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ECU / Biology / BIOL 1050 / What is the meaning of experimental design?

What is the meaning of experimental design?

What is the meaning of experimental design?

Description

School: East Carolina University
Department: Biology
Course: General Biology
Professor: Heather chalcraft
Term: Fall 2018
Tags: Biology, GeneralBiology, GeneralBio, final study guide, and BIOL1050
Cost: 50
Name: BIOL 1050: General Bio Final Exam Study Guide
Description: This study guide covers all topics that were discussed in BIOL1050.
Uploaded: 12/02/2018
14 Pages 45 Views 4 Unlocks
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BIOL 1050: General Biology Final Exam Study Guide 


What is the meaning of experimental design?



___ = Main Ideas/Concepts ___ = Important terms under a specific concept/topic (Secondary concepts)

___ = Words or ideas that further explain secondary concepts ___ = Key Words

★ Experimental design 

○ Independent Variable: the predictor variable; observed & measured at the start

○ Dependent Variable: the response variable; created by the independent variable

○ Control Group: baseline value; treated identical to experiment group (ex: water)

■ Placebo Effect: no actual treatment

○ Experimental Group (AKA: Treatment Group): subjects exposed to particular treatments


What is the meaning of rough endoplasmic reticulum?



○ Should have replications

★ Hypothesis: proposed explanation for phenomenon; must be testable & falsifiable ○ Null Hypothesis: states a lack of relationship between two factors (easier to disprove) If you want to learn more check out What is the meaning of violent motion?

★ Scientific Theory: explanatory hypothesis for natural phenomena that’s well-supported by empirical data; unlikely to be altered by new evidence; nearly a fact

○ Empirical Data: describes knowledge that’s based on experience & observations that are rational, testable, & repeatable

★ Scientific Method 

1. Make Observations

2. Formulate a hypothesis


What is the meaning of smooth endoplasmic reticulum?



3. Devise a testable prediction

4. Conduct a critical experiment

5. Draw conclusions & make revisions

★ Sample Size: number of subjects in experimental group & in control group; describes the amount of replication; larger sample size usually means more reliable results & less variability

★ Cells 

Prokaryotic Cells 

Eukaryotic Cells

- Has no nucleus (DNA in cytoplasm) - Smaller

- Unicellular

- Bacteria & Archaea

- Has a nucleus (DNA in nucleus) - Larger

- Unicellular & Multicellular - Plants, Humans, Animals

- Cytoplasm contains cell organelles

We also discuss several other topics like What are the functions of money and how do you keep money for future use?

★ Organelles

Rough Endoplasmic Reticulum 

Folds & packages proteins for shipping

Smooth Endoplasmic Reticulum 

Makes lipids, like hormones, & breaks down drugs & poisons in the blood

Golgi Apparatus 

Receives products from the E.R. & modifies & packages molecules for shipping; makes some carbohydrates

Lysosomes 

A membrane-enclosed sac of digestive enzymes that degrades waste within the cell

Central Vacuole 

A membrane-enclosed sac (usually in plant cells) that can store items such as pigments, water, or poisons

Mitochondria 

The site of cellular respiration, which converts food into ATP

Cytoskeleton 

Network of fibers providing support

Plasma Membrane

and can be used for cell movement; maintains cell shape

Surrounds the outside of all cells; determines what can pass in & out of a cell

Cell Wall 

Around the outside of plant (& bacterial) cells to provide structural strength & protect from damage

Chloroplast 

Uses the sun’s energy to convert C02 & water into sugars in photosynthesis

Nucleus 

Contains genetic material (DNA)

Ribosomes 

Built in the nucleus & shipped to the cytoplasm; site where proteins are

If you want to learn more check out Does everything have a cause, or do people ultimately control their own behavior?

★ Recommended # of Daily Caloric Intake 

○ Inactive Women & Elderly: 1600

○ Active Women & Inactive Men: 2200

○ Active Men: 2800

★ Sugars & Lipids We also discuss several other topics like How many levels of reality are there according to plato?
Don't forget about the age old question of What is the sum of the number of protons and neutrons in the nucleus?

○ Simple sugars = monosaccharides Ex.) refined grains, sugar (anything refined is not complex)

○ Complex Carbohydrates = polysaccharides Ex.) pasta w/ whole wheat flour ■ Starch, glycogen, cellulose

■ Short-term carbs are stored as glycogen We also discuss several other topics like What is the meaning of cockfighting?

