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UGA / Psychology / PSYC 3230 / What are the kinds of impulsivity?

What are the kinds of impulsivity?

What are the kinds of impulsivity?

Description

School: University of Georgia
Department: Psychology
Course: Abnormal Psychology
Professor: Cyterski
Term: Fall 2018
Tags:
Cost: 50
Name: PSYC Exam 4 Study Guide
Description: This is the study guide for the fourth exam of the course.
Uploaded: 11/22/2018
12 Pages 39 Views 10 Unlocks
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PSYC Exam 4 Study Guide


What are the kinds of impulsivity?



Personality disorders:  

• They have an onset in adolescence of early adulthood and tend to be lifelong.  • Bidel’s 3 P’s for distinguishing PDs from other disorders: 

o Persistent

o Pervasive  

o Pathological

• 3 clusters of PDs 

• Cluster A:  

o Paranoid PD: 

▪ Criteria: 

• They suspect without sufficient basis that others are exploiting,  

harming, or deceiving them.  

• They’re preoccupied with doubts about the loyalty of  


What is the importance of parental psychopathology?



Don't forget about the age old question of What is the function of the octet rule?

friends/associates

• They are reluctant to confide in others, because of unwarranted  

fear that the information will be used against them.

• They read threatening or demeaning meaning into benign  

comments

• They bear grudges and are unforgiving

• They perceive attacks on their character and are quick to act angrily

• They have unjustified recurrent suspicions about the fidelity of a  

spouse or sexual partner.  

o Schizoid PD: 

▪ Criteria: 

• Doesn’t desire or enjoy close relationships including within their  


What are the things required for diagnosis?



family.

• Almost always chooses solitary activities

• Has little if any interest in sexual experiences with another person

• Takes pleasure in few if any activities Don't forget about the age old question of How long does it take to conduct down axons?

• Lacks close friends and confidant, other than immediate family  

(who are still questionable

• Appears indifferent to praise of criticism

• Shows emotional coldness and detachment We also discuss several other topics like What happened in the furman vs georgia case?

o Schizotypal PD:  

▪ Criteria: 

• Ideas of reference – meaning in meaningless events If you want to learn more check out What is the function of aggregate production?

• Odd beliefs and magical thinking  

• Unusual perceptual experiences

• Odd thinking and speech

• Suspiciousness or paranoid ideation

• Inappropriate or constricted affect

• Behavior or appearance that is odd, eccentric or peculiar We also discuss several other topics like What is the power of the french monarchy?

• Lack of close friends/confidents other than immediate family

• Excessive social anxiety that doesn’t go away – more related to  suspiciousness than self-doubt

Cluster B: 

o Antisocial PD (APD): 

▪ Part A, B, and C: Don't forget about the age old question of Energy is the capacity to cause what?

• Part A: 

o Failure to conform to societal norms with respect to lawful  

behavior, and repeatedly doing things that could lead to  

arrest.

o Deceitfulness such as repeated lying, uses of aliases, or  

conning others for personal profit or pleasure.

o Impulsivity or failure to plan ahead

o Irritability/aggressiveness, including leading to fights or  

assaults

o Reckless disregard for safety of self/others – thrill seeking

o Consistent irresponsibility. Ex: failure to keep a job meet  

financial/ family responsibilities, not sustaining a  

relationship

o Lack of guilt or remorse as indicated by being indifferent or  

rationalizing having hurt,  

• Part B: 

o Person is at least 18 years of age.

• Part C: 

o There’s evidence that the person had conduct disorder  

before age 15.

▪ Study:  

• Results: over time APD people didn’t learn from the shock  

punishment as well as non-APD.  

▪ Another study: 

• Results: people with APD may be chronically under aroused and the  adrenaline brought them back to a functioning level of arousal.

• This does not say that adrenaline should be used as a treatment  method.  

▪ APD treatment: 

• No great one

o Borderline PD:  

▪ Criteria: 

• Frantic efforts to avoid real or imagined abandonment. They fear  being alone but are uncomfortable in relationships, because they  

worry a lot about abandonment

• Pattern of unstable and intense interpersonal relationship.  

Characterized by alternating extremes of idealization and  

devaluation. People for from being on a pedestal to being terrible =  

splitting

• Identity disturbance: they have unstable self-image and they  

frequently seek to identity with others.  

• Impulsivity in at least 2 areas that are potentially self-damaging  

such as reckless spending, binge eating, substance abuse, reckless  

or provocative sex.

