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UGA / Psychology / PSYC 3230 / What are the 3 clusters of pds?

What are the 3 clusters of pds?

What are the 3 clusters of pds?


School: University of Georgia
Department: Psychology
Course: Psychopathology
Professor: Cyterski
Term: Fall 2018
Cost: 25
Name: PSYC Exam 4 Notes
Description: These are part one of the class notes for the fourth exam.
Uploaded: 11/19/2018
6 Pages 89 Views 4 Unlocks

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PSYC Exam 4 Notes Part 1  

What are the 3 clusters of pds?

Personality disorders:  

∙ Personality – a relatively stable way of thinking, perceiving, and  relating to the environment and one’s self, that is exhibited in a wide  range of important personal and social context.  

∙ Personality disorders – an enduring, rigid, pattern of inner-experience  and outward behavior that impairs one’s sense of self, emotional  experiences, goals, and capacity for empathy and intimacy.

∙ They have an onset in adolescence of early adulthood and tend to be  lifelong.  We also discuss several other topics like What are the forms of integration at the farmer?

∙ They are stable and lead to distress of impairment.  

∙ They are “ways of being” rather than an illness.

∙ 9-13% have one or another personality disorder.

Define personality disorders.

∙ Many are comorbid with something else; may be mood disorders,  substance abuse, or schizophrenia, etc.  

 ∙     Bidel’s 3 P’s for distinguishing PDs from other disorders: o Persistent

o Pervasive – across situations

o Pathological – abnormal  

∙ On axis II of DSM IV (there’s no axis on DSM V)

 ∙     3 clusters of PDs 

 ∙     Cluster A:  

o Odd or eccentric PDs  

o Three in this category

o Has features seen as schizophrenia

o Families of people with schizophrenia, there will be higher rates  of cluster A PD.  

o Begins in early adulthood

What is paranoid pd?

If you want to learn more check out How can we identify dipole-dipole forces?

o Present in a variety of context  

 o Paranoid PD: 

 Involves a pervasive pattern of suspiciousness of others  such that their motives are interpreted as malevolent  

(threatening or dangerous)

  7 symptoms: We also discuss several other topics like What does confidence interval denote?

∙ They suspect without sufficient basis that others are  

exploiting, harming, or deceiving them.  

∙ They’re preoccupied with doubts about the loyalty of  


∙ They are reluctant to confide in others, because of  

unwarranted fear that the information will be used  

against them.

∙ They read threatening or demeaning meaning into  

benign comments

∙ They bear grudges and are unforgiving

∙ They perceive attacks on their character and are quick to act angrily

∙ They have unjustified recurrent suspicions about the  fidelity of a spouse or sexual partner.  

 They could be projecting as a defense mechanism  They would most likely have high security homes, a big  dog, or something of the like to protect themselves.  Begins in childhood with solitary behavior, poor  

relationships, hypersensitivity.

 Introspective rather than prospective

 More common in males than females

 .5%-2.5% prevalence differing on degrees of severity.   o Schizoid PD: 

 Pattern of detachment from social relationship and a  restricted range of expression of emotion in interpersonal  settings. Don't forget about the age old question of How much energy is required to boil 1l (1000g) of h2o if initial temperature is 25°c?

  Symptoms: 

∙ Doesn’t desire or enjoy close relationships including  within their family. We also discuss several other topics like What are the different classes of objects?

∙ Almost always chooses solitary activities Don't forget about the age old question of Why is dp so expensive?

∙ Has little if any interest in sexual experiences with  another person

∙ Takes pleasure in few if any activities

∙ Lacks close friends and confidant, other than  

immediate family (who are still questionable_)

∙ Appears indifferent to praise of criticism

∙ Shows emotional coldness and detachment

 More common in males than females

 People with this and the last PD don’t often go to therapy  due to the fear and disliking of it.  

 o Schizotypal PD:  

 Pattern of social and interpersonal deficits marked by acute discomfort with and reduced capacity from close  

relationships as well as by cognitive and perceptual  distortions and eccentricities of behavior.

 The distortions are similar to delusions and hallucinations  Symptoms: need 5 of 9 for diagnosis (you don’t need to  know the number needed for each diagnosis.)

∙ Ideas of reference – meaning in meaningless events ∙ Odd beliefs and magical thinking  

o Superstitions, telepathy, 6th sense.

∙ Unusual perceptual experiences

∙ Odd thinking and speech

o Vague, circumstantial speech, over elaborative.

∙ Suspiciousness or paranoid ideation

∙ Inappropriate or constricted affect

∙ Behavior or appearance that is odd, eccentric or  


∙ Lack of close friends/confidents other than immediate  family

∙ Excessive social anxiety that doesn’t go away – more  related to suspiciousness than self-doubt

 More male than female

 3% prevalence

 Some of this PD go on to be diagnosed with schizophrenia   Therapy is again questionable

 ∙     Cluster B: 

o Dramatic PDs

 Four of them

  Antisocial PD (APD): 

∙ AKA psychopath/sociopath.

