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Virginia Tech - GEOS 1034 - Class Notes - Week 12

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Virginia Tech - GEOS 1034 - Class Notes - Week 12

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Fishing
Sword fishing Langline fishing: controversial means of commercial fishing where boats  drag up to 40 miles of line with over 1,000 hooks Leads to overfishing of swordfish (including juveniles) and the killing of  seabirds, sea turtles, sharks, and anything else unlucky enough to get 
caught
Swordfish stocks have dropped by more than 90% Best grounds for swordfish off the NE coast are NOW the shallows of the  Grand Banks and the Flemish Cap  10,000 Gloucester fishermen have died at sea since 1623 Tropical Storms Hurricane: a tropical cyclone, an organization of a large number of thunderstorms  into a massive single, rotating storm system Located in tropical zone Hurricane Katrina (2005) Hurricanes lose energy source when they go over land, causing their winds  to diminish rapidly They decrease in windspeeds and lose energy especially when they  venture north away from southern warm waters § Warm water = energy source Hurricane Season: Aug-Oct when tropical waters are warmest Saffir-Simpson Intensity scale: classifies hurricanes (cyclones) based on  wind speed 1: minimal damage, 74-95mph § 2: moderate, 96-110 mph § 3: extensive, 111-130mph § 4: extreme, 131-155mph § 5: catastrophic, >155mph § Cyclones work their way up and down the Saffir-Simpson Intensity  scale § Direct measurements using dropsondes are the most accurate means to  understand the properties of a hurricane This data can help us estimate how powerful a hurricane may get and  where it might be heading § Dropsonde: an instrument dropped from an aircraft into a hurricane  to measure wind speed and direction, humidity, temperature, and 
atmospheric pressure
§ Hurricane hunters § Typhoon Cyclone Tropical cyclones get their energy from warm tropical waters Rotate in opposite directions in northern and southern hemispheres Southern hemisphere: clockwise rotation § Northern hemisphere: counterclockwise location § Due to Coriolis effect: Earth is wider in middle so points near the  equator spin faster Air rushing to the center (they eye) is reflected off course  causing the spin Without rotation induced by Coriolis effect, groups of  thunderstorms cannot organize themselves into a cyclone Cannot form near the equator because Coriolis effect  disappears there § Calm eye: lowest pressures and winds Eyewall: highest winds Temperature of air that descends in the eye of a hurricane increases,  increasing pressure causes it to warm up Difference in these names is the location 11/ 28 Storm surges: cyclone winds push water onshore, causing severe coastal flooding Greatest on the side of the cyclone where winds are blowing on-shore a. A. Extratropical cyclones, like nor'easters, form far from the tropics  Get their name from the direction from which the wind comes on shore  along the US NE coast a. Form when cold arctic air collides with warm, moist air above the Gulf  stream b. B. Nor'easter Referred to as cold core storms since cold air underlies them, as apposed to  Hurricanes which are warm core storms since they are underline by the 
warm air of the tropics
a. Bring in snow b. Can be just as destructive as hurricanes c. Source of energy: requires a cold front (cold core) that lifts the warm moist  air that pushes up clouds and a cyclone starts to form d. Locations: Nor'easters form in the northern Atlantic; hurricanes form in the  tropics e. Snow: only cyclones that bring in snow f. Season: Most common in winter while hurricanes occur in the late summer g. A distinct eye: though they rotate, nor'easters rarely form a distinct eye h. C. The Perfect Storm: 3 Factors Hurricane Grace 1. Fresh cold front swooping down from Canada 2. D. Rogue Waves: ocean waves whose height is more than 2x the height of other  waves in the area Draupner wave: a single giant wave measured at an oil platform in the  north sea in 1995, confirmed the existence of rogue waves which had 
previously been considered fake
a. Suspected of sinking dozens of big ships and taking hundreds of lives b. Are thought to be caused by one of the two phenomena or a combination Merging waves: waves traveling in the same direction but at different  speeds and wavelengths may combine i. Ocean currents: waves and winds heading into powerful ocean  currents may cause a surge of water to rise ii. c. E. Coast Guard Aviation Survival Technician/Rescue Swimmer school (A-school) Prospective rescue swimmers take a 6 month build-up training course for  physical conditioning a. Only 75 of these are invited to attend A-school, less than 50% graduate,  then there is Emergency Medical Technician school, and Advanced 
