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UGA / Psychology / PSYC 3230 / What are the kinds of impulsivity?

What are the kinds of impulsivity?

What are the kinds of impulsivity?


School: University of Georgia
Department: Psychology
Course: Abnormal Psychology
Professor: Cyterski
Term: Fall 2018
Cost: 50
Name: PSYC Exam 4 Study Guide
Description: This is the study guide for the fourth exam of the course.
Uploaded: 11/22/2018
12 Pages 39 Views 10 Unlocks

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PSYC Exam 4 Study Guide

What are the kinds of impulsivity?

Personality disorders:  

• They have an onset in adolescence of early adulthood and tend to be lifelong.  • Bidel’s 3 P’s for distinguishing PDs from other disorders: 

o Persistent

o Pervasive  

o Pathological

• 3 clusters of PDs 

• Cluster A:  

o Paranoid PD: 

▪ Criteria: 

• They suspect without sufficient basis that others are exploiting,  

harming, or deceiving them.  

• They’re preoccupied with doubts about the loyalty of  

What is the importance of parental psychopathology?

Don't forget about the age old question of What is the function of the octet rule?


• They are reluctant to confide in others, because of unwarranted  

fear that the information will be used against them.

• They read threatening or demeaning meaning into benign  


• They bear grudges and are unforgiving

• They perceive attacks on their character and are quick to act angrily

• They have unjustified recurrent suspicions about the fidelity of a  

spouse or sexual partner.  

o Schizoid PD: 

▪ Criteria: 

• Doesn’t desire or enjoy close relationships including within their  

What are the things required for diagnosis?


• Almost always chooses solitary activities

• Has little if any interest in sexual experiences with another person

• Takes pleasure in few if any activities Don't forget about the age old question of How long does it take to conduct down axons?

• Lacks close friends and confidant, other than immediate family  

(who are still questionable

• Appears indifferent to praise of criticism

• Shows emotional coldness and detachment We also discuss several other topics like What happened in the furman vs georgia case?

o Schizotypal PD:  

▪ Criteria: 

• Ideas of reference – meaning in meaningless events If you want to learn more check out What is the function of aggregate production?

• Odd beliefs and magical thinking  

• Unusual perceptual experiences

• Odd thinking and speech

• Suspiciousness or paranoid ideation

• Inappropriate or constricted affect

• Behavior or appearance that is odd, eccentric or peculiar We also discuss several other topics like What is the power of the french monarchy?

• Lack of close friends/confidents other than immediate family

• Excessive social anxiety that doesn’t go away – more related to  suspiciousness than self-doubt

Cluster B: 

o Antisocial PD (APD): 

▪ Part A, B, and C: Don't forget about the age old question of Energy is the capacity to cause what?

• Part A: 

o Failure to conform to societal norms with respect to lawful  

behavior, and repeatedly doing things that could lead to  


o Deceitfulness such as repeated lying, uses of aliases, or  

conning others for personal profit or pleasure.

o Impulsivity or failure to plan ahead

o Irritability/aggressiveness, including leading to fights or  


o Reckless disregard for safety of self/others – thrill seeking

o Consistent irresponsibility. Ex: failure to keep a job meet  

financial/ family responsibilities, not sustaining a  


o Lack of guilt or remorse as indicated by being indifferent or  

rationalizing having hurt,  

• Part B: 

o Person is at least 18 years of age.

• Part C: 

o There’s evidence that the person had conduct disorder  

before age 15.

▪ Study:  

• Results: over time APD people didn’t learn from the shock  

punishment as well as non-APD.  

▪ Another study: 

• Results: people with APD may be chronically under aroused and the  adrenaline brought them back to a functioning level of arousal.

• This does not say that adrenaline should be used as a treatment  method.  

▪ APD treatment: 

• No great one

o Borderline PD:  

▪ Criteria: 

• Frantic efforts to avoid real or imagined abandonment. They fear  being alone but are uncomfortable in relationships, because they  

worry a lot about abandonment

• Pattern of unstable and intense interpersonal relationship.  

Characterized by alternating extremes of idealization and  

devaluation. People for from being on a pedestal to being terrible =  


• Identity disturbance: they have unstable self-image and they  

frequently seek to identity with others.  

• Impulsivity in at least 2 areas that are potentially self-damaging  

such as reckless spending, binge eating, substance abuse, reckless  

or provocative sex.

