PSYC Exam 4 Notes Part 1
∙ Personality – a relatively stable way of thinking, perceiving, and relating to the environment and one’s self, that is exhibited in a wide range of important personal and social context.
∙ Personality disorders – an enduring, rigid, pattern of inner-experience and outward behavior that impairs one’s sense of self, emotional experiences, goals, and capacity for empathy and intimacy.
∙ They have an onset in adolescence of early adulthood and tend to be lifelong.
∙ They are stable and lead to distress of impairment.
∙ They are “ways of being” rather than an illness.
∙ 9-13% have one or another personality disorder.
∙ Many are comorbid with something else; may be mood disorders, substance abuse, or schizophrenia, etc.
∙ Bidel’s 3 P’s for distinguishing PDs from other disorders: o Persistent
o Pervasive – across situations
o Pathological – abnormal
∙ On axis II of DSM IV (there’s no axis on DSM V)
∙ 3 clusters of PDs
∙ Cluster A:
o Odd or eccentric PDs
o Three in this category
o Has features seen as schizophrenia
o Families of people with schizophrenia, there will be higher rates of cluster A PD.
o Begins in early adulthood
o Present in a variety of context We also discuss several other topics like What are the three main types of risk?
o Paranoid PD:
Involves a pervasive pattern of suspiciousness of others such that their motives are interpreted as malevolent
(threatening or dangerous)
∙ They suspect without sufficient basis that others are
exploiting, harming, or deceiving them.
∙ They’re preoccupied with doubts about the loyalty of
∙ They are reluctant to confide in others, because of We also discuss several other topics like Enumerate the types of intermolecular forces.
unwarranted fear that the information will be used
∙ They read threatening or demeaning meaning into
∙ They bear grudges and are unforgiving
∙ They perceive attacks on their character and are quick to act angrily
∙ They have unjustified recurrent suspicions about the fidelity of a spouse or sexual partner.
They could be projecting as a defense mechanism They would most likely have high security homes, a big dog, or something of the like to protect themselves. Begins in childhood with solitary behavior, poor
Introspective rather than prospective
More common in males than females
.5%-2.5% prevalence differing on degrees of severity. o Schizoid PD:
Pattern of detachment from social relationship and a restricted range of expression of emotion in interpersonal settings.
Symptoms: If you want to learn more check out How can we find the necessary sample size to estimate a population proportion?
∙ Doesn’t desire or enjoy close relationships including within their family.
∙ Almost always chooses solitary activities
∙ Has little if any interest in sexual experiences with another person
∙ Takes pleasure in few if any activities
∙ Lacks close friends and confidant, other than
immediate family (who are still questionable_)
∙ Appears indifferent to praise of criticism
∙ Shows emotional coldness and detachment
More common in males than females
People with this and the last PD don’t often go to therapy due to the fear and disliking of it.
o Schizotypal PD:
Pattern of social and interpersonal deficits marked by acute discomfort with and reduced capacity from close If you want to learn more check out What are the strong acids?
relationships as well as by cognitive and perceptual distortions and eccentricities of behavior.
The distortions are similar to delusions and hallucinations Symptoms: need 5 of 9 for diagnosis (you don’t need to know the number needed for each diagnosis.)
∙ Ideas of reference – meaning in meaningless events ∙ Odd beliefs and magical thinking
o Superstitions, telepathy, 6th sense. We also discuss several other topics like What is the function of phyton?
∙ Unusual perceptual experiences
∙ Odd thinking and speech
o Vague, circumstantial speech, over elaborative.
∙ Suspiciousness or paranoid ideation
∙ Inappropriate or constricted affect
∙ Behavior or appearance that is odd, eccentric or
∙ Lack of close friends/confidents other than immediate family
∙ Excessive social anxiety that doesn’t go away – more related to suspiciousness than self-doubt
More male than female
Some of this PD go on to be diagnosed with schizophrenia Therapy is again questionable
∙ Cluster B: Don't forget about the age old question of What is the cause of low self-control?
o Dramatic PDs
Four of them
Antisocial PD (APD):
∙ AKA psychopath/sociopath.
