CHEM 20A 2018 ALL STUDY GUIDE

MIDTERM TWO.

5.2 Shell Model for Many Election Atoms

* Hartree Orbitals

self-consistent field orloral approxi. nethocles Assumptions : effective field Lonly depeneks on r

z r is the only coordinate

3. field is symmetric ( sphertent). Satom= 42102:4842) GOLD z orbital approximsectibl.am * Sizes and Shapes of Hartrees orbital.

Shell: all electrons with the same calue of an

Subshell = elections with the same value of in and la

Determine Periodic Table & Formation of Chemical Bond *Shietcling Effecùs Eviergy Seguerte of Hartree Orbituds.

. no degeneration X & zp have different energy

Vet (r) ñ - cet effective nuclear charge. Enx-Ruelberes)

_

nucleus.

- Shielding constant

t15)225-201638,3pteach(484pH4clitat Shielding: sumet = +0:34 + Shett +0.854_n-2 Shetty7.0075

He (18) shielding =0.31. exception because close to

Ens<Enp Send 5.3. Afabout Potaple for Electron Emfiguredden.

Le Parculi exclusion Principles

no bwo electrons have the same set of quantum numbers

- all different

Chak Mems). 2. Hunets Rule

Parachel spins is the lowest energy First enter each orbitals 1 1 1 then fill 11 11 11.

1870

.

A

.

B

energy to hig

E68 op

27 # Co3t henlohe JAN 2018

hower

* Building up. Atoms

follow the arrow fill from lower 28

energy to higher energy levels. 1848.40 Sp Ess se sa se Exceptions: 24C) [Ar]3d As'

29Cut? [Ar]3d1443') - tesave election with Cat chidn't fiu

full or half full

lover energy 5.4 Shello-R Peritoare Table Photoelectron Spectroscopy

- photoelection Spectaneter

measuring the energy

of the election after

Tonizatiba_cle) If Detector E= hu- meve election extraction plates

Tonization reclciton kinetic energy energy energy.

Ita=-Ex "Koopmen 3. Approximation":

__'lonization energy_is_the

negative of Hartree → KELOV) orbital energy

I ho

Eam 22m02_2

Ezo

t

- Enit

l

tonization-energy-13 -the-energy-requiréel to remare an é from the

atom."

CHEM ZOA 2018 FALL MIDTERMI

STUDY GUIDE

5.5 Periodic Properties & Electronic Structure

*. Atomic Reclus : inverse to attraction (elecimen. eneryy:

Same period ( the changes) Atomic Radlins to Because of increase in Nucleus Charge Same Grong Chuge changes.)

- Aromic Because of accling new shell 7 Radius f (Shielding Effect). ons Effect of Group > Pertal eq. u ostat EX+1<x<(x-1) Because of Sume elecimens

Radous c hifferent nuckles chemies

*lonization Energy

Laseening

- period

Groupe descending

EP

A Be

a BCN

Na

13

*Electron

EA=oE in exig Xigte]. same trend with the shifoing leave won't lower Turectomico

but

- humber Xcas fore

Figo Figit

- book FandNe have

> ID électroms

bor basically equals to Notte

CHAPTER 6 QUANTUM MECHANICS S MOLECULAR STRUCTURE

61 Quantum Picture of the Chemical Bronid

- Do and De are book - * _clissociation energy

Only Do Do measurable

the experiment Det

to represents zero privat

energy, lowest collow - fruttating value --- -equilibeiten bracel forreth ----

Includes four parts (a e- ě replitsion

(b) $ repulsiera to é o attraction

(do KE of ē interviucteur distance

11

large separation no interaction no interaction

construitive

equitorium

interference begins bond length * probabilion density diagram Hz.

for Born - Oppenheimer Approsinaiton nuclei fixed Solve Schrödinger's Equation move closer potermol energy togethelstellect solve anothered (Assumption - Mass of Proton (Nuclear) >> Mass of electrols)