■ Excess sugars → glycogen

■ Excess starch → cellulose

■ Indigestible Carbs: cellulose & chitin

● “Dietary Fiber” in fruits, vegetables, & whole grains

● Cannot be digested or absorbed but they are good for the

digestive tract as bacteria can gain nutrition from it

● Humans do not have enzymes responsible for breaking down

cellulose

○ Most carbs are hydrophilic: adheres to water; “water loving”

○ Lipids are hydrophobic: repels water, doesn’t mix with water Ex.) vinegar, oil

★ DNA: chain of nucleotides → Each nucleotide has 3 parts

1.) Sugar 

2.) Phosphate Group 

3.) Nitrogen-containing base 

○ Every nucleotide is identical, except for its base

○ Bases: Adenine(A), Guanine(G), Cytosine(C), Thymine(T)

○ Complementary Pairing → A & T … C & G

★ Stages: Transcription & Translation

○ DNA is transcribed (in nucleus) to RNA, which is translated (in cytoplasm) to protein (DNA is double-stranded & RNA is single-stranded)

○ Control... Gene Expression → certain genes “turned on”

★ Transcription: process that uses the instruction in DNA to make RNA ★ Translation: process that uses the instructions in RNA to make proteins (protein → polymer of amino acids)

○ Instead of each RNA base coding for one amino acid, the RNA bases are read in groups of 3

○ Groups of 3 RNA bases are called codons 

○ Anything between start & stop codons are considered a gene 

★ Normal Cell Division 

○ Whole organisms can reproduce by…

■ Asexual Reproduction 

● Produces a genetically identical offspring → Prokaryotes

● One parent needed

■ Sexual Reproduction 

● Produces an offspring with a combination of genetic material

from both parents and is genetically unique → Eukaryotes

● Two parents needed

○ Cell Reproduction = Cell Division

■ Before a cell can divide, it must make a copy of DNA

■ After duplicates the chromosomes, there are 2 identical copies ■ When the cell divides, the copies separate

○ Functions/Purpose for Cell Division 

■ Replace/Repair lost or damaged cells

■ Growth 

■ Organismal reproduction 

○ Prokaryotic Cell Division → Binary Fission

○ Eukaryotic Cell Division → Mitosis & Meiosis

■ Mitosis: cell divides and creates two genetically unique cells that contain a complete set of genetic material

■ Meiosis: cell divides and creates four genetically unique cells that contain half the amount of genetic material

● Meiosis only occurs within humans in the gametes

★ ○ Cell Cycle Problems 

○ Benign Tumor: abnormal mass of cells that stays in place

○ Malignant Tumors: lumps of cancerous cells → divide excessively & spread

○ Cancer cells have no contact inhibition & divide indefinitely ○ Telomeres: limit normal cells to a certain number of divisions; everytime a cell divides the telomere gets shorter

■ Cancer cells rebuild their telomeres with each cell division, escaping the limits to cell division

■ Makes the enzyme called Telomerase 

■ Exercise, healthy diet, & stress management = less telomere

shrinkage

○ A malignant tumor develops and gets larger, taking up more & more space, pressing against neighboring cells & tissues

○ Cancer is caused by mutations

1.) Oncogenes 

2.) Tumor-suppressor genes

■ How many mutations does it take?

● Normal cell: normal receptor

● Cell w/ one mutation: receptor behaves as there were many

growth factors → cell division overstimulated → benign

tumor

● Cell w/ 2 mutations: DNA not repaired leading to potential

malignancy or metastasis

○ Categories (named according to where they begin)

■ Carcinomas → (Ex: skin cancer)

■ Sarcomas → (Ex: bone cancer)

■ Leukemia & Lymphomas (Ex: blood cancer)

★ Genetics 

○ Homologous chromosomes may code for different versions of a trait → each version = allele 

○ Dominant = version of a trait that fully shows

■ Homozygous dominant = 2 dominant alleles

○ Recessive = version of a trait that can be hidden

■ Homozygous recessive = 2 recessive alleles

○ Heterozygous = 1 dominant, 1 recessive

○ Genotype = organism’s genetic makeup (Aa)

○ Phenotype = the trait an organism shows (red, disease, etc.)

○ Single-gene traits

■ Cleft chin = Dominant → Non-Cleft chin = Recessive

■ Unattached earlobes = Dominant → Attached earlobes = Recessive ■ Widow’s Peak = Dominant → Straight Hairline = Recessive

○ Why are we genetically unique? 

