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UT / Science / CSD 308 / What are the challenges of deaf education?

What are the challenges of deaf education?

What are the challenges of deaf education?

Description

School: University of Texas at Austin
Department: Science
Course: Perspectives of Deafness
Professor: Bernstein
Term: Fall 2018
Tags: Deafness, mainstreaming, hardofhearing, and Idea
Cost: 50
Name: Perspectives on Deafness Exam 3 Review
Description: These notes follow class lectures and will help in preparation for Exam 3.
Uploaded: 12/03/2018
18 Pages 20 Views 6 Unlocks
Reviews

Ellie White (Rating: )



Perspectives on Deafness Exam 3 Review


Whata re the challenges of deaf education?



Cognition and Deafness

∙ Information processing model 

o 3-stage approach

1. Sensory Registers

▪ How information gets to the person in the first place from environment

▪ Information coming in all of the time, much information completely discarded 2. Short-term (Working) Memory

▪ Interpreting auditory sounds

▪ Prime sensory registers to pay attention

3. Long-term Memory

▪ Hard drive of your mind, information storage

∙ Phonological mediation

o "internal speech," talking to ourselves in our mind  


What are the effective communication skills with hearing people when it comes to family situations?



We also discuss several other topics like What do flashbulb memories refer to?

∙ Phonological mediation

o "internal speech," talking to ourselves in our mind  

∙ Conrad interested in Deaf learners in 1970s If you want to learn more check out When was the roman empire united by constantine?

o What's wrong with Deaf education?

o Maybe phonological mediation does not work well with deaf people

∙ Experiment  

o Hearing and Deaf people look at list of words If you want to learn more check out What was the influence of charlemagne in the medieval christianity?

o Memorize list

o Write down the list

o Score for accuracy

o Discovery

1. Hearing people tend to make more errors on list of words that sound alike


What is the general process of bottom-up approach in ling's speech program?



▪ Same with Deaf people

▪ However, some Deaf people do not have trouble with list of words that  

sound alike

∙ Hearing losses worse than 85 dB, tended to make more errors  We also discuss several other topics like How do social algorithms determine what shows up in one's feed?

on other list, not like hearing people

∙ Using different strategy, not phonological

2. Deaf people with profound hearing losses can't effectively use phonological  mediation 

▪ Unintelligible speech

3. Conrad claimed that profoundly deaf people cannot think because they can't  understand their own speech

∙ Language and speech may be used strategically at times for thought, but thought is not simply  language used internally - Bernstein & Finnegan, 1983

o Talk inside our heads is not only way to think

∙ The "Ah hah" experience

o Not words or pictures

o Can get this experience other ways, like with an explanation

∙ Jerry Fodor

o Logically cannot be talking to yourself in a language you know because infants engage in  thinking behavior without having a language

o There has to be some sort of internal public language

o "Mentalese" We also discuss several other topics like What are the disadvantages of partisanship?

1. Human mind from the start has an internal computing code in which  

instructions are carried out that we cannot use outside of our mind

2. Internal speech

3. Internal sign language

4. Visual imagery

5. Other  

o For infant to acquire language, the mind has to have some kind of internal  communication system

o Deaf people also use Mentalese

∙ Deaf people and Hearing people

o Difference between simultaneous and sequential material

1. Simultaneous, rotating complex visual images 

▪ Deaf people better

2. Memorize sequence 

▪ Hearing people better

Educational Settings

∙ 1975 IDEA

o Individuals with Disabilities Act of 1975 Don't forget about the age old question of What is the correlation between product market and resource market?

o Outgrowth of the 1960s civil rights movement

∙ Public schools did not accept people with mental retardation, even if minor ∙ Realization that individuals with disabilities were being denied the same rights that  other children had

▪ Violation of civil rights 

o NYC in mid 1970s, young reporter Geraldo Rivera  

∙ Willowbrook State School for children who were mentally retarded

∙ Took camera crew into school to look at conditions

∙ Exposed the school, where kids were shackled in chains, locked in cells, ill-clothed, ill fed, dirty

▪ Would only have parent visits on certain days, didn't know the conditions

o Litigation

o Extend to other disabilities, including deafness

o States given 2 years to come up with plan for education  

∙ Solomon, NY Times magazine article, written around this time

o 6 Principles 

∙ Free appropriate public education (FAPE)

▪ Schools cannot turn children away  

▪ All school districts must provide educational and related services at no cost to  the family

∙ Related services include transportation, counseling, and speech,  

audiology, occupational (fine motor skills-manual dexterity) , and physical  

therapy (big motions)