∙ Pervasive pattern of disregard for and violation of the  basic rights of others. For example, not telling the truth,  not respecting space, not being kind, etc.

∙ Occurring since age 15

 ∙     Part A, B, and C: 

 o Part A: 

 Failure to conform to societal norms with  

respect to lawful behavior, and repeatedly  

doing things that could lead to arrest.

 Deceitfulness such as repeated lying, uses  

of aliases, or conning others for personal  

profit or pleasure.

∙ Covert behaviors

∙ Can be very manipulative or smoot if  

high functioning

 Impulsivity or failure to plan ahead

 Irritability/aggressiveness, including leading  

to fights or assaults

 Reckless disregard for safety of self/others –  

thrill seeking

 Consistent irresponsibility. Ex: failure to  

keep a job meet financial/ family  

responsibilities, not sustaining a relationship

 Lack of guilt or remorse as indicated by  

being indifferent or rationalizing having  

hurt, mistreated, or stolen from another.  

∙ There’s a lack of conscience  

 o Part B: 

 Person is at least 18 years of age.

 o Part C: 

 There’s evidence that the person had  

conduct disorder before age 15.

∙ Genetic factor: adopted children align with biological  parents more than adoptive parents.  

∙ Substance abuse is common  

∙ Men more than women (3x more)

∙ 2-3.5% prevalence

 ∙     Study:  

o David Lyyken looked at prisoners with antisocial  PD, without the PD, and college students without the PD.  

o The two groups without the PD had the same  results and can be treated as one who group.  o He gave them a serial learning task  

 Something learned in order like ABCs

o There was a series of 4 lights that indicated a  correct answer, four lights that indicated a  

wrong answer, and four levers.

o They were told to flip a lever to try and figure  out the order of a 20-unit long series that would  remain the same throughout the whole  


o You would get shocked if it was the wrong  answer, meaning that the number of correct  answers should increase each round in order to  avoid the shock.

o The groups didn’t differ on the number of  rewards.

o Results: over time APD people didn’t learn from  the shock punishment as well as non-APD.  

 ∙     Another study: 

o Schacter and Latare performed the same  experiment before but tried to see if the  

injection of adrenaline would affect the results.  o The inverse results were seen in that the APD  people increased in avoidance of the shock, but  non-APD decreased in avoidance.

o Results: people with APD may be chronically  

under aroused and the adrenaline brought them  

back to a functioning level of arousal.

o This does not say that adrenaline should be used as a treatment method.  

 ∙     APD treatment: 

o No great good one

o They won’t change their behavior, so you want  

to catch it when they are young and fix it when it

appears as conduct disorder.

 o Borderline PD:  

 A pervasive pattern of instability of interpersonal  relationship, self-image, and affect, and marked impulsivity.  Early adulthood onset

 Seen in a variety of context

 Fatal attraction movie used as a reference.  

 Symptoms: (5 of 9 needed)

∙ Frantic efforts to avoid real or imagined abandonment. They fear being alone but are uncomfortable in  

relationships, because they worry a lot about  


∙ Pattern of unstable and intense interpersonal  

relationship. Characterized by alternating extremes of  idealization and devaluation. People for from being on  a pedestal to being terrible = splitting

∙ Identity disturbance: they have unstable self-image  and they frequently seek to identity with others.  

∙ Impulsivity in at least 2 areas that are potentially self damaging such as reckless spending, binge eating,  substance abuse, reckless or provocative sex.

∙ Recurrent suicidal behavior, gestures, threats, or self mutilation.

o 10% with BPD commit suicide.  

∙ Affective instability and reactivity.

∙ Chronic feelings of emptiness

∙ Inappropriate or intense anger/ difficulty controlling  which can lead to fights

∙ Occasional stress related paranoid ideation or even  dissociated symptoms.  

  Associated features: 

∙ Tend to undermine themselves when a goal is about to be achieved such as dropping out of school right  

before graduating or destroying potential  


∙ Getting worse after good therapy.

∙ Tend to feel more secure in relationships with pets or  inanimate objects.

∙ Mood disorders/substance abuse is common ∙ Recurrent job loss, interrupted education, and broken  marriages.  

∙ Somethings seen in childhood:  

o Physical/sexual abuse, neglect, hostile conflicts,  early parental loss or separation due to death or  abandonment

∙ More common in women (3:1)

∙ 2% prevalence in general population, 20% of  psychiatric in patients, 75% attempt suicide. ∙ Familial pattern – 5% more likely in first degree  relative.  

∙ Mellowing in 40s, some mellowing is possible.

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