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UCONN - PNB 2264 - Class Notes - Week 11

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UCONN - PNB 2264 - Class Notes - Week 11

School: University of Connecticut
Department: Physiology
Course: Human Physiology and Anatomy
Professor: Kristen Kimball
Term: Fall 2018
Tags:
Name: PNB 2264 Week 11 notes
Description: The notes cover slide content as well as in class discussion.
Uploaded: 11/26/2018
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background image PNB 2264 The Lateralized Brain Speech/Language, Stroke and Split Brain Research  Learning Objectives List the functions that are lateralized to right and left hemisphere. Describe receptive and expressive aphasia Describe hemi-neglect  Relate lateralized brain functions to deficits seen in left and right CVA
(stroke)
I. Introduction A.  Localization of brain functions 1. Correlation of lobes with function 2. Motor/sensory control of the body is such that one hemisphere  (e.g., left) controls contralateral side of the body (e.g., right). B. The two cerebral hemispheres are not mirrors of each other. 1. Examples of lateralized functions 2. Cerebral dominance and “handedness” For most people, the left hemisphere is dominant, the person is 
right-handed, and speech is contained in the left hemisphere.
Some left handed people (who as a whole make up about 10% of
the population) are truly right-cerebral dominant.  Most, 
however, still contain speech functions in the left hemisphere. II. Neurobiology of speech and language. A. “History” 1.  First noted in 1800s that the ability to produce/understand speech  resided in the left hemisphere. Broca: discovered that an area in the left posterior frontal lobe 
controls the ability to produce speech, and that lesions to this area 
result in expressive aphasia - the inability to express thoughts in 
either written or spoken language.  Also noted: in most people, this  function is in the left hemisphere.    Wernicke:  discovered the area in the temporal lobe that controls 
comprehension of speech; lesions here produce receptive aphasia - 
the inability to understand the spoken (or written) word. This function is usually lateralized to the left hemisphere also.   III. Some lateralized functions in the brain. A. Left hemisphere 1. Ability to understand and produce speech, reading, and writing. 2. “Logical, analytical, rational”.  Can “analyze” a face, e.g., by  determining whether or not it has particular features:  glasses, small/large  nose, etc. 3. Verbal memories. 4. “Western” thought - “lawyers”.
background image PNB 2264 The Lateralized Brain 5. With damage, there is receptive and/or expressive aphasia.   B. Right hemisphere 1. Creative, “gestalt”, intuitive, non-verbal.  “Eastern” thought;  “artists”. 2. Visuo-spatial; 2D and 3D form matching.  Both #1 and #2  contribute to the right hemisphere’s ability to “recognize” a face  immediately. 3. Music:  people who have severe speech disturbances due to left  hemisphere injury often can sing. 4. Role in speech/language:  “Affective” or emotional speech; the  ability to interpret body  language, facial expression, gestures, etc. 5. With damage:  agnosia (disturbance in recognition/perception of  familiar information), neglect of affected side, aprosodia (loss of “tone” -  expressive quality of voice), deficit in non-syntactical processing of  language. IV. Cerebrovascular Accident (CVA or “Stroke”) A. Cerebrovascular Accident (CVA) 1. The classic CVA site is the middle cerebral artery (slides 6-8),  which branches off the internal carotid artery, runs in the lateral fissure,  and serves the lateral temporal and parietal lobes. A thrombosis (clot) or  bleed in this region will affect the internal capsule, which is a major  location for projection fibers running to and from the cerebral cortex.  The  result:  a classic left or right hemiplegia (“half-paralysis”), on the  contralateral (opposite) side of the brain lesion. 2.  Typically, a right CVA produces left hemiplegia. The patient retains speech and language functions, but may display aprosodia (loss of  expressive quality of the voice) as well as “neglect” of the affected side.  Left hemiplegics (right CVA) may show pathological lack of concern for  their disability. 3. A left CVA will produce right hemiplegia, and aphasia.   Interestingly, such patients may retain a high degree of ability to interpret  speech based upon “non-verbal” cues: those conveyed by body language,  tone, timing of words, etc. Right hemiplegics (left CVA) typically are  exceptionally upset about symptoms. Case 1: Hemi­inattention (Right CVA/ Left Hemiplegia)
Mrs. C recently had a stroke which affected the left side of her body; she can no longer use her 
left arm, but because the right side of her brain is involved, her speech is intact. Language, of  course, is largely represented in the left side of the brain, which controls the right side of the  body. She knows she has had what her doctor euphemistically calls a cerebro­vascular accident,  but is surprisingly unconcerned by it. Indeed she is quite anosognosic, which blandly, and 

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School: University of Connecticut
Department: Physiology
Course: Human Physiology and Anatomy
Professor: Kristen Kimball
Term: Fall 2018
Tags:
Name: PNB 2264 Week 11 notes
Description: The notes cover slide content as well as in class discussion.
Uploaded: 11/26/2018
3 Pages 44 Views 35 Unlocks
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