▪ Age of eligibility

∙ 0-3 Early Childhood Intervention

∙ Individual family service plans

∙ 3-21 Special Education Services

∙ Appropriate evaluation

▪ Full and individual evaluation to determine eligibility, extent of disability, how it  impacts learning, educational needs, supplementary aids and services ▪ Must be done in a non-discriminatory manner  

∙ In the language of the child

∙ Age appropriate

∙ No cultural discrimination

∙ Individualized Education Program (IEP), Texas Admissions, Review, Dismissal (ARD) ▪ Hold school accountable

▪ Document with plan for child

▪ Evaluation Data

∙ At least every 3 years, need complete evaluation of everything

∙ Between the 3 year evaluations, smaller evaluations

∙ Give measureable annual goals, bench-marks, objectives (specific) ▪ Specific reports, assistive technology

▪ Dates of service

▪ Evaluation procedures

▪ Individual Family Service Plac (IFSP) for age 0-3 children's families ▪ IEP committees, in Texas ARD Committee (Admission Review and Dismissal)  ∙ Least Restrictive Environment (LRE) 

▪ Interact with kids who are not disabled

▪ Mainstreaming

▪ After IEP is written

▪ Right to be educated to the maximum extent appropriate with students who are  not disabled

▪ Does not require that a child be placed with children who are not disabled, but  to give the best opportunity for that particular child

▪ LRE Cascade Model 

∙ Most Restrictive- child cannot leave home to get education

∙ Top- full time residential school, full time special day school, regular  classroom plus part time special class

∙ Child spends time with other kids with disabilities

∙ Bottom- regular classroom, regular classroom with assistance by itinerant  specialists (child taken out of class for assistance), regular classroom plus  resource room help

▪ Tendency for school districts to assure that they can handle the services needed  for the child, more toward bottom of cascade model  

▪ Avoid jumping to the conclusion that mainstream is the best unless it can't be ▪ Point is to find setting that matches need of child

∙ Parent/student participation in making decisions

▪ Myth that parents need to sign off for the plan to go forward

▪ If parents disagree, have the right to register disagreement and get a hearing ▪ Students participate in transition programming

∙ Procedural Safeguards

▪ Law specifies procedures for how the special education process takes place ▪ Parent rights

∙ Notice and consent for evaluation

∙ Access to educational records

∙ Timely notice of ARD meetings

∙ Home language

▪ Amy Rowley Case

∙ Deaf child who relied on sign language, total communication

∙ In school, provided services, doing okay

∙ Parents wanted a sign language interpreter and school district denied  

them of one

∙ Satisfactory progress was all the law required, not that the child excells

▪ Mediation/due process

Mainstreaming

∙ Educational Placement for the Deaf/Hard of Hearing Child

o ARD committee/IEP team must consider communication needs

∙ Consider language and communication needs in terms of the child having direct  communication with peers and teachers at academic levels

∙ Consider how the child is going to communicate with other people

▪ Does the child have to rely on an interpreter for everything they do?

∙ Special Ed directors know very little about deaf children

∙ Law in Texas that requires that child is allowed to go to the School for the Deaf if the  parent requests

▪ Districts lose out on money when they lose a child to the Deaf School

∙ Lose funding for attendance of that child

∙ Mainstreaming Deaf Students

o Least restrictive environment for needs of child means we have to have options o Mainstreaming

∙ Kids with disabilities educated in regular schools

∙ This term does not appear in official documents, just one used to talk about this  situation

∙ Can be partial or full

∙ Cluster Programs

o Services in public school systems

o Public school services in one place that is not the neighborhood school

o Regional Day School Programs for the Deaf

∙ Administrative idea

∙ Any deaf kid that lives in the area that needs to be in a special class will have a home  in one of these schools

∙ Within particular public schools

o Permitted under the IDEA

∙ Reasonable way to handle the fact that our society does not have unlimited resources o Services

∙ Classrooms

∙ Resource rooms

∙ Individual special services

∙ Coordination of IEP and services

∙ Mainstreaming Pros

o Socialization

o Learn about hearing students, understanding

o Exposure to real world

o Good for hearing students

o Higher standards for achievement

∙ Some people argue against this notion

∙ Mainstreaming Cons

o Appropriateness issues

∙ Use of interpreters

o Bigger classes, less 1:1

o Cost issues

o Lack of trained personnel

o De facto segregation

∙ Can still be no interaction between deaf and hearing because of language barriers o Diminished sense of community

