Unit 4: Chapter 10 – History of Control & Punishment
Prisons Over Time
History of Control –
- England had harsh punishments, we adopted a more lenient approach - Initially used corporal punishment and jail time Quakers suggested reform - Reform led to two systems
Pennsylvania & Auburn
Pennsylvania System – (‘more humane’)
- Walnut Street Jail was the FIRST incarceration
- Eastern State Penitentiary
Solitary confinement 23hrs/daily
Selfreflection and craft work
- Solitary confinement destroys peoples’ mental health (makes them go insane)
Auburn System –
- Congregateandsilent system
solitary @ night
- less expensive
Age of Reform (18601900) –
- Irish system
Reentry to society
Employed marksofcommendation and ticketofleave programs
New Emphasis on Prison Labor (19001930) –
- The idea that work is healthy for both the inmate and society is as old as the prison. Work kept inmates occupied.
Work was rehabilitative. Don't forget about the age old question of Who is maxime bernier?
We also discuss several other topics like What molecules has an electron geometry equivalent to its molecular geometry?
Inmates could offset incarceration costs.
- Convictlease system
Age of Rehabilitation (19301970) –
- Rehabilitation became important because offenders were considered "sick.“ - Wickersham Commission prescribed reforms in 1931
If you want to learn more check out What are the main uses of natural gas?
- Federal Bureau of Prisons est. 1930
Retributive Era (1970spresent) –
- The events of the 1960s caused a number of changes in social institutions. One change was the traditional handsoff policy of the courts.
- Other changes...
Abolition of parole
- More Modern Retribution
Diversion programs among youth Don't forget about the age old question of What is the mechanism for the dehydration of an alcohol to an alkene called?
The part of a job app that asks if you’ve been convicted of a crime
More equal treatment of past convicted criminals
Capital Punishment – The sentence of death for a criminal offense
- Historical Perspective
A common form of punishment
Public spectacle and painful
- The organized call for humane execution in the United States began in the 19th century.
Search for Humane Execution –
- *Lethal Injection (preferred method)
Glossip v. Gross (2015) Don't forget about the age old question of What are the elements of the immune system and their roles in defense?
- Alternative methods
Arguments for Capital Punishment –
- Deterrence Theory
Assumptions & three factors of an effective punishment
- Aware of punishments
- No outside factors
3 Factors (in order of most to least important)
- Certain, Swift, Severe
- Just Deserts model –an eyeforeye rule
Arguments Against Capital Punishment – Don't forget about the age old question of Why do we create brands?
Blacks and Hispanics executed in greater proportions than whites
White victims vs. Minority victims
- Executing the Innocent
The Innocence Project
Modern Use –
- 19 states plus DC do not have the death penalty
- CA, FL, TX, and AL hold more than half of all inmates on death row - It has been suspended in the past
Furman v. Georgia (1972)
Gregg v. Georgia (1976)
- The SC has placed limits on who can be executed