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UA / Engineering / CJ 100 / Why rehabilitation became important?

Why rehabilitation became important?

Why rehabilitation became important?


Unit 4: Chapter 10 – History of Control & Punishment

Why rehabilitation became important?

Prisons Over Time

History of Control – 

- England had harsh punishments, we adopted a more lenient approach - Initially used corporal punishment and jail time  Quakers suggested reform - Reform led to two systems

 Pennsylvania & Auburn

Pennsylvania System – (‘more humane’)

- Walnut Street Jail was the FIRST incarceration 

- Eastern State Penitentiary 

 Separate­and­silent

 Solitary confinement 23hrs/daily

 Self­reflection and craft work

- Solitary confinement destroys peoples’ mental health (makes them go insane)

Auburn System – 

- Congregate­and­silent system

Is pennsylvania system is the same to auburn system?

 factory­oriented labor

 solitary @ night

- less expensive 

Age of Reform (1860­1900) – 

- Irish system

 Re­entry to society

 Employed marks­of­commendation and ticket­of­leave programs

New Emphasis on Prison Labor (1900­1930) – 

- The idea that work is healthy for both the inmate and society is as old as the prison.   Work kept inmates occupied.

 Work was rehabilitative. Don't forget about the age old question of Who is maxime bernier?
We also discuss several other topics like What molecules has an electron geometry equivalent to its molecular geometry?

 Inmates could offset incarceration costs.

- Convict­lease system

Age of Rehabilitation (1930­1970) – 

- Rehabilitation became important because offenders were considered "sick.“ - Wickersham Commission prescribed reforms in 1931

Wickersham commission prescribed reforms, when?

If you want to learn more check out What are the main uses of natural gas?

- Federal Bureau of Prisons est. 1930

Retributive Era (1970s­present) – 

- The events of the 1960s caused a number of changes in social institutions. One change  was the traditional hands­off policy of the courts.

- Other changes...

 Determinate sentences

 Voluntary treatment

 Abolition of parole

- More Modern Retribution

 Proportionate sentencing

 Diversion programs among youth Don't forget about the age old question of What is the mechanism for the dehydration of an alcohol to an alkene called?

 “band­the­box

 The part of a job app that asks if you’ve been convicted of a crime

 More equal treatment of past convicted criminals

Capital Punishment – The sentence of death for a criminal offense

- Historical Perspective

 A common form of punishment

 Public spectacle and painful

- The organized call for humane execution in the United States began in the 19th century.

Search for Humane Execution – 

- Electrocution

- Gas

- *Lethal Injection (preferred method)

 Glossip v. Gross (2015) Don't forget about the age old question of What are the elements of the immune system and their roles in defense?

- Alternative methods 

Arguments for Capital Punishment – 

- Deterrence Theory

 Assumptions & three factors of an effective punishment

 Assumptions

- Rationality

- Aware of punishments

- No outside factors

 3 Factors (in order of most to least important)

- Certain, Swift, Severe

 Two types

 Specific deterrence*

 General deterrence

- Just Deserts model –an eye­for­eye rule

Arguments Against Capital Punishment –  Don't forget about the age old question of Why do we create brands?

- Morals

- Inequalities

 Blacks and Hispanics executed in greater proportions than whites

 White victims vs. Minority victims

 “chivalric” bias

- Executing the Innocent

 The Innocence Project

Modern Use – 

- 19 states plus DC do not have the death penalty

- CA, FL, TX, and AL hold more than half of all inmates on death row - It has been suspended in the past

 Furman v. Georgia (1972)

 Gregg v. Georgia (1976)

- The SC has placed limits on who can be executed

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