• Recurrent suicidal behavior, gestures, threats, or self-mutilation.

o 10% with BPD commit suicide.  

• Affective instability and reactivity.

• Chronic feelings of emptiness

• Inappropriate or intense anger/ difficulty controlling which can lead  

to fights

• Occasional stress related paranoid ideation or even dissociated  

symptoms.  

Marsha Linehan and borderline PD:  

• She founded dialectical behavior therapy:

o Therapist is thought of as an ally rather than an advisory.  

o Treatment hierarchy: 

▪ Reduce self-injurious and suicidal behaviors

▪ Reduce behaviors that interfere with therapy

▪ Increase quality of life behaviors

o 4 main skills taught in DBT: 

▪ Mindfulness 

▪ Distress tolerance 

▪ Emotion regulation 

▪ Interpersonal effectiveness 

Narcissistic PD: 

• Criteria: 

o A grandeur sense of self importance

o Preoccupied with fantasies of their own unlimited success, power,  

brilliance, beauty, etc.

o They believe they are special or unique.

o They require excessive admiration

o They have a sense of entitlement

o Is interpersonally exploitive.  

o They lack empathy

o Is often envious of others

o Haughty and arrogant

Histrionic PD:

• Criteria: 

o They are uncomfortable in situations where they are not in the center of  attention

o They are often sexually seductive/provocative in their behavior

o They have rapidly shifting and shallow emotions

o Consistently use their physical appearance to draw attention to themselves. o Speech is lacking in detail

o Very dramatic and theatrical, may use dramatic/exaggerated expressions of  emotion.

o They are suggestible – easily influenced by others

o They consider relationships to be more intimate than they are

You’ll need to study cluster C personality disorders on your own 

Childhood Disorders: 

• Attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder: 

o Criteria: 

▪ Must have for 6 months

▪ Fails to pay close attention to details/makes careless mistakes

▪ Has difficulty sustaining attention to tasks/ play activities.

▪ Often does not seem to listen when spoken to

▪ Does not follow through on instructions

▪ Difficulty organizing tasks

▪ Avoids/dislikes tasks that require sustained mental effort such as reading,  math, schoolwork, and puzzles.

▪ Often loses thing necessary for completion of task

▪ Easily distracted

▪ Forgetful

• Hyperactivity/impulsivity: 

o Criteria for at least 6 months:  

▪ Fidgets, taps hands, squirms

▪ Often leaves seat

▪ Runs about or climbs when inappropriate

▪ Unable to play/do leisure activities quietly

▪ On the go/driven like a motor

▪ Talks excessively

o 2 kinds of impulsivity: 

▪ Cognitive 

▪ Behavioral:  

• Poorer prognosis

o Hyperactivity:  

▪ Specific marker for ADHD (inattentiveness seen in many other things, but  hyperactivity is closely related to ADHD)

o Associated features:

▪ Some are direct results of the disorder

▪ Some are indirect results of the disorder

▪ Some are due to comorbid conditions

▪ School: 

• Score lower on IQ tests than their sibling will

• Problems with academic functioning  

▪ Health: 

• Upper respiratory infections

• More bed wetting and bowl control problems and sleep problems.  ▪ Sexual behavior: 

• Increased

▪ Drugs: 

• More cigarette smoking and substance abuse

▪ Accidents: 

• ½ described as accident prone

• ½ children hospitalized with minor head injured by age 10  

diagnosed with ADHD

▪ Family problems: 

• Family interaction characterized by negativity, child non

compliance, high parental control, more sibling conflict.  

▪ Peer problems:  

• Display little give and take cooperation

• Often intrusive, inappropriate, intense, aggressive, disorganized,  and as a result have few friends.  