Helicopter Rescue-Swimmer school
b. F. Hurricane Safety Hurricanes are slow movers, you'll generally have several days to finalize  plans a. Prepare Bring in all furniture i. Consider taping up windows to prevent shattering ii. Be sure you are well supplied with any prescription drugs that you or  your family take on a regular basis iii. Put all of your valuables into clear plastic bags or high off the floor iv. b. To evacuate or not evacuate? Evacuate if mandatory or you live in a mobile home, high rise, or  area prone to a storm surge i. If you evacuate, go early to avoid traffic, find hotel occupancies,  have time to change plans ii. c. If staying Be sure to have food/water, fill tub with water i. Be ready to shelter in place ii. Not a bad idea to have emergency supplies on hand iii. Don't stay if ordered to evacuate iv. d. G. Most Dangerous storms Deadliest: Bhola Cyclone in Bangladesh in 1970 a. Hurricane Patricia: strongest sustained winds ever recorded b. Largest: Hurricane Sandy 2012 c. Costliest: Hurricane Katrina 2005 ($108 billion) d. Longest Sustained Category 5 Winds: Typhoon Nancy 1961 e. Longest Lasting and Furthest Traveling: Hurricane & Typhoon John 1994 f. Biggest Recorded Wave: The Perfect Storm in Nova Scotia 1991 g. H. Unit Review on Hurricanes How long can fishing lines be put out by swordfishing boats 40 miles a. 1. Whats the difference btw a hurricane, cyclone and typhoon? Where they occur a. 2. What provides the energy for hurricanes? Warm, tropical waters a. 3. What happens when hurricanes venture over land? Speed up a. Slow down b. Gain energy c. Lose energy, winds diminish d. 4. Primary North American Hurricane season? August-end of October a. 5. Why can't cyclones form on the equator? Coriolis effect vanishes at the equator a. Water is not warm enough b. 6. Which statement regarding the eye of a hurricane is correct? Highest winds and highest pressure a. Highest winds and lowest pressure b. Lowest winds and highest pressure c. Lowest winds and lowest pressure d. 7. Which statement is correct about the eye wall? Highest winds a. 8. How does the Saffir-Simpson intensity scale measure Pressure drop a. Diameter of cyclone b. Wind speed c. 9. How do we measure wind speed of hurricanes? Dropsondes a. 10. What causes a storm surge? High winds that push ocean onto the shore a. 11. Why do nor'easters form in the northern atlantic Hurricane ventures north from tropics a. Coldfront from Canada interacts with warm gulf stream, pushes up warm  air and causes nor'easters b. Large storm system from Europe goes west c. Cooling of  d. 12. Which is not a difference between a hurricane and nor'easter? Location a. Amount of damage b. Distinct calm eye c. Time of year in which they occur d. 13. Which of these was not a major component of the Perfect Storm in 1991 Hurricane headed north from Bermuda a. Reversal of direction of flow of Gulf Stream b. 14. Which statement about rogue waves is true? Heights more than 2x height of other waves a. Can sink largest ships b. Thought to be caused by combining waves of different wavelengths c. Strong winds going in one direction and currents going in same direction  combine to create a rogue wave d. All of the above e. 15. Most powerful wind of a hurricane? Hurricane haiyan a. 16. Which is true about hurricanes? Main hurricane path is in North Atlantic a. When they venture over land they lose their energy source b. Their energy source is warm tropical waters c. 17. What are the instrumental jets called that fly into hurricanes for measurements? Hurricane hunters a. 18. Where do nor'easters get their name Form in NE land of US a. Direction from which the wind comes onto shore b. Travel NE from Northern Atlantic c. Sharp eye moving SW from Gulf Stream d. 19. How can you prepare for a hurricane? Gather medical supplies a. Evacuate b. Bring in all outside furniture c. 20. What was the costliest hurricane of all time? Hurricane katrina a. 21. What cyclone produced the largest recorded wave? 1991 perfect storm a. Typhoon Haiyan b. Hurricane Patricia c. Hurricane Katrina d. 22. True/False A cyclone once killed 500,000 people True a. 1. A hurricane is a tropical cyclone True a. 2. Over the past 100 years, the intensity and frequency of hurricanes has increased true a. 3. Hurricanes most often occur off the coast of Alaska False a. 4. Hurricanes can form over land False a. 5. It's possible  True a. 6. Swordfishing has resulted in ethical issues about overfishing True a. 7. Week 12 Wednesday, November 14, 2018 2:22 PM
background image 11/26
Fishing
