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UB / Psychology / PSY 101 / What is the self-esteem cycle?

What is the self-esteem cycle?

What is the self-esteem cycle?


School: University at Buffalo
Department: Psychology
Course: Introductory Psychology
Professor: Larry hawk
Term: Fall 2018
Cost: 50
Name: Psy101 Exam5 Study Guide
Description: These notes cover whats going to be in the next exam
Uploaded: 11/30/2018
10 Pages 20 Views 15 Unlocks

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PSY 101 Exam 5 

What is the self-esteem cycle?

Study Guide

A. Health and Well­being

I. The self and Well­Being

• The need for self­esteem

o The self­esteem cycle

­ Positive expectation

­ High Effort

­ Success

­ Self­Credit

­ High Self­ Esteem

• The self­awareness “Trap”

o Self­ Awareness Theory

­ Self­Conscious Persons, 

­ Self­Focusing Situations 

 (lead to) Self­ Awareness

 Self­Discrepancies

 Change Behavior to Match Standards

 Escape from Self­Awareness

• Positive Illusions

o Unrealistic Optimism

­ Students tend to rate their own chances as above average for

What is self­ awareness theory?

positive events

­ Below average for negative event

o Unrealistically positive views of the Self

­ Everyone thinks they are above average

­ Exp: High school students

 70% above average in leadership

 60% above average in athletic ability

 85% above average in ability to get along with others

 25% said that were in top 1%

o Illusion of Control

­ People won points feel that they are controlling it 50% of the time 

in non­depressed people

­ Usually in good outcomes

II. Illusions and Well­Being

• Depressed people more realistic

• Many argue that illusions are necessary for mental health

Unrealistic optimism is what?

• Too many illusions are bd

B. Psychoneuroimmunology (PNI)

• The study of the relationships among psychology, the nervous and  Don't forget about the age old question of What are the major body cavities?

endocrine systems, and the immune system

I. Biomedical Model

• Biological Factors lead to Illness

II. Biopsychosocial Model

• Biological Factor

• Social Factor

• Psychological Factor

o Contribute to health and wellness

o Mind over Matter

­ For a wide range of afflictions, 30 to 40 percent of patients

experience relief after taking a placebo

III. Causes of death

• People used to die from infection disease, nowadays heart disease is the #1

killer, #2 cancer

IV. Heart Disease Factors

• Sedentary Life Style

• Stress, Obesity

• Smoking

• High blood pressure

• Family history of heart disease

• Type A behavior

V. Personality& Coronary Heart Disease

• Type A Personality

o Competitive

o Impatient, time­pressures

o Quick to anger­ hostile

• Type B Personality

o Easygoing

o Relaxed

o Laid back

• Type A more prone to coronary heart disease

• Personality type is less predictive of health problems than is hostility • Proneness to anger is a major risk factor

VI. Cancer Risk Factors

• Diet

• Cigarette smoking Don't forget about the age old question of Classical realism is a theory of what?

• Excessive alcohol use

• Promiscuous sexual behavior

• Genetics

VII. Sources of Stress

• Conflict

• Lack of Control& unpredictability

• Catastrophe & Post­Traumatic stress disorder

VIII. Holmes and Rahe Social Readjustment Rating Scale

• #1 Death of a spouse: 100 life change units

• #2 Divorce: 73

• #41 Vacation: 13

• Even positive events also give stress in life

IX. SRRS Scores & Health

• 300­450 80% chance major health problem If you want to learn more check out What forces begin to transform europe into an emerging world power?

• 150­300 50% chance major health problem

X. Daily Hassles

• May add to stress of major life events

• May just be part of daily life

XI. Daily Hassles Scale

• 117 items used to measure the frequency and severity of a person's transactions with the environment that are considered by the person to be stressful events

• Predicts illness better than the SRRS

XII. General Adaptation Syndrome

• Alarm

o a threat mobilizes body resistance to stress

• Resistance

o Stress resistance reaches its maximum

• Exhaustion

o The organism’s resources for dealing with stress are exhausted­ stress  resistance drops off

• Immune System

o B­Cells

­ Produce and carry antibodies

­ Produced in bone marrow

XIII. Pathways from stress to illness

• Stress can lead to unhealthy behaviors

• Triggers the release of hormones that suppress immune system activity XIV. Pathways from Stress to CHD

• Under stress, people engage in less healthy behaviors and are more  physiologically reactive

• Both of these contribute to coronary heart disease If you want to learn more check out What is a hyperplasia?

XV. Stress Duration and Illness

• Volunteers were interviewed about life stressors, then infected with virus  for cold

• As length of stress increased, so did the likelihood of catching the cold • Stress impairs immune system functioning

XVI. Coping with Stress

• Coping strategies

• The “Self­Healing Personality”

• Social Support

XVII. Stress and Coping

• Source of stress

• Effects on the body

• Coping process

• Leads to health or illness

• Although stressful events have effects on the body, the way we cope can  promote health or illness

XVIII. Coping

• Problem­focused coping

o Attempts to modify, reduce, or eliminate the source of stress

• Emotion­focused coping

o Attempts to alter the emotional response to the stressor

• Religious belief appears to aid in coping with stressful events such as  death of a child

XIX. Relaxation and the Heart

• Heart attack patients were taught to relax their pace

o A control group received standard medical care

• After 3 years, relaxation­trained patients suffered 50% fewer second heart  attacks

XX. Hardness­ Resilience Under Stress

• Commitment

o Sense of purpose in work, family anf life

• Challenge

o Openness to new experiences and change We also discuss several other topics like What are the three branches of life?