■ Random fertilization: multiple eggs & lots of sperm are produced → only one egg & sperm unite (egg & sperm are random)

■ Crossing over: exchange of genetic material between homologous chromosomes → each chromosome becomes a mixture of

information from both parents ***main reason offspring from sexual reproduction are genetically unique***

★ Disorders Controlled by a single, Autosomal Gene 

○ Many human disorders are controlled by a single gene, on autosomes → most are recessive

○ Carriers have 1 recessive allele for disease, but have no symptoms ■ Cystic Fibrosis: each child born to 2 carriers has a ¼ chance of

inheriting disease

○ Dominant Disorders 

■ Lethal dominant disorders are rare because… those affected usually die before reproducing (including heterozygotes)

● Can remain if it doesn’t kill the person until after they have

children

■ Huntington’s Disease: heterozygous or homozygous dominant will be affected

○ Sex-linked genes: any gene located on a sex chromosome

■ X Chromosomes has many more genes than Y Chromosomes

■ If gene is on X Chromosome:

● Females carry 2 alleles for a trait

● Males carry 1 allele for a trait

★ Evolution 

○ Process: a change over many generations in the relative frequency of alleles that occur in a population

*** Evolution occurs when the allele frequencies in a population change *** ○ Theory of Evolution: all species are descendants of a single common ancestor & all species are the result of millions of years of change

○ Mechanisms that cause evolution to occur 

■ Artificial selection = the selective breeding of domesticated plants & animals by humans

■ Natural selection = a change in allele frequencies that occurs when one version of a trait has better success than those with a different

version

● Natural selection generally leads to an increase in favorable

traits, making adaptations in population → generally

improves organism's ability to reproduce

■ Genetic drift = a random change in allele frequencies of a small

population (unrelated to reproductive success)

● Founder effect: when the founding members of a new

population have different allele frequencies than the original

population

● Bottleneck effect: when a negative influence (disease, famine,

rapid environment change) causes the deaths of a large

proportion of the population and the surviving individuals

have different allele frequencies than the original population

■ Gene flow due to migration: a change in allele frequencies caused by individuals moving within a population

● Gene flow = when individuals mate with members of a

different population → genes from 2 populations get mixed

→ reduces genetic differences between populations

■ Mutations: alteration in the base-pair sequences of DNA that change allele frequency

● Most mutations are harmful, but not all are → ALL genetic

variation must initially come from mutation

○ Homologies: similarities between organisms due to a common ancestor ○ Convergence: similarities between organisms that occur independently & NOT due to a common ancestor (ex: birds & butterflies both have wings, but that does not infer they had a common ancestor)

*** Environment selects what is favorable → Traits do not evolve because of need → evolution is not deliberate *** 

★ Domains of Life 

○ Bacteria: unicellular, prokaryotes

○ Archaea: unicellular, prokaryotes

○ Eukarya 

■ Protists

■ Plants: multicellular, eukaryotes

■ Fungus: decomposers/symbionts

■ Animals: eukaryotes, multicellular

● Vertebrates vs. Invertebrates

■ Primates: lemurs, monkeys, gorillas, humans

★ Populations 

○ Population Growth 

■ Increase is caused by → births & immigration

■ Decrease is caused by → deaths & emigration

■ A population grows when births & immigration outnumbers deaths & emigration

○ Age Pyramids: study populations over time

■ Developing Countries: birth rate & death rate high

■ Industrialized Countries: stable population

○ Demographic Transition: a pattern of population growth that is experienced as a country industrializes → slow growth → fast growth → slow growth ○ Growth Rates: have slowed down but it is unclear where human population numbers will peak

★ 2 Main Ways to Model Population Growth 

○ 1.) Exponential Growth Model 

■ Growth under ideal conditions

■ The larger the population, the faster it grows

■ In order for exponential growth to occur, each individual must

produce at least 1 offspring

■ J-Shaped growth curve 

○ 2.) Logistic Growth Model 

■ Growth within limits

■ More realistic

■ Environmental factors will cause a population’s growth to level off ■ S-Shaped growth curve 

*** Population’s don’t keep growing & growing because resources run out, space runs out, etc *** 

★ Carrying Capacity = population size at which growth is zero

○ Varies depending on species & habitat

○ At carrying capacity, the population is as large as it can get in its current environment

○ The growth rate slows as it reaches carrying capacity because of density dependent factors → fires, floods, earthquakes (all can decrease population size)

○ Ways to increase Carrying Capacity:

■ Expanding into new habitats

■ Increasing agricultural productivity of land

■ Finding ways to live at higher densities

★ Species Interaction 

○ Community Ecology 

■ Community = a group of species living close enough together for potential interactions

○ Niches = ways an organism uses the environment

■ Their complete way of living

■ Species can compete with other species for parts of a niche

■ Fundamental Niche 

● full range of environments in which they can live

■ Realized Niche 

● where & how organisms are actually living

■ Overlap of fundamental niches leads to competition with 2 possible outcomes: competitive exclusion & resource partitioning

● Resource Partitioning occurs due to character displacement = when evolution favors species to develop different traits

○ Predation → both predators & prey have adaptations that increase their successfulness

■ Physical Defenses 

● Mechanical Defenses

● Chemical Defenses

● Warning Coloration

● Camouflage

■ Behavioral Defenses 

● Hiding or escaping

● Fighting back

○ Parasitism = relationship where one organism benefits & other is harmed Lives in or on the body of a host