• Recurrent suicidal behavior, gestures, threats, or self-mutilation.

o 10% with BPD commit suicide.  

• Affective instability and reactivity.

• Chronic feelings of emptiness

• Inappropriate or intense anger/ difficulty controlling which can lead  

to fights

• Occasional stress related paranoid ideation or even dissociated  


Marsha Linehan and borderline PD:  

• She founded dialectical behavior therapy:

o Therapist is thought of as an ally rather than an advisory.  

o Treatment hierarchy: 

▪ Reduce self-injurious and suicidal behaviors

▪ Reduce behaviors that interfere with therapy

▪ Increase quality of life behaviors

o 4 main skills taught in DBT: 

▪ Mindfulness 

▪ Distress tolerance 

▪ Emotion regulation 

▪ Interpersonal effectiveness 

Narcissistic PD: 

• Criteria: 

o A grandeur sense of self importance

o Preoccupied with fantasies of their own unlimited success, power,  

brilliance, beauty, etc.

o They believe they are special or unique.

o They require excessive admiration

o They have a sense of entitlement

o Is interpersonally exploitive.  

o They lack empathy

o Is often envious of others

o Haughty and arrogant

Histrionic PD:

• Criteria: 

o They are uncomfortable in situations where they are not in the center of  attention

o They are often sexually seductive/provocative in their behavior

o They have rapidly shifting and shallow emotions

o Consistently use their physical appearance to draw attention to themselves. o Speech is lacking in detail

o Very dramatic and theatrical, may use dramatic/exaggerated expressions of  emotion.

o They are suggestible – easily influenced by others

o They consider relationships to be more intimate than they are

You’ll need to study cluster C personality disorders on your own 

Childhood Disorders: 

• Attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder: 

o Criteria: 

▪ Must have for 6 months

▪ Fails to pay close attention to details/makes careless mistakes

▪ Has difficulty sustaining attention to tasks/ play activities.

▪ Often does not seem to listen when spoken to

▪ Does not follow through on instructions

▪ Difficulty organizing tasks

▪ Avoids/dislikes tasks that require sustained mental effort such as reading,  math, schoolwork, and puzzles.

▪ Often loses thing necessary for completion of task

▪ Easily distracted

▪ Forgetful

• Hyperactivity/impulsivity: 

o Criteria for at least 6 months:  

▪ Fidgets, taps hands, squirms

▪ Often leaves seat

▪ Runs about or climbs when inappropriate

▪ Unable to play/do leisure activities quietly

▪ On the go/driven like a motor

▪ Talks excessively

o 2 kinds of impulsivity: 

▪ Cognitive 

▪ Behavioral:  

• Poorer prognosis

o Hyperactivity:  

▪ Specific marker for ADHD (inattentiveness seen in many other things, but  hyperactivity is closely related to ADHD)

o Associated features:

▪ Some are direct results of the disorder

▪ Some are indirect results of the disorder

▪ Some are due to comorbid conditions

▪ School: 

• Score lower on IQ tests than their sibling will

• Problems with academic functioning  

▪ Health: 

• Upper respiratory infections

• More bed wetting and bowl control problems and sleep problems.  ▪ Sexual behavior: 

• Increased

▪ Drugs: 

• More cigarette smoking and substance abuse

▪ Accidents: 

• ½ described as accident prone

• ½ children hospitalized with minor head injured by age 10  

diagnosed with ADHD

▪ Family problems: 

• Family interaction characterized by negativity, child non

compliance, high parental control, more sibling conflict.  

▪ Peer problems:  

• Display little give and take cooperation

• Often intrusive, inappropriate, intense, aggressive, disorganized,  and as a result have few friends.  

▪ Comorbidity: 

• 50% of kids with ADHD could be diagnosed with ODD by age 7 • 30-50% of kids develop CD

• Learning disorders

• 15-25% have anxiety and depression

• 50% of people with Tourette’s have ADHD

o ADHD symptoms are more likely when: 

▪ The child is tired  

▪ The task is complex and requires organizational strategies

▪ There is low immediate feedback  

▪ When there’s not supervision

▪ When the parent is distracted

▪ In public places

• Possibly because there are a lot of novel and interesting things o ADHD symptoms are less like when: 

▪ There is unstructured free play

▪ There are novel and unfamiliar circumstances

▪ During activities that do not require persistence.  