∙ Center Schools

o Traditional residential school for the deaf

∙ "Commuter" and residential students

∙ Various arrangements for boarding

o Day schools for the deaf

∙ All "commuter," no residential boarding

o In both of these, ALL of the students in the school are deaf

o Pros

∙ Full communication and socialization opportunities

∙ Cultural community

∙ Trained, qualified personnel

∙ Cost effective

o Cons

∙ Less interaction with hearing people

∙ Institution (residential)

∙ Separated from parents, not living with family

∙ Lack of academic challenge

Speech, Language, Literacy Development

∙ Effective Communication Skills with Hearing People

o Family situations

∙ Siblings

∙ What is used in the home

∙ Motivation, family commitment

o Motivation of the Child

∙ Child's self-image

∙ Intelligence

∙ Speech and Language Intervention

o What does the child bring to the table?  

∙ Child's system

▪ Mental and physical equipment to acquire speech and language

∙ Does a deaf child have this equipment?

∙ Approaches to Speech and Language Intervention

o Bottom-Up Approach, Structured-Sequential (also called structured, analytic…) ∙ Subskills build to desired behavior

∙ Break behavior down into component parts, work up to target behavior ▪ Time-honored approach to teach behaviors

∙ Developing target behavior in a step-by-step fashion

o Top-Down Approach, (also called holistic, naturalistic)

∙ Modeling; successive approximations

∙ Some behaviors are not well suited to be taught a particular way

∙ The bigger issue is the fluent USE of specific speech skills in connected discourse o Not so much the acquisition of speech skills

∙ TVAK Channels 

o Tactile

∙ Sense of touch

∙ Touch throat to show voicing

o Visual

∙ Showing mouth movements

∙ Use mirrors

o Auditory

o Kinesthetic

∙ Determine position in space

∙ Muscle tension, gravity,…

∙ Ex: tongue hits different part of mouth in making different sounds

∙ Child has to learn how to hit the target, make the speech sound

∙ Ling (1976) Speech Program: Bottom-Up Approach 

o Now know enough about speech science to make a developmental program in order to  help the child develop speech skills in the same way as hearing kids do

o Starts at the beginning and builds so that deaf children can talk

o General Process

∙ Phonetic level skills

▪ Non-meaningful sounds, syllables

∙ Then transfer

▪ Babbling phase

▪ Playing with how to make various speech sounds

∙ Phonologic level skills

▪ Meaningful, communicative use

o Phonetic Level Skill Development

∙ Undifferentiated vocalizations

▪ Making sounds generally

▪ Not a big deal for most kids (hearing aid, cochlear implant)

▪ However, could be the case that a deaf child does not know he can make  sound

∙ Varied non-segmented voice patterns

▪ Duration, pitch, intensity

∙ Vowels

∙ Simple Consonants

▪ Single

▪ First, contrasted by manner of production

▪ Then by manner and place

▪ Then by manner, place, and voicing

∙ Consonant blends (clusters)

▪ Put consonants together

∙ Argues that will help child go through this specific program in order for child to  talk

∙ Start off using auditory channel, if not working well, then introduce visual, then  others channels if necessary

∙ Goal is to make it natural as possible

∙ Practice repeating sounds at 3 times per second, because that's what happens in  real speech

∙ Learn in short but frequent sessions

∙ Does Ling's method work?

o Can teach children to make the sounds, but don't necessarily see the children making  the sounds in the real world

∙ Problem of transfer and generalization

o Issues

∙ Units

▪ Words and sentences not part of the program

▪ Child has only been practicing syllables

∙ Contexts

Perspectives on Deafness Exam 3 Review

Cognition and Deafness

∙ Information processing model 

o 3-stage approach

1. Sensory Registers

 How information gets to the person in the first  place from environment

 Information coming in all of the time, much  

information completely discarded

2. Short-term (Working) Memory

 Interpreting auditory sounds

 Prime sensory registers to pay attention

3. Long-term Memory

 Hard drive of your mind, information storage

∙ Phonological mediation

o "internal speech," talking to ourselves in our mind  

∙ Phonological mediation

o "internal speech," talking to ourselves in our mind  

∙ Conrad interested in Deaf learners in 1970s

o What's wrong with Deaf education?