■ Ectoparasites → lives outside host (ex: bed bugs)

■ Endoparasites → lives inside host

○ Mutualism = interaction between 2 species that benefits both partners (ex: bees and flowers)

○ Commensalism = one species benefits from an interaction & the other neither benefits nor is harmed

*Predation, Parasitism, & Commensalism are all example of a relationship in which only one organism is benefited* 

○ Disturbance of Communities 

■ Succession: change in species composition over time after

disturbance

● Primary Succession: begins after a disturbance leaves an area

barren of soil & with no life

● Secondary Succession: begins when a disturbance opens up

part of a community to the development & growth of species

previously outcompeted by other species in the area

○ Keystone Species = a species whose presence greatly influenced which other species are present → preserving just one = preserving many other species

○ Species = group of closely related organisms that are capable of mating together & producing fertile offspring

○ 2 Major Ecosystem Processes: 

■ 1.) Energy Flow = passage of energy through the components of the ecosystem

■ 2.) Nutrient Cycling = use & reuse of nutrients within the ecosystem ■ Omnivores → eat more than one trophic level

■ Decomposers & Detritivores → get energy by breaking down

waste products or dead bodies

○ Abiotic vs. Biotic 

■ Abiotic → nonliving (ex: wind, temperature, ocean currents)

■ Biotic → living (ex: plants, animals, bacteria)

★ Biodiversity 

○ The variety of life on earth

○ Ecosystems, Species, Genes, & Alleles

○ Factors that Influence: 

■ Solar energy available

■ Evolutionary history of an area

■ Rate of Disturbance

○ Causes of Biodiversity Crisis 

■ 1.) Habitat Destruction 

● a.) Single greatest threat to biodiversity

● b.) Habitat Fragmentation: leads to smaller populations that

are isolated so there’s less gene flow between populations

■ 2.) Introduced Species = human introduction of organisms to areas where they previously did not live

● a.) Many now common

● b.) Some intentional; Some accidental

● c.) Can cause rapid extinctions

■ 3.) Overexploitation: when rate of human use of a species outpaces its ability to reproduce

● a.) Ex: overfishing is a major problem for some species

■ 4.) Effects of Pollution = the release of poisons, excess nutrients, & other wastes into the environment

● a.) Causes eutrophication, acid rain, climate change, ozone

hole

○ Conservation Biology: addresses how to preserve natural resources & protect biodiversity

■ Preserving Species vs. Preserving Habitats

■ Corridors connect preserves together & allow gene flow

■ Buffer Zones: areas of limited human use that surround preserves ★ 2 Categories of Extinctions 

○ Mass Extinctions: a large number of species (even entire families) become extinct over a short period of time due to sudden environmental change ■ A species biology does not influence risk of extinction

○ Background Extinctions: occur at lower rates during times other than mass extinction

■ A species biology matters

■ Current extinction rates are 1000x greater than background rates ■ Smaller species are more at risk

■ We are likely to have a world occupied by fewer species that thrive on disturbance → ex: cockroaches, weeds

★ Biomes: large ecosystems that cover huge geographic areas. They are determined by temperature & amounts of precipitation in conjunction with magnitude of seasonal variation

○ Tropical forest, desert, savanna, temperate grassland, temperate deciduous forest, chaparral, coniferous forest, tundra, & polar ice

○ Precipitation, temperature & their seasonal variability dictates biome present by controlling primary productivity levels = amount of organic matter produced through photosynthesis

○ Aquatic Biomes → determined by physical features: salinity, water movement, & depth

■ Lakes & ponds, rivers & streams, estuaries & wetlands, open oceans, and coral reefs

★ Climate Change 

○ Greenhouse Effect 

■ Energy from the sun passes easily through the atmosphere to warm earth’s surface

■ Some energy is reflected back toward space & escapes the

atmosphere

■ Some energy is absorbed by greenhouse gases & remains trapped in atmosphere, heating the earth

○ The amount of Carbon Dioxide increases during the winter months because more leaves fall = less photosynthesis

■ Higher levels of C02 are correlated with higher temperatures

○ Ice Cores show that there is more C02 in the atmosphere now than at any time in the past 400,000 years

○ 2 Main Reasons:

■ Burning from fossil fuels

■ Cutting down forests (deforestation) 

○ Effects of Climate Change 

■ Diversity of organisms in oceans 

● Range shifts (new organisms in different areas)

● Icebergs melting = sea levels rising

■ Salinity changing 

○ Ozone Layer: absorbs UV radiations, preventing it from reaching the surface

■ Gradually thinned from buildup of CFCs

■ Increases rate of some cancers & cataracts

■ Reduces rates of photosynthesis

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