o Prevalence:

▪ 3-5% children  

▪ 4-5x more likely in boys

▪ More likely in children part of lower SES groups

o Course: 

▪ 25-50% outgrow symptoms

▪ 50% persist into adulthood

o Predictors of negative outcome: 

▪ Low IQ

▪ Number of symptoms  

▪ Comorbid conditions

▪ Aggression

▪ Parental psychopathology

▪ Poor discipline practices

o Etiology: 

▪ Genetic contribution: 

• If one person in family has it then there is a 35% chance of  

another having it

• 70% chance if twins

o Treatment: 

▪ Behavior therapy: 

• Parent training and behavioral management in schools

• Central nervous system (CNS) stimulant medication: 

o The least expensive and essential treatment

o 80% improve with medicine

o Side effects can be reduced by adjusting dosage and giving  

medication holidays

• Combination of 1 & 2: 

o The best treatment is the combination of behavioral  

therapy and the medication.  

• Oppositional defiant disorder (ODD): 

o Criteria: 

▪ Often loses temper

▪ Touchy or easily annoyed

▪ Angry or resentful

▪ Argue with authority figures

▪ Actively defies or refuses to comply with rules or requests from authority  figures

▪ Deliberately annoys people

▪ Blames other for his/her behavior

▪ Vindictive or spiteful at least twice in the last 6 months.  

Conduct Disorder: 

• A repetitive and persistent behavior in which the basic right of others or major age appropriate societal norms or rule are violated

• Aggression to people and animals, destruction of property, deceitfulness or theft,  serious violation of rules (even disobeying parents)

• Fire setting has an association with bad prognosis

• Terminology: 

o Delinquent = a legal term

o Status offenses:  

▪ Acts committed by youth that would not be illegal from an adult

o Index offenses: 

• Under socialized/solidary aggressive type: 

o Do CD behaviors on their own

o More assaultive/aggressive

• Socialized/group delinquency type: 

o Better prognosis  

• ODD and CD might be the same thing

o Heterotypic continuity: 

▪ ODD, CD, and APD

▪ Even though you move between the 3, the tendency toward CD stays the  same

• Etiology: 

o Neurobiological theory (2 parts): 

▪ Behavioral inhibition system:

• Reduces anxiety and inhibits song sing behavior

• Acts like the superego

▪ Behavioral activation system: 

• Associated with reward and non-punishment

• Encourages behavior

• Acts like the id

▪ Normal = there’s a balance between the two parts

▪ Antisocial = is heavier on the activation side

▪ Anxious/depressed = is heaver on the inhibition side

o Parental psychopathology (in particular APD): 

▪ More parental negativity/divorce

▪ Low supervision levels

▪ Coercive behaviors are used in the homes of people with CD

• Such as threats/something unpleasant to make someone do what  you want

▪ The kids/parents do these more

▪ They are modeled and reinforced = Patterson’s coercion hypothesis ▪ Living in bad neighborhood

▪ TV violence association

• Treatment: 

o ODD – there are evidence-based treatments

▪ Behavioral parent training:

• Steps: 

o 1.) special time: 

▪ 5 minutes of child directed interaction

▪ Child picks the activity to do with the parent

▪ Don’t do: command, question, or criticize

▪ Aimed at building a positive relationship

▪ Do: praise, reflect, imitate, describe, show  


o 2.) ignoring/extinction: 

▪ Working toward decreasing undesired behaviors

o 3.) giving commands: 

▪ Good commands: direct, positively stated (“do  

this” not “don’t do that”), one issue at a time, age  

appropriate, only happens when necessary

o 4.) praise/catch them being good 

o 5.) time out 

o APD: non-treatable

Intellectual disability: 

• Formerly mental retardation

• 2 things required for diagnosis: 

o Significantly sub average intellectual functioning

o Concurrent deficits in present adaptive functioning deficiencies in at least 2  areas

o Onset before age 18  

• Normal IQ curve: 

o 100 = the mean

o 70 = 2 standard deviations below the mean

o 4 levels: 

▪ Mild: IQ of 50 or 55 to 70  

▪ Moderate: 35-40 to 50-55

▪ Severe: 20-25 to 35-40

▪ Profound: <20 or 25

Elimination disorders: 

• Enuresis: 

o Repeated voiding of urine into bed/clothes whether voluntary or not o Frequency of 2x a week for 2 months of causes clinically significant distress o At least 5 years of age or equivalent developmental level

o Categories: 