Sword fishing Langline fishing: controversial means of commercial fishing where boats  drag up to 40 miles of line with over 1,000 hooks Leads to overfishing of swordfish (including juveniles) and the killing of  seabirds, sea turtles, sharks, and anything else unlucky enough to get 
caught
Swordfish stocks have dropped by more than 90% Best grounds for swordfish off the NE coast are NOW the shallows of the  Grand Banks and the Flemish Cap  10,000 Gloucester fishermen have died at sea since 1623 Tropical Storms Hurricane: a tropical cyclone, an organization of a large number of thunderstorms  into a massive single, rotating storm system Located in tropical zone Hurricane Katrina (2005) Hurricanes lose energy source when they go over land, causing their winds  to diminish rapidly They decrease in windspeeds and lose energy especially when they  venture north away from southern warm waters § Warm water = energy source Hurricane Season: Aug-Oct when tropical waters are warmest Saffir-Simpson Intensity scale: classifies hurricanes (cyclones) based on  wind speed 1: minimal damage, 74-95mph § 2: moderate, 96-110 mph § 3: extensive, 111-130mph § 4: extreme, 131-155mph § 5: catastrophic, >155mph § Cyclones work their way up and down the Saffir-Simpson Intensity  scale § Direct measurements using dropsondes are the most accurate means to  understand the properties of a hurricane This data can help us estimate how powerful a hurricane may get and  where it might be heading § Dropsonde: an instrument dropped from an aircraft into a hurricane  to measure wind speed and direction, humidity, temperature, and 
atmospheric pressure
§ Hurricane hunters § Typhoon Cyclone Tropical cyclones get their energy from warm tropical waters Rotate in opposite directions in northern and southern hemispheres Southern hemisphere: clockwise rotation § Northern hemisphere: counterclockwise location § Due to Coriolis effect: Earth is wider in middle so points near the  equator spin faster Air rushing to the center (they eye) is reflected off course  causing the spin Without rotation induced by Coriolis effect, groups of  thunderstorms cannot organize themselves into a cyclone Cannot form near the equator because Coriolis effect  disappears there § Calm eye: lowest pressures and winds Eyewall: highest winds Temperature of air that descends in the eye of a hurricane increases,  increasing pressure causes it to warm up Difference in these names is the location 11/ 28 Storm surges: cyclone winds push water onshore, causing severe coastal flooding Greatest on the side of the cyclone where winds are blowing on-shore a. A. Extratropical cyclones, like nor'easters, form far from the tropics  Get their name from the direction from which the wind comes on shore  along the US NE coast a. Form when cold arctic air collides with warm, moist air above the Gulf  stream b. B. Nor'easter Referred to as cold core storms since cold air underlies them, as apposed to  Hurricanes which are warm core storms since they are underline by the 
warm air of the tropics
a. Bring in snow b. Can be just as destructive as hurricanes c. Source of energy: requires a cold front (cold core) that lifts the warm moist  air that pushes up clouds and a cyclone starts to form d. Locations: Nor'easters form in the northern Atlantic; hurricanes form in the  tropics e. Snow: only cyclones that bring in snow f. Season: Most common in winter while hurricanes occur in the late summer g. A distinct eye: though they rotate, nor'easters rarely form a distinct eye h. C. The Perfect Storm: 3 Factors Hurricane Grace 1. Fresh cold front swooping down from Canada 2. D. Rogue Waves: ocean waves whose height is more than 2x the height of other  waves in the area Draupner wave: a single giant wave measured at an oil platform in the  north sea in 1995, confirmed the existence of rogue waves which had 
previously been considered fake
a. Suspected of sinking dozens of big ships and taking hundreds of lives b. Are thought to be caused by one of the two phenomena or a combination Merging waves: waves traveling in the same direction but at different  speeds and wavelengths may combine i. Ocean currents: waves and winds heading into powerful ocean  currents may cause a surge of water to rise ii. c. E. Coast Guard Aviation Survival Technician/Rescue Swimmer school (A-school) Prospective rescue swimmers take a 6 month build-up training course for  physical conditioning a. Only 75 of these are invited to attend A-school, less than 50% graduate,  then there is Emergency Medical Technician school, and Advanced 
Helicopter Rescue-Swimmer school