o Maybe phonological mediation does not work well with deaf people ∙ Experiment  

o Hearing and Deaf people look at list of words

o Memorize list

o Write down the list

o Score for accuracy

o Discovery

1. Hearing people tend to make more errors on list of words that  sound alike

 Same with Deaf people

 However, some Deaf people do not have trouble with list  

of words that sound alike

∙ Hearing losses worse than 85 dB, tended to make  

more errors on other list, not like hearing people

∙ Using different strategy, not phonological

2. Deaf people with profound hearing losses can't effectively use  phonological mediation 

 Unintelligible speech

3. Conrad claimed that profoundly deaf people cannot think  

because they can't understand their own speech

∙ Language and speech may be used strategically at times for thought, but  thought is not simply language used internally - Bernstein & Finnegan, 1983 o Talk inside our heads is not only way to think

∙ The "Ah hah" experience

o Not words or pictures

o Can get this experience other ways, like with an explanation ∙ Jerry Fodor

o Logically cannot be talking to yourself in a language you know because infants engage in thinking behavior without having a language

o There has to be some sort of internal public language

o "Mentalese" 

1. Human mind from the start has an internal computing code in  which instructions are carried out that we cannot use outside of  our mind

2. Internal speech

3. Internal sign language

4. Visual imagery

5. Other  

o For infant to acquire language, the mind has to have some kind of  internal communication system

o Deaf people also use Mentalese

∙ Deaf people and Hearing people

o Difference between simultaneous and sequential material

1. Simultaneous, rotating complex visual images 

 Deaf people better

2. Memorize sequence 

 Hearing people better

Educational Settings

∙ 1975 IDEA

o Individuals with Disabilities Act of 1975 

o Outgrowth of the 1960s civil rights movement

∙ Public schools did not accept people with mental retardation,  even if minor

∙ Realization that individuals with disabilities were being denied  the same rights that other children had

 Violation of civil rights 

o NYC in mid 1970s, young reporter Geraldo Rivera  

∙ Willowbrook State School for children who were mentally  retarded

∙ Took camera crew into school to look at conditions

∙ Exposed the school, where kids were shackled in chains, locked  in cells, ill-clothed, ill-fed, dirty

 Would only have parent visits on certain days, didn't know the conditions

o Litigation

o Extend to other disabilities, including deafness

o States given 2 years to come up with plan for education  

∙ Solomon, NY Times magazine article, written around this time o 6 Principles 

∙ Free appropriate public education (FAPE)

 Schools cannot turn children away  

 All school districts must provide educational and related  services at no cost to the family

∙ Related services include transportation, counseling, and speech, audiology, occupational (fine motor skills

manual dexterity) , and physical therapy (big motions)

 Age of eligibility

∙ 0-3 Early Childhood Intervention

∙ Individual family service plans

∙ 3-21 Special Education Services

∙ Appropriate evaluation

 Full and individual evaluation to determine eligibility,  extent of disability, how it impacts learning, educational needs,  supplementary aids and services

 Must be done in a non-discriminatory manner  ∙ In the language of the child

∙ Age appropriate

∙ No cultural discrimination

∙ Individualized Education Program (IEP), Texas  Admissions, Review, Dismissal (ARD) 

 Hold school accountable

 Document with plan for child

 Evaluation Data

∙ At least every 3 years, need complete evaluation of everything

∙ Between the 3 year evaluations, smaller  

evaluations

∙ Give measureable annual goals, bench-marks,  objectives (specific)

 Specific reports, assistive technology

 Dates of service

 Evaluation procedures

 Individual Family Service Plac (IFSP) for age 0-3 children's  families

 IEP committees, in Texas ARD Committee (Admission  Review and Dismissal)  

∙ Least Restrictive Environment (LRE) 

 Interact with kids who are not disabled

 Mainstreaming

 After IEP is written

 Right to be educated to the maximum extent appropriate  with students who are not disabled

 Does not require that a child be placed with children who  are not disabled, but to give the best opportunity for that  particular child

 LRE Cascade Model 

∙ Most Restrictive- child cannot leave home to get  education

∙ Top- full time residential school, full time special  day school, regular classroom plus part time special class ∙ Child spends time with other kids with  

disabilities

∙ Bottom- regular classroom, regular classroom with  

assistance by itinerant specialists (child taken out of class  

for assistance), regular classroom plus resource room help

 Tendency for school districts to assure that they can  

handle the services needed for the child, more toward bottom of cascade model  

 Avoid jumping to the conclusion that mainstream is the  best unless it can't be

 Point is to find setting that matches need of child

∙ Parent/student participation in making decisions  Myth that parents need to sign off for the plan to go  

forward

 If parents disagree, have the right to register  

disagreement and get a hearing

 Students participate in transition programming

∙ Procedural Safeguards

 Law specifies procedures for how the special education  process takes place

 Parent rights

∙ Notice and consent for evaluation

∙ Access to educational