▪ Nocturnal: happens at night/during sleep

▪ Diurnal: happens during daytime/waking hours

▪ Or a combination of the two  

▪ Primary: never obtained full bladder control

• Most are this case

▪ Secondary: had control “urinary continence” but relapsed and lost it

o Spontaneous remission: treatment = as age increases the rate of the disorder  decreases

o Treatments: 

▪ Medical: 

• Helps 43% of cases

▪ Behavioral treatment: 

• Bell and pad or urine alarm 

• Encopresis: 

o Repeated passage of feces in inappropriate places that’s voluntary or not o At least 1 time a month for 3 months

o 4 years of age

o With constipation and overflow incontinence: 

▪ Requires a medical exam for diagnosis

o Etiology: 

▪ Constipation is a huge factor

▪ It was painful for them to have a bowel movement, so they learn to hold  it = “feces hoarders” / avoidance driven.

▪ Peristalsis = moving the food down by muscle restriction = stretching  causes the signal to go but if you hoard the food then there’s a fecal mass  that’s already stretching the receptors which leads to over flow  


• This means that you would have to clean out the person by an  

edema/mineral water/ lubricant to shrine the receptors back to  


• Then you would work on a toilet schedule, fiber/liquid, and  


Eating disorder: 

• Anorexia nervosa: 

o Defining features: 

▪ Criterion A: 

• Restriction of energy intake leading to significantly low body  


▪ Criterion B: 

• Intense fear of gaining weight/ becoming fat

▪ Criterion C: 

• Skewed self-image

o 2 subtypes: 

▪ Restricting calorie type

▪ Binge eat/purge type

o Associated features:

▪ Prevalence: 

• .4-4% females in western society and there is less around  

everywhere else of the world

• F>M 10:1  

▪ Amenorrhea: loss of menstruation

▪ Many die of this disorder

• 5% more likely to commit suicide

o Risk Factors: 

▪ Temperamental/psychological: 

• Anxiety disorder or obsessional traits in childhood

▪ Environmental: 

• Cultures and setting in which thinness is values

▪ Genetic factors 

• Bulimia nervosa: 

o Defining features: 

▪ Recurrent episodes of binge eating  

▪ Recurrent inappropriate compensatory behaviors in order to prevent  weight gain

▪ Binge and purging occur at least once a week for 3 months

Associated features: 

▪ Prevalence: 

• 1-1.5% F in western society

• 10:1 F:M ratio

▪ Onset: 

• Peak at 18 years adolescence to young adult

• Within normal to over-weight range

• Medical consequences

▪ Comorbidity: 

• Depression, anxiety, substance abuse, and BPD

• People die from this

• Lasts years without treatment

• The weight factor differentiates this from anorexia

o Risk factors: 

▪ Temperament/psychological: 

• Weight concerns, lower self-esteem, depressive symptoms, and  anxiety disorders in childhood

▪ Environmental: 

• Internalization of thin body ideal

• Childhood abuse

• Primarily affect women in western culture

• dieting

▪ Genetics: 

• Childhood obesity

• Early puberty

• Binge-eating disorder: 

o Defining features: 

▪ Recurrent episodes of binge eating  

▪ No inappropriate compensatory behaviors

▪ Marked distress regarding binge eating

▪ Once a week for 3 months

o Associated Features: 

▪ 1.6% F, .8% M

▪ Individuals are often overweight

o Comorbidity: 

▪ Bipolar, depression, anxiety, substance abuse

o Risk factors: 

▪ Temperament/psychological: 

• Feeling negative about one self/skills/accomplishments

• Stress, poor body image, food availability, and boredom.  

▪ Environmental: 

• Dieting that isn’t severe or restrictive

▪ Genetic: 

• Not clear how, but it runs in families

• Treatment: 

o Anorexia nervosa: 

▪ Weight restoration 

▪ Psychoeducation: 

• Tell them about their disorder

▪ Behavioral/cognitive interventions: 

• CBT 

o Bulimia nervosa: 

▪ Medications: 

• Antidepressants

▪ Psychological treatment: 

• Dialectical behavior therapy

• CBT: 

o The best treatment

o Binge-eating disorder: 

▪ Medication: 

• Appetite suppressants

▪ Psychological treatment: 


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