▪ Comorbidity: 

• 50% of kids with ADHD could be diagnosed with ODD by age 7 • 30-50% of kids develop CD

• Learning disorders

• 15-25% have anxiety and depression

• 50% of people with Tourette’s have ADHD

o ADHD symptoms are more likely when: 

▪ The child is tired  

▪ The task is complex and requires organizational strategies

▪ There is low immediate feedback  

▪ When there’s not supervision

▪ When the parent is distracted

▪ In public places

• Possibly because there are a lot of novel and interesting things o ADHD symptoms are less like when: 

▪ There is unstructured free play

▪ There are novel and unfamiliar circumstances

▪ During activities that do not require persistence.  

o Prevalence:

▪ 3-5% children  

▪ 4-5x more likely in boys

▪ More likely in children part of lower SES groups

o Course: 

▪ 25-50% outgrow symptoms

▪ 50% persist into adulthood

o Predictors of negative outcome: 

▪ Low IQ

▪ Number of symptoms  

▪ Comorbid conditions

▪ Aggression

▪ Parental psychopathology

▪ Poor discipline practices

o Etiology: 

▪ Genetic contribution: 

• If one person in family has it then there is a 35% chance of  

another having it

• 70% chance if twins

o Treatment: 

▪ Behavior therapy: 

• Parent training and behavioral management in schools

• Central nervous system (CNS) stimulant medication: 

o The least expensive and essential treatment

o 80% improve with medicine

o Side effects can be reduced by adjusting dosage and giving  

medication holidays

• Combination of 1 & 2: 

o The best treatment is the combination of behavioral  

therapy and the medication.  

• Oppositional defiant disorder (ODD): 

o Criteria: 

▪ Often loses temper

▪ Touchy or easily annoyed

▪ Angry or resentful

▪ Argue with authority figures

▪ Actively defies or refuses to comply with rules or requests from authority  figures

▪ Deliberately annoys people

▪ Blames other for his/her behavior

▪ Vindictive or spiteful at least twice in the last 6 months.  

Conduct Disorder: 

• A repetitive and persistent behavior in which the basic right of others or major age appropriate societal norms or rule are violated

• Aggression to people and animals, destruction of property, deceitfulness or theft,  serious violation of rules (even disobeying parents)

• Fire setting has an association with bad prognosis

• Terminology: 

o Delinquent = a legal term

o Status offenses:  

▪ Acts committed by youth that would not be illegal from an adult

o Index offenses: 

• Under socialized/solidary aggressive type: 

o Do CD behaviors on their own

o More assaultive/aggressive

• Socialized/group delinquency type: 

o Better prognosis  

• ODD and CD might be the same thing

o Heterotypic continuity: 

▪ ODD, CD, and APD

▪ Even though you move between the 3, the tendency toward CD stays the  same

• Etiology: 

o Neurobiological theory (2 parts): 

▪ Behavioral inhibition system:

• Reduces anxiety and inhibits song sing behavior

• Acts like the superego

▪ Behavioral activation system: 

• Associated with reward and non-punishment

• Encourages behavior

• Acts like the id

▪ Normal = there’s a balance between the two parts

▪ Antisocial = is heavier on the activation side

▪ Anxious/depressed = is heaver on the inhibition side

o Parental psychopathology (in particular APD): 

▪ More parental negativity/divorce

▪ Low supervision levels

▪ Coercive behaviors are used in the homes of people with CD

• Such as threats/something unpleasant to make someone do what  you want

▪ The kids/parents do these more

▪ They are modeled and reinforced = Patterson’s coercion hypothesis ▪ Living in bad neighborhood

▪ TV violence association

• Treatment: 

o ODD – there are evidence-based treatments

▪ Behavioral parent training:

• Steps: 

o 1.) special time: 

▪ 5 minutes of child directed interaction

▪ Child picks the activity to do with the parent

▪ Don’t do: command, question, or criticize

▪ Aimed at building a positive relationship

▪ Do: praise, reflect, imitate, describe, show  

enthusiasm

o 2.) ignoring/extinction: 

▪ Working toward decreasing undesired behaviors

o 3.) giving commands: 

▪ Good commands: direct, positively stated (“do  

this” not “don’t do that”), one issue at a time, age  

appropriate, only happens when necessary

o 4.) praise/catch them being good 

o 5.) time out 

o APD: non-treatable

Intellectual disability: 

• Formerly mental retardation

• 2 things required for diagnosis: 

o Significantly sub average intellectual functioning

o Concurrent deficits in present adaptive functioning deficiencies in at least 2  areas

o Onset before age 18  

• Normal IQ curve: 

o 100 = the mean

o 70 = 2 standard deviations below the mean

o 4 levels: 

▪ Mild: IQ of 50 or 55 to 70  

▪ Moderate: 35-40 to 50-55

▪ Severe: 20-25 to 35-40

▪ Profound: <20 or 25

Elimination disorders: 

• Enuresis: 

o Repeated voiding of urine into bed/clothes whether voluntary or not o Frequency of 2x a week for 2 months of causes clinically significant distress o At least 5 years of age or equivalent developmental level

o Categories: 