b. F. Hurricane Safety Hurricanes are slow movers, you'll generally have several days to finalize  plans a. Prepare Bring in all furniture i. Consider taping up windows to prevent shattering ii. Be sure you are well supplied with any prescription drugs that you or  your family take on a regular basis iii. Put all of your valuables into clear plastic bags or high off the floor iv. b. To evacuate or not evacuate? Evacuate if mandatory or you live in a mobile home, high rise, or  area prone to a storm surge i. If you evacuate, go early to avoid traffic, find hotel occupancies,  have time to change plans ii. c. If staying Be sure to have food/water, fill tub with water i. Be ready to shelter in place ii. Not a bad idea to have emergency supplies on hand iii. Don't stay if ordered to evacuate iv. d. G. Most Dangerous storms Deadliest: Bhola Cyclone in Bangladesh in 1970 a. Hurricane Patricia: strongest sustained winds ever recorded b. Largest: Hurricane Sandy 2012 c. Costliest: Hurricane Katrina 2005 ($108 billion) d. Longest Sustained Category 5 Winds: Typhoon Nancy 1961 e. Longest Lasting and Furthest Traveling: Hurricane & Typhoon John 1994 f. Biggest Recorded Wave: The Perfect Storm in Nova Scotia 1991 g. H. Unit Review on Hurricanes How long can fishing lines be put out by swordfishing boats 40 miles a. 1. Whats the difference btw a hurricane, cyclone and typhoon? Where they occur a. 2. What provides the energy for hurricanes? Warm, tropical waters a. 3. What happens when hurricanes venture over land? Speed up a. Slow down b. Gain energy c. Lose energy, winds diminish d. 4. Primary North American Hurricane season? August-end of October a. 5. Why can't cyclones form on the equator? Coriolis effect vanishes at the equator a. Water is not warm enough b. 6. Which statement regarding the eye of a hurricane is correct? Highest winds and highest pressure a. Highest winds and lowest pressure b. Lowest winds and highest pressure c. Lowest winds and lowest pressure d. 7. Which statement is correct about the eye wall? Highest winds a. 8. How does the Saffir-Simpson intensity scale measure Pressure drop a. Diameter of cyclone b. Wind speed c. 9. How do we measure wind speed of hurricanes? Dropsondes a. 10. What causes a storm surge? High winds that push ocean onto the shore a. 11. Why do nor'easters form in the northern atlantic Hurricane ventures north from tropics a. Coldfront from Canada interacts with warm gulf stream, pushes up warm  air and causes nor'easters b. Large storm system from Europe goes west c. Cooling of  d. 12. Which is not a difference between a hurricane and nor'easter? Location a. Amount of damage b. Distinct calm eye c. Time of year in which they occur d. 13. Which of these was not a major component of the Perfect Storm in 1991 Hurricane headed north from Bermuda a. Reversal of direction of flow of Gulf Stream b. 14. Which statement about rogue waves is true? Heights more than 2x height of other waves a. Can sink largest ships b. Thought to be caused by combining waves of different wavelengths c. Strong winds going in one direction and currents going in same direction  combine to create a rogue wave d. All of the above e. 15. Most powerful wind of a hurricane? Hurricane haiyan a. 16. Which is true about hurricanes? Main hurricane path is in North Atlantic a. When they venture over land they lose their energy source b. Their energy source is warm tropical waters c. 17. What are the instrumental jets called that fly into hurricanes for measurements? Hurricane hunters a. 18. Where do nor'easters get their name Form in NE land of US a. Direction from which the wind comes onto shore b. Travel NE from Northern Atlantic c. Sharp eye moving SW from Gulf Stream d. 19. How can you prepare for a hurricane? Gather medical supplies a. Evacuate b. Bring in all outside furniture c. 20. What was the costliest hurricane of all time? Hurricane katrina a. 21. What cyclone produced the largest recorded wave? 1991 perfect storm a. Typhoon Haiyan b. Hurricane Patricia c. Hurricane Katrina d. 22. True/False A cyclone once killed 500,000 people True a. 1. A hurricane is a tropical cyclone True a. 2. Over the past 100 years, the intensity and frequency of hurricanes has increased true a. 3. Hurricanes most often occur off the coast of Alaska False a. 4. Hurricanes can form over land False a. 5. It's possible  True a. 6. Swordfishing has resulted in ethical issues about overfishing True a. 7. Week 12 Wednesday, November 14, 2018 2:22 PM

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School: Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University
Department: Geoscience
Course: Geoscience
Professor: Ying Zhou
Term: Fall 2018
Tags:
Name: Week 12 Notes
Description: These notes cover hurricanes and typhoons
Uploaded: 12/03/2018
6 Pages 79 Views 63 Unlocks
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