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UTA / Biology / BIOL 1441 / What is linear electron flow?

What is linear electron flow?

What is linear electron flow?

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School: University of Texas at Arlington
Department: Biology
Course: Cell and Molecular Biology
Professor: Shawn christense
Term: Fall 2018
Tags: final study guide, uta; university of texas at arlington; BIOL 1441; biology; final exam review; shawn christensen;, UTA, uta; university of texas at arlington; biology; bio1441; christensen; exam 3, Photosynthesis, TheCellCycle, Mitosis, Meiosis, Genetics, Genes. Genetics, #Biology #Genes #Cells #Epigenetics #StemCells #Cloning #GeneticApplications #Bio, and Study Guide
Cost: 50
Name: Study Guide 3 for Exam 11/27/18
Description: This study guide covers the key components of Chapters 10, 12, 13-15.
Uploaded: 11/18/2018
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Tamkeen Ashraf UT Arlington For Exam Date 11/27/18


what is linear electron flow?



Study Guide #3 

BIOL 1441­002 with Professor Shawn Christensen Covers chapters 10­15 (not 11)

Highlight = Chapters Highlight = Important Concepts Highlight =  Important Vocabulary 

Chapter 10: Photosynthesis 

∙ Photosynthesis involves two main stages: light reactions (light dependent reactions) and the Calvin Cycle (dark reactions or the light independent reactions). Conversion of light into chemical energy.

∙ The leaves are where photosynthesis occurs since about half a million  chloroplasts are located in a leaf.  

∙ Carbon dioxide comes into the leaf and oxygen exits due to stromata which are microscopic pores.  


what is cyclic electron flow?



∙ The veins of leaves are used for water absorbing from the roots and  exporting sugar to the roots.  

∙ The process of photosynthesis is as follows:  

carbon dioxide + water + light energy —> glucose + oxygen + water. Stage 1 of photosynthesis:

∙ The light-dependent reactions take place in the thylakoid membrane (what separates the stroma from the thylakoid space inside the sacs). ∙ Chlorophylls absorb the light energy, then conversion into chemical  energy happens through the formation of two compounds, ATP (energy  storage molecule) and NADPH (a reduced electron carrier).  ∙ Photons are the various particles of light, act as if they are objects due  to a fixed quantity of energy. Stage 1 requires photons; stage 2 does  not.


what is photorespiration?



If you want to learn more check out Give an example of interest rate and bonds.

Stage 2 of photosynthesis:

∙ The Calvin cycle (light-independent reactions) takes place in the  stroma and does not directly require light like the light reactions do.  ∙ Involves three phases: carbon fixation, reduction and regeneration of  the CO2 acceptor (RuBP).

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∙ The Calvin cycle uses ATP and NADPH to fix carbon dioxide and  produce three-carbon sugars: G3P molecules (glyceraldehyde-3- phosphate).  We also discuss several other topics like Why is inflation a tax?

This will result in the formation of glucose.

∙ Photosystems are complexes where chlorophyll molecules are  organized with other organic molecules and proteins. Don't forget about the age old question of What is hund's rule?

∙ Photosystem II functions first before photosystem I comes into play in  photosynthesis.

∙ Linear electron flow is what happens during the light reactions. It is the electrons going through the photosystems and other molecular  components that is built into the thylakoid membrane.  

∙ The products of this type of electron flow includes ATP from the  electron transport chain, oxygen from Photosystem II and NADPH from  Photosystem I.

∙ Cyclic electron flow involves the use of PS I and produces ATP; does not produce any NADPH or oxygen such as in linear electron flow. ∙ The products of this type of electron flow include ATP.  

∙ C3 plants is where the first organic product of carbon fixation is a  three-carbon compound.  

∙ C4 plants is where the first organic product is a four-carbon compound. They preface with the Calvin cycle with another mode of carbon  fixation. Don't forget about the age old question of How do us employers demand for low wage labor fuel immigration?

∙ Photorespiration is the process in which begins in the chloroplast, when rubisco attaches O2 to RuBP. A three-carbon compound, 3-PGA, and a  two-carbon compound, phosphoglycolate is produced as a result. 3- PGA is a normal intermediate of the Calvin cycle, but phosphoglycolate cannot enter the cycle, so its two carbons are removed, or stolen from  the cycle. If you want to learn more check out Where are chloroplasts found?

Chapter 12: The Cell Cycle 

∙ Somatic cells refers to all body cells except the reproductive cells. They have 46 chromosomes- two sets of 23 chromosomes and each set is  from each parent. We also discuss several other topics like What's the meaning of tanf?

∙ Gametes are the reproductive cells. They have half as many  chromosomes in somatic cells.

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∙ Two sister chromatids are a part of each duplicated chromosome.  These sister chromatids are joined copies of the original chromosome.  They will be attached to protein complexes (cohesions) which makes  up the sister chromatid cohesion.

