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UF / Applied Kinesiology / APK 2100C / What are the 3 layers of the pericardium?

What are the 3 layers of the pericardium?

What are the 3 layers of the pericardium?


School: University of Florida
Department: Applied Kinesiology
Course: Applied Human Anatomy with Laboratory
Professor: Joslyn ahlgren
Term: Fall 2018
Tags: Heart, Respiratory, vessels, and digestive
Cost: 50
Name: APK2100C Exam 4 Study Guide
Description: Students will be tested on the material on this study guide
Uploaded: 11/26/2018
9 Pages 139 Views 4 Unlocks


What are the 3 layers of the pericardium?


∙ Right chamber receives blood (less oxygenated) ∙ Veins go into right atrium then to the ventricle then to  the pulmonary vessels to feed lungs  

∙ Left side of heart is systemic  

o Blood from right ventricle goes to lungs which is not far so right ventricle does not need as much as left o Blood from left ventricle goes everywhere else in  body so there needs to be a thicker wall  

• Heart is covered with pericardium which has 3 layers:

1. Fibrous pericardium: outer most coving of  

pericardium that connects heart to surrounding  structures Don't forget about the age old question of How does the loanable funds market work?

2. Parietal pericardium – adheres to the inner  

What is the function of the lumen in blood vessels?

surface of the fibrous pericardium

a. Parietal layer lines the pericardial cavity  

contains serous fluid to reduce friction when  

contrasting blood and getting squeezed by  

lungs on both side

3. Visceral pericardium – aka epicardium: serous  membrane so it has 2 layers (visceral layer which touches organ and parietal layer)

• Atria – receiving chambers

o Atria walls are thin compared to ventricle walls as  they don’t do a lot of pumping

• Ventricles – pumping chambers so they need to be larger

∙ Pectinate Muscles: lining of front wall has straight  looking ridges; originate on CT

Where are the 3 types of capillaries found?

∙ Crista Terminalis: Ridge that extends from inside of side  wall from right atrium; wrapped by pectinate muscles We also discuss several other topics like What are the 2 types of second messenger systems?

∙ Fossa Ovalis: oval structure that use to be the foramen  ovale; closes and gets smaller the bigger you get as a  fetus (allows you to oxygenate properly) when you are  born, it closes up so you can use right side of heart to  send blood when you grow older We also discuss several other topics like Why are people messed up if assumptions are true?

∙ Trabeculae Carneae: “beams of meat” Don't forget about the age old question of How to distinguish bible’s religious and moral teachings from ancient cultural conventions?

∙ Papillary Muscles: “nipple like” that are attached to  Chordae Tendineae

∙ Chordae Tendineae: “heart strings” which are attached  to lower edges of AV Valves

∙ AV Values: floppy; not stiffy; Connective tissue type of  structure; when closed they prevent blood from going  back to the atrium from ventricles We also discuss several other topics like What are the 5 types of mining?

 Right side has tri-cusp and left side has bi-cusp (mitro valve)

∙ Semilunar Valves: are cartilaginous; tough shaped  nature; each have 3 halfmoon shaped cusps; when  closed prevent blood from going back down into heart  form arteries


•Blood flows out of the heart through arteries to smaller and smaller arteries until the blood reaches the capillaries (smallest but most abundant blood vessels) of the organs. It then flows out of capillaries, into small veins, and moves into larger and larger veins as it returns to the heart.

Lumen of Vessel:

∙ Tunica Intima: deepest layer; endothelium; simple  squamous epithelium; present in arteries, veins, and  capillaries  

∙ Tunica Media: circularly arranged smooth muscle; thicker in arteries (stronger contractile and stretchiness)  compared to veins so lumen gets smaller which slows  down blood flow  

∙ Tunica Externa: connective tissue (especially in veins)  protect thin wall structure and attach vessels to  whatever they are alongside  

Lumen in the vein is much larger because it is a storage for extra blood  

***Veins have venous valves which arteries don’t have; function like semilunar valves

• Pulmonary arteries come from pulmonary trunk which receives blood from right ventricle which receives bloodDon't forget about the age old question of Why did humans begin to write?

from right atrium which receives blood from the inferior vena cava, the superior vena cava, and the coronary sinus which bring back poorly oxygenated blood  

Three Types of Capillaries:  