▪ Nocturnal: happens at night/during sleep

▪ Diurnal: happens during daytime/waking hours

▪ Or a combination of the two  

▪ Primary: never obtained full bladder control

• Most are this case

▪ Secondary: had control “urinary continence” but relapsed and lost it

o Spontaneous remission: treatment = as age increases the rate of the disorder  decreases

o Treatments: 

▪ Medical: 

• Helps 43% of cases

▪ Behavioral treatment: 

• Bell and pad or urine alarm 

• Encopresis: 

o Repeated passage of feces in inappropriate places that’s voluntary or not o At least 1 time a month for 3 months

o 4 years of age

o With constipation and overflow incontinence: 

▪ Requires a medical exam for diagnosis

o Etiology: 

▪ Constipation is a huge factor

▪ It was painful for them to have a bowel movement, so they learn to hold  it = “feces hoarders” / avoidance driven.

▪ Peristalsis = moving the food down by muscle restriction = stretching  causes the signal to go but if you hoard the food then there’s a fecal mass  that’s already stretching the receptors which leads to over flow  

incontinence.

• This means that you would have to clean out the person by an  

edema/mineral water/ lubricant to shrine the receptors back to  

normal

• Then you would work on a toilet schedule, fiber/liquid, and  

rewards.

Eating disorder: 

• Anorexia nervosa: 

o Defining features: 

▪ Criterion A: 

• Restriction of energy intake leading to significantly low body  

weight

▪ Criterion B: 

• Intense fear of gaining weight/ becoming fat

▪ Criterion C: 

• Skewed self-image

o 2 subtypes: 

▪ Restricting calorie type

▪ Binge eat/purge type

o Associated features:

▪ Prevalence: 

• .4-4% females in western society and there is less around  

everywhere else of the world

• F>M 10:1  

▪ Amenorrhea: loss of menstruation

▪ Many die of this disorder

• 5% more likely to commit suicide

o Risk Factors: 

▪ Temperamental/psychological: 

• Anxiety disorder or obsessional traits in childhood

▪ Environmental: 

• Cultures and setting in which thinness is values

▪ Genetic factors 

• Bulimia nervosa: 

o Defining features: 

▪ Recurrent episodes of binge eating  

▪ Recurrent inappropriate compensatory behaviors in order to prevent  weight gain

▪ Binge and purging occur at least once a week for 3 months

Associated features: 

▪ Prevalence: 

• 1-1.5% F in western society

• 10:1 F:M ratio

▪ Onset: 

• Peak at 18 years adolescence to young adult

• Within normal to over-weight range

• Medical consequences

▪ Comorbidity: 

• Depression, anxiety, substance abuse, and BPD

• People die from this

• Lasts years without treatment

• The weight factor differentiates this from anorexia

o Risk factors: 

▪ Temperament/psychological: 

• Weight concerns, lower self-esteem, depressive symptoms, and  anxiety disorders in childhood

▪ Environmental: 

• Internalization of thin body ideal

• Childhood abuse

• Primarily affect women in western culture

• dieting

▪ Genetics: 

• Childhood obesity

• Early puberty

• Binge-eating disorder: 

o Defining features: 

▪ Recurrent episodes of binge eating  

▪ No inappropriate compensatory behaviors

▪ Marked distress regarding binge eating

▪ Once a week for 3 months

o Associated Features: 

▪ 1.6% F, .8% M

▪ Individuals are often overweight

o Comorbidity: 

▪ Bipolar, depression, anxiety, substance abuse

o Risk factors: 

▪ Temperament/psychological: 

• Feeling negative about one self/skills/accomplishments

• Stress, poor body image, food availability, and boredom.  

▪ Environmental: 

• Dieting that isn’t severe or restrictive

▪ Genetic: 

• Not clear how, but it runs in families

• Treatment: 

o Anorexia nervosa: 

▪ Weight restoration 

▪ Psychoeducation: 

• Tell them about their disorder

▪ Behavioral/cognitive interventions: 

• CBT 

o Bulimia nervosa: 

▪ Medications: 

• Antidepressants

▪ Psychological treatment: 

• Dialectical behavior therapy

• CBT: 

o The best treatment

o Binge-eating disorder: 

▪ Medication: 

• Appetite suppressants

▪ Psychological treatment: 

• CBT

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