∙ A centromere is a region both sister chromatids have which is made up of repeating sequences in the chromosomal DNA where the chromatid  has the closest attachment to its sister chromatid.  

∙ Interphase can be divided into three phases known as the G1 phase, S  phase & G2 phase.  

∙ The G phases involve a lot of metabolic activity.

∙ The S phase (synthesis) involves growth and duplication of the  chromosomes

∙ Stages of mitosis: 

∙ In prophase, the mitotic spindle begins to form in the cytoplasm,  mitotic spindle is what determines the events taken place during  mitosis. Consists of fibers made of microtubules and is associated with  proteins. This spindle grows between the centrosomes.

∙ In prometaphase (which is just late prophase), the mitotic spindle  starts capturing and organizing the chromosomes. The chromosomes  finish condensing & nuclear envelope breaks down which release the  chromosomes.

∙ In metaphase, the mitotic spindle is done capturing chromosomes and  has lined them together straight down the middle of the cell. The  chromosomes align at the metaphase plate. Two kinetochores (patch of protein on the centromere of both sister chromatids) will be attached  to microtubules from opposing spindle poles.

∙ In anaphase, the sister chromatids will separate and be pulled at  opposite ends of the cell. There are two separate chromosomes now.

∙ In telophase, the cell is near complete division. The mitotic spindle is  broken down; two nuclei come to formation with each one having a set  of chromosomes. The chromosomes decondense in this stage.  

∙ Cytokinesis is the last part of mitosis and sometimes may overlap with  anaphase or telophase. In cytokinesis, the cytoplasm will be divided to  

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make two new cells with a full set of chromosomes that are identical to the original mother cell.  

∙ Binary fission is where prokaryotes can reproduce by the cell growing  double its size and results in two cells. (Know the steps in binary  fission)

∙ Regulatory molecules involved with the checkpoints include two types  of proteins known as protein kinases (enzymes that only  

activate/inactivate other proteins by phosphorylation) and cyclins (a  protein that has a cyclically fluctuating concentration, in order to be  active).

∙ The two regulatory molecules work hand in hand this way which gives  them the name cyclin-dependent kinases (Cdk).

Chapter 13: Meiosis and Sexual Life Cycles 

∙ Humans have 46 chromosomes. 23 from each parent.

∙ Asexual reproduction involves one individual who is the parent and it  alone passing copies of its genes to the offspring without gamete  fusion being incorporated. Happens by mitotic cell division. The DNA  from parent is copied distributed in equal amounts to the two daughter cells. Involves a clone—a group of genetically identical individuals.

∙ Sexual reproduction involves two parents who give differing  amounts/combinations of genes to the offspring.  

∙ Homologous chromosomes (homologs) are ones where two  chromosomes of a pair have the exact same length, centromere, and  staining pattern.

∙ Human females have a homologous pair of X chromosomes (XX) and  human males have a one X and one Y chromosome (XY).

∙ Diploid cells (two chromosome sets) and somatic cells go hand in hand. Haploid cells (single set of chromosomes) and gametes go hand in  hand.

∙ Fertilization is the process of fertilizing an egg and the fusion of male  and female gametes to form a zygote.

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∙ Meiosis becomes involved because gamete formation requires a  special type of cell division; meiosis will go and reduce the number of  chromosome sets to one gamete, instead of two such as in mitosis.

∙ Stages of meiosis I and meiosis II: 

∙ Prophase I- A zipper-like structure will form (the synaptonemal  complex) after the DNA of two non-sister chromatids is broken by  certain proteins.  

∙ In synapsis, the DNA breaks are closed so each broken end is joined  with the corresponding segment of the non-sister chromatid.  ∙ The homologs will move apart but still attached to its original  chromosome which is called the chiasmata.  

∙ The chromosomes will condense. Nuclear envelope will break down  and crossing over will occur.

∙ Metaphase I- the pairs of homologous chromosomes will move towards  the equator of the cell.

∙ Anaphase I- the homologous chromosomes will move to the opposing  ends (poles) of the cell by the help of the spindle apparatus.  ∙ Telophase I and Cytokinesis- the chromosomes will gather at the poles  which will cause the cytoplasm to divide.

∙ Prophase II- a spindle forms all around the chromosome. ∙ Metaphase II- the chromosomes will line up at the equator. ∙ Anaphase II- the centromeres will divide. The chromatids will move to  the opposite poles of the cells.

∙ Telophase II and Cytokinesis- a nuclear envelope will form around each  set of chromosomes and the cytoplasm will divide.  

∙ Genetic variations from sexual reproduction is contributed from 1)  independent orientation of pairs of homologous chromosomes, 2)  crossing over and 3) random fertilization.  

∙ Alternation of generations happens in the life cycles of plants and  some species of algae. This life cycle involves diploid and haploid  stages; these stages are multicellular.  

The sporophyte is the name for the multicellular diploid stage. The gametophyte is the name for the multicellular haploid stage. The sporophyte generation produces a gametophyte to the offspring.  The gametophyte generation will then produce the next sporophyte  generation.