1. Continuous: most common; least permeable

2. Sinusoid: longer/larger

∙ Rather “snaky”; weaves through whatever they travel between

∙ Huge intercellular clefts and fenestrations

∙ Found in places where larger things such as whole cells are transported

3. Fenestrated: Have “swiss cheese holes” which are windows through the cell to allow faster movement of substances in or out

• Found where smaller things such as micronutrients are transported  

• Ex: intestines and kidneys  

***Capillaries associated with brain and spinal cord are not leaky, so they do not have intercellular clefts

Hepatic Portal Circulation: Allows blood from digestive organs to be sent to liver before it gets sent to inferior vena cava

• clean blood is put back into inferior vena cava through hepatic veins


• Conduction Zone: organs that transport air to places in  the body where gas exchange occurs; gas exchange  DOES NOT occur here  

• Respiratory Zone: organs that DO participate in gas  exchange; contains alveoli  

External nose: Only external part of the respiratory system

Nasal Conchae Function: provide air turbulence which  helps prevent infection

***All respiratory structures BUT the epiglottis are made of  hyaline cartilage

The Pharynx:

Nasopharynx: -Begins at internal nares to the uvula-

∙ used ONLY for respiratory system

∙ lined with pseudostratified columnar epithelium Oropharynx: -Uvula to region of epiglottis-

∙ used for both air movement and food and beverage  movement

∙   DO NOT WANT simple epithelium here, we want  STRATIFIED for protection from foods and drinks, so we  have nonkeratinized stratified squamous epithelium

Laryngopharynx: -Epiglottis to esophagus-  

∙ used for both air movement and food and beverage  movement

∙ lined with nonkeratinized stratified squamous epithelium like the esophagus (lots of layers for protection)

The Tonsils: Immune Structures  

Palatine tonsils: placed in faces which are double arch way structures that form lateral walls of oropharynx  

Pharyngeal tonsil: Posterior superior wall of nasopharynx

First place in respiratory tract we see a complete ring of  cartilage in cricoid cartilage of larynx  

▪ After that, we see incomplete cartilages of trachea which  bifurcates to become the primary bronchi which has complete rings

▪ Now we see plates of cartilage rather than rings of cartilage  • These get smaller and thinner the closer we get to the  respiratory zone  

• Until we get to bronchioles which has NO CARTILAGE which  means we can have a collapsed airway  

Mucous membrane gets progressively thinner by the time we get to the bronchioles which means NO MORE MUCOUS is being produced in this region, but you do still have cilia present

• Alveoli is needed to facilitate fast gas exchange which  means we need a lot of surface area 

Alveoli prevent lungs from collapsing


GI TRACT: aka Alomenary Canal  

2 ways to move things:

1. Voluntary movement (swallowing)

2. Below 2/3 of esophagus is involuntary movement such as peristalsis (aka compulsion)

∙ Top third is skeletal muscle for swallowing  


∙ Middle region is a mixture of skeletal and  


∙ Bottom third is all smooth muscle 

*Smooth tissue lining with NO STRIATIONS

Tissue Layers of Hollow Organs:  

*** Inner most layer: Mucosa outlines the lumen with  simple columnar epithelium with a little connective tissue  around it  

o Third portion of mucosa is muscularis mucosa that  is thin layer of smooth muscle which allows us to  twitch when irritated [with food to get it off/dislodge of the epithelium]

Submucosa: large amount of elastic connective tissue that  will allow for us to stretch and collapse; helps with digestion

Muscularis externa has 2 layers of smooth muscle:

1. Circular layer nearest lumen (aka sphincters) 2. Longitudinal layer (shortens tube/makes gut shorter and  helps with peristalsis)

Serosa: peritoneum; simple squamous


***Group jejunum and ilium together 

Stomach has mesentery

Duodenum does not have mesentery

Jejunum & Ilium do have mesentery

Ascending Colon does not have  


Transverse do have mesentery

Descending Colon does not have  


Sigmoid Colon has mesentery

Once you are in the stomach you are simple columnar epithelium while the esophagus is nonkeratinized stratified squamous epithelium because it needs more protection (stomach have digestive enzymes and acids so they do not need as much protection)

• Bile: liquid formed by body that helps digest/break down  lipids chemically

Gallbladder DOES NOT PRODUCE BILE; it only stores it

• Liver produces bile

o Hepatic ducts from right and left lobes of liver drain  bile into common hepatic duct to the common bile  duct that leads into duodenum of small intestine

o If small intestine is closed, bile builds up and backs  up into gallbladder where it is stores

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