CHEM 20A 2018 FALL MIDTERMII

STUDY GUIDE 6.2 Exaat Moecutor onbrials for the simplest-Nolecules that

Wave functions

Het EFA, FB. (4) PAB)

As graphic forms. - Molecular abitals log Itu zou 16th lg 28g

h a nadal plane -1/2,3.. energy level o -Odī....6: Cylindrical symmetry Tu nalal plane contain

No anguteur momentum

- l intervinclear ans.

norzio angutana komentum - udg g x y z -y -3) (4 = 4 Gerade"

u (xy s exy 3 4 = -4 lungeracle's

site sian

ale ng

opposite sign

I same sign

-AH

reflect.

reflect * Ncave of Chemical Boncl. in Hat

eva

-

Antiboriding orbital

corresponding

ao

log — bonding abitat

CHAPTER 4. Introduction To QUANTUM MESHANICS.

4.1. Preliminasies - Wewe Motibasmanel Light

1 * Wave Amplitude As.

wale (A).

ling e Speed Fin

distance

time

*WARE LENGTH Time for a perial hx.t)-ho = Accosztix/a - zlit/a) *Electromagnevio Radication ---- En

Eixos=Emar (cosizzly1D037)

c=27=2.997810 m/s same for all EM haves

electric field

A

hagnetto

field

X Spectrum

10

.

-tetéti

-

1orm on in soon Zoon 10 V srays X-rays UV Visble

&

IR Microwave. frequency r

Rachio Example

microwave ovens use a frequenen 2.4.5x10°Hz What is the wavelength

- 3.00x108 m/s 8 2.45X 10842

.

0,122m Interference and Oiffraction

Two waves pass through some region superposition of thos constructive inference: A

doutakel intens destructive interference: L y

canceled out Constructive interfers intensity position 2 clestiructive interference diffraction

intension

C

PA

ence.

no lights

destructive interference.

right of

constructive

interference

.

_.4.2-Evidence for Energy Quantization in Atoms

*Lutherforet's Pametany Model doesn't holich Because = election is accelerating

o it must emit EM wave e - it will lose energy and spiral into nucleus.

So Quantized energy may help. * Max Planck anel Blackbody Radiation - emits energy from its surface in EM waves.

EM ware's wardlength clistribution depends on temperature.

- Classical As Temperature ? Hintensitattu

< Expertvustot taxitam fceltonton frequensa 70ook soook leg. light bulb=heated

redwhite). wavelength

racliation Bottzimento

intensity fulls to Zero at extretuely high .

→ Actually linionsistent with experimen intensity at frequency

Planck. Argumen - high toscattators are excited in different hope Frest Step: It is not possible to pass art with a comowane eft energy

This an oscillator of frequencydo. - energy, in quanta" of huagnituele ho.

Total E. Eose = nho n = 12,3,4... Chaenergy x time)

Tdifferent stars color)

constant

PALDIESERT

V

I

Ear

Classical

Shot

T he Planck's

- ot Second Step Radiation intensity curves

. fall out of intensity diminish probabilion

3 hilket h: Planck constanti ASTA PROD

- stets probability (Boltzmann dest.) (Clt hv/kg F1 (elt holes TF02

e s =he emit energy from being in TDEA: UJEnergy is discrete zj osoittator Takes discrete 3 temperature rust thing that

8th

of exciting osc.

kre

This

* Atomic Speutta

Spectrograph

for hydreagen, 7=(x-722x3,29x108 N = 3,4,5, ..., Lit proves the atoms emit anul trecerea discrete

See speuren.

7 . Bohr's hypothes

aboorte

Explanation: Eitho=Ef. E=ho absorption. E

- Ei=Ef tho. emission. of -ho t

-- ---Grommet * Franck-Hertz Experiment and Energy Levels of Atom ---- known.energy elections collide with crans - Votoupl receiving a current at Places tonos Absorb Energus

e

correct. Im

Hacelerator

Uto - V-Eupper-Elowe

rolight light emitral by

Atom absorts energy to discrete Queittizzet extrauto,

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