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Chapter 14: Mendel and the Gene Idea 

∙ *Practice a few Punnett squares.  

∙ A character is a feature that is heritable and can vary among  individuals. The actual variant for a character is called the trait.  

∙ The F1 generation is the first filial generation and the F2 generation is  the second filial generation. The F1 hybrids cross-pollinate with other  F1 hybrids which results in the production of an F2 generation.  

∙ The dominant trait is the certain trait which actually shows up in the  offspring. The recessive trait is the opposite, you cannot physically see  the trait.  

∙ The law of segregation states: the two alleles for a heritable character  segregate during the gamete formation and end up in different  gametes. An egg or sperm gets either one of the two alleles which are  present in the somatic cells of the organism that makes up the gamete.

∙ The law of independent assortment states: two or more genes assort  independently; each pair of alleles segregate independently of any  other pair of alleles in gamete formation.

∙ Monohybrids are heterozygous for the one specific character being  followed in the cross. A monohybrid cross is the cross between these  heterozygotes.  

∙ Dihybrids are individuals heterozygous for the two characters being  followed in the cross. A dihybrid cross is the cross between F1 hybrids.  

∙ Mendelian genetics is the recognizable patterns associated with single  gene and two or more gene inheritance. Know that the patterns can  involve the segregation of differing alleles from an individual who is  

hybrid to produce two types of gametes, so it corresponds with the two alleles.  

∙ Incomplete dominance is when neither allele is completely dominant,  the F1 hybrids have a phenotype somewhere between the two parental varieties.  

∙ Codominance is when the two alleles affect the phenotype in separate  ways.

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∙ Pleiotropy is a property where most genes have multiple phenotypic  effects. Pleiotropic alleles are the cause for certain symptoms  associated with different diseases.

∙ In epistasis, one gene affects the phenotype of another since the two  gene products interact with each other.

∙ Multifactorial is the term used to describe that many varying factors  including genetic and environmental have a direct effect on phenotype. An organism’s phenotype reflects its overall genotype and the history  of the environment.  

∙ An application used for a pedigree is to calculate the probability that a  future family member will have some specific genotype and  phenotype.

∙ There can be avoidance of Mendelian disorders if the risk of a  particular genetic disorder can be looked at before the child is even  conceived or in the earlier stages of pregnancy. There are genetic tests to do this.  

∙ Genetic counselors are the ones to go to about a family history of some specific disease and seek more information about it.  

Chapter 15: The Chromosomal Basis of Inheritance 

∙ There are currently so many genes involved in development for the  different genders.  

∙ A sex-linked gene is a gene that is located on either sex  chromosome. The X-linked genes are ones that are located on the X  chromosome and vice versa for Y-linked genes.  

∙ X-linked alleles are what fathers cannot pass onto their sons, but  they can for their daughters. Mothers can pass on their X-linked  alleles to both sons and daughters.  

∙ Hemophilia is an example of an X-linked recessive disorder which  involves the absence of 1+ proteins that are required for blood  clotting.  

∙ Linked genes are genes that are located near each other on the  exact same chromosome and are inherited together in genetic  crosses.

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∙ Genetic recombination is the production of offspring who have  combinations of traits that are different from the ones found in both  P generation parents of the offspring.

∙ Mendel’s experiments show that the behavior of the alleles of genes can lead to variation in offspring.  

∙ Know that genetic linkages cannot really be determined in genetic  crosses since genes can be on the same chromosome but can be  really spread apart.  

∙ A condition called aneuploidy is when the zygote will have an  abnormal number of a particular chromosome.  

∙ Polyploidy is what happens when there is a chromosomal alteration  in all the somatic cells. The terms triploidy and tetraploidy is the  indication for three and four chromosomal sets.  

∙ Four types of chromosome structure changes which can occur if  errors is meiosis or damaging agents cause breakage of a  chromosome.  

o Deletion: occurs when a fragment of a chromosome is lost.  The chromosome is missing some genes.  

o Duplication: when the deleted fragment in deletion gets  attached as an extra segment to a sister/non-sister chromatid. Inversion: when a chromosomal fragment reattaches to the  original chromosome in reverse orientation.  

o Translocation: the fragment will join a nonhomologous  

chromosome.  

∙ One aneuploid condition is known as down syndrome (trisomy 21),  which affects one out of every 830 children born here in the U.S.

o There is an extra chromosome 21 which is the product of  down syndrome so each body cell has 47 chromosomes.  

∙ An extra X chromosome in a male is a disorder known as Klinefelter  syndrome where testes are abnormally small but the male is still  sterile.  

∙ An extra X chromosome in a female (trisomy X) are healthy  individuals and are fertile but are taller than the average height of a

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female. They are at risk for learning disabilities. Known as Turner  syndrome.

∙ Genetic imprinting is where there is a variation in phenotype  depending on if an allele is inherited from the mother or father.  Mostly on the autosomes.

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