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UA / Engineering / CJ 100 / Why rehabilitation became important?

Why rehabilitation became important?

Why rehabilitation became important?


Unit 4: Chapter 10 – History of Control & Punishment

Why rehabilitation became important?

Prisons Over Time

History of Control – 

- England had harsh punishments, we adopted a more lenient approach - Initially used corporal punishment and jail time  Quakers suggested reform - Reform led to two systems

 Pennsylvania & Auburn

Pennsylvania System – (‘more humane’)

- Walnut Street Jail was the FIRST incarceration 

- Eastern State Penitentiary 

 Separate­and­silent

 Solitary confinement 23hrs/daily If you want to learn more check out Who is maxime bernier?
Don't forget about the age old question of How many of the species are classified as ionic bonds?

 Self­reflection and craft work

- Solitary confinement destroys peoples’ mental health (makes them go insane)

Auburn System – 

- Congregate­and­silent system

Is pennsylvania system is the same to auburn system?

 factory­oriented labor

 solitary @ night

- less expensive 

Age of Reform (1860­1900) – 

- Irish system

 Re­entry to society

 Employed marks­of­commendation and ticket­of­leave programs

New Emphasis on Prison Labor (1900­1930) – 

- The idea that work is healthy for both the inmate and society is as old as the prison.   Work kept inmates occupied. If you want to learn more check out What processes will you use to produce products?

 Work was rehabilitative.

 Inmates could offset incarceration costs.

- Convict­lease system

Age of Rehabilitation (1930­1970) – 

- Rehabilitation became important because offenders were considered "sick.“ - Wickersham Commission prescribed reforms in 1931

Wickersham commission prescribed reforms, when?

- Federal Bureau of Prisons est. 1930 Don't forget about the age old question of What is a dehydrohalogenation reaction example?

Retributive Era (1970s­present) – 

- The events of the 1960s caused a number of changes in social institutions. One change  was the traditional hands­off policy of the courts.

- Other changes...

 Determinate sentences

 Voluntary treatment

 Abolition of parole

- More Modern Retribution

 Proportionate sentencing

 Diversion programs among youth

 “band­the­box

 The part of a job app that asks if you’ve been convicted of a crime

 More equal treatment of past convicted criminals

Capital Punishment – The sentence of death for a criminal offense

- Historical Perspective

 A common form of punishment

 Public spectacle and painful

- The organized call for humane execution in the United States began in the 19th century.

Search for Humane Execution – 

- Electrocution

- Gas

- *Lethal Injection (preferred method)

 Glossip v. Gross (2015)

- Alternative methods 

Arguments for Capital Punishment – 

- Deterrence Theory

 Assumptions & three factors of an effective punishment Don't forget about the age old question of What is the significance of the microorganisms living in the body?

 Assumptions

- Rationality

- Aware of punishments

- No outside factors

 3 Factors (in order of most to least important)

- Certain, Swift, Severe

 Two types

 Specific deterrence*

 General deterrence

- Just Deserts model –an eye­for­eye rule

Arguments Against Capital Punishment – 

- Morals

- Inequalities

 Blacks and Hispanics executed in greater proportions than whites

 White victims vs. Minority victims

 “chivalric” bias

- Executing the Innocent We also discuss several other topics like Why do we create brands?

 The Innocence Project

Modern Use – 

- 19 states plus DC do not have the death penalty

- CA, FL, TX, and AL hold more than half of all inmates on death row - It has been suspended in the past

 Furman v. Georgia (1972)

 Gregg v. Georgia (1976)

- The SC has placed limits on who can be executed

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