∙ Pervasive pattern of disregard for and violation of the basic rights of others. For example, not telling the truth, not respecting space, not being kind, etc.
∙ Occurring since age 15
∙ Part A, B, and C:
o Part A:
Failure to conform to societal norms with
respect to lawful behavior, and repeatedly
doing things that could lead to arrest.
Deceitfulness such as repeated lying, uses
of aliases, or conning others for personal
profit or pleasure.
∙ Covert behaviors
∙ Can be very manipulative or smoot if
Impulsivity or failure to plan ahead
Irritability/aggressiveness, including leading
to fights or assaults
Reckless disregard for safety of self/others –
Consistent irresponsibility. Ex: failure to
keep a job meet financial/ family
responsibilities, not sustaining a relationship
Lack of guilt or remorse as indicated by
being indifferent or rationalizing having
hurt, mistreated, or stolen from another.
∙ There’s a lack of conscience
o Part B:
Person is at least 18 years of age.
o Part C:
There’s evidence that the person had
conduct disorder before age 15.
∙ Genetic factor: adopted children align with biological parents more than adoptive parents.
∙ Substance abuse is common
∙ Men more than women (3x more)
∙ 2-3.5% prevalence
o David Lyyken looked at prisoners with antisocial PD, without the PD, and college students without the PD.
o The two groups without the PD had the same results and can be treated as one who group. o He gave them a serial learning task
Something learned in order like ABCs
o There was a series of 4 lights that indicated a correct answer, four lights that indicated a
wrong answer, and four levers.
o They were told to flip a lever to try and figure out the order of a 20-unit long series that would remain the same throughout the whole
o You would get shocked if it was the wrong answer, meaning that the number of correct answers should increase each round in order to avoid the shock.
o The groups didn’t differ on the number of rewards.
o Results: over time APD people didn’t learn from the shock punishment as well as non-APD.
∙ Another study:
o Schacter and Latare performed the same experiment before but tried to see if the
injection of adrenaline would affect the results. o The inverse results were seen in that the APD people increased in avoidance of the shock, but non-APD decreased in avoidance.
o Results: people with APD may be chronically
under aroused and the adrenaline brought them
back to a functioning level of arousal.
o This does not say that adrenaline should be used as a treatment method.
∙ APD treatment:
o No great good one
o They won’t change their behavior, so you want
to catch it when they are young and fix it when it
appears as conduct disorder.
o Borderline PD:
A pervasive pattern of instability of interpersonal relationship, self-image, and affect, and marked impulsivity. Early adulthood onset
Seen in a variety of context
Fatal attraction movie used as a reference.
Symptoms: (5 of 9 needed)
∙ Frantic efforts to avoid real or imagined abandonment. They fear being alone but are uncomfortable in
relationships, because they worry a lot about
∙ Pattern of unstable and intense interpersonal
relationship. Characterized by alternating extremes of idealization and devaluation. People for from being on a pedestal to being terrible = splitting
∙ Identity disturbance: they have unstable self-image and they frequently seek to identity with others.
∙ Impulsivity in at least 2 areas that are potentially self damaging such as reckless spending, binge eating, substance abuse, reckless or provocative sex.
∙ Recurrent suicidal behavior, gestures, threats, or self mutilation.
o 10% with BPD commit suicide.
∙ Affective instability and reactivity.
∙ Chronic feelings of emptiness
∙ Inappropriate or intense anger/ difficulty controlling which can lead to fights
∙ Occasional stress related paranoid ideation or even dissociated symptoms.
∙ Tend to undermine themselves when a goal is about to be achieved such as dropping out of school right
before graduating or destroying potential
∙ Getting worse after good therapy.
∙ Tend to feel more secure in relationships with pets or inanimate objects.
∙ Mood disorders/substance abuse is common ∙ Recurrent job loss, interrupted education, and broken marriages.
∙ Somethings seen in childhood:
o Physical/sexual abuse, neglect, hostile conflicts, early parental loss or separation due to death or abandonment
∙ More common in women (3:1)
∙ 2% prevalence in general population, 20% of psychiatric in patients, 75% attempt suicide. ∙ Familial pattern – 5% more likely in first degree relative.
∙ Mellowing in 40s, some mellowing is possible.