• Control

o Belief that one has the power to influence important future outcomes XXI. Heartfelt Forgiveness

• People who are in empathy and forgive have lower heart rate • Less affected by negative event

• Quicker recovery

XXII. Hugs and Health

• Electric shocks

• Having someone with you makes you less stressed

• Hugest benefit is being with someone you really love and trust

• Social interaction helps stress levels

XXIII. Exercise

• Population activity level: low We also discuss several other topics like What is the pygmalion effect?

• Benefits

o Improved heart efficiency

o Higher HDL levels

o Stronger bones esp in women

o Burns more calories, aiding weight control

o Moderate stress effects

XXIV. Fitness, Stress, and Health

• In college students, life stress was linked with increase visits to the health  center for low fitness students

• High­ fitness students handled the stress with less illness

XXV. Other factor that affect health

• Low immune response

o Factors which can lower the immune response to illness

o Depression

o Stress

o  Social problems

o Loss of a spouse

o Marital problems

• Lifestyle Factors

o Lack of sleep

­ The vast majority of Americans get too little sleep

­ This is especially true of college students

o Lack of exercise

o Smoking

o Drinking& Drug Abuse

• Hopelessness and Risk of Death

o In Finland, middle­age men were rated for hopelessness

o Six years later, higher ratings had predicted risk of death, cancer, 

and heart attack

C. Social Psychology

I. The parable of the good Samaritan

• Darley and Boston, 1973

• 67 students from the Princeton Theological Seminary

• Talk on either the Good Samaritan or jobs in theology

• Told either that they had extra time, had just enough time, or were late II. Social Psychology Definition

• The effects of the actual, imagined, or implied presence of thers pn affect, 

behavior and cognition

III. Social Influence

• Obedience

• Conformity

• Attitudes and attitude change

• Cognitive Dissonance

IV. Milgram Study

• Experimenter Prompts

o Please continue

o The experiment requires that you continue

o It is absolutely essential that you continue

o You have no other choice, must go on

• Predictions before study

o Psychiatrists: 120volts = 100% disobedience

o Students: 135 volts = 100% disobedience

o Middle class adults = 100% disobedience

• Actual Results

o 100% went all the way to 300

o 90% to 315

o 65% went all the way to 450

• Reasons

o Pre­existing beliefs about authority

o Overarching ideology (the value of science)

­ From Yale to “research associates of Bridgeport” 47%

o The experimenter assumed responsibility

­ “who is responsible if that man is hurt?”

­ Pull a switch to let another person give shock 65­93%

­ Immediacy

­ In room: 40%

­ Hold arm: 30%

o The sequential nature of the task

V. Social Roles

• What begins as obedience may switch to power of social roles

VI. The Chameleon Effect

• Participants worked with a “partner” who was really one of the 


• Hidden cameras recorded behavior

• Participants mimicked their partner without realizing it

VII. A Classic Case of Suggestibility

• Subjects in the dark room were shown a light

• While alone (Pregorup), each estimated how far the light moved • In three sessions, estimated light movement in a group

• Subjects estimates converged on a common value

• The group established its norm

VIII. Conformity

• Subjects in a group were asked to match line lengths

• Confederates in the group picked the wrong line

• Subjects went along with the wrong answer on 37% of trials

IX. Private and Public Conformity

• Private conformity

o Both behavior and opinions charge

o Informational social Influence

• Public conformity

o Temporary and superficial charge

o Outward compliance, inward maintenance of previous beliefs

o Normative social influence

X. Group Size and Conformity

• Conformity increases with group size up to about 4­7 people

• Adding additional persons has little effects

• One dissenter can reduce conformity by up to 80 percent

XI. Attitudes and Attitude Change

• Persuasion

o Focus on content­ central route

o Focus on cues­ peripheral route

o Related to characteristics of the communicator, the message, and 

the audience

o The process of persuasions

­ The message

­ No more than moderate discrepancy from what the 

audience expects

­ Based on facts acceptable to the audience

­ Emotion

­ Fear works only if information on how to avoid the 

situation is also presented

­ Positive emotion distracts us and makes us more vulnerable

to influences

XII. Compliance Techniques

• Foot in the door

o Start with a small request

o Follow up with a large one

o Compliance: want to see self as consistent

o “even a penny a day will help”

• Low­Ball

o Make an attractive initial offer

o After getting a commitment, make the terms less good

o Compliance: want to see self as consistent

o Car sales people

• Door in the Face

o Start with a large request

o Follow up with a small one

o Reciprocal concessions

o “that’s not all technique”

• Authority

o More likely to comply if told by authority

o Informational social influence

o “I’m not a doctor but I play one on TV.”

• Scarcity

o “today only” “one a few left”

o Reactance theory (reverse psychology)

o Quick appraisal of quality

o Heuristic cue: must be good

• Liking

o Physical attractiveness

­ Kids and gross food

o Similarity

­ Sales training programs and body gestures

o Compliments 

­ Ad campaigns telling you how great you are

o Cooperation

­ Car salesmen who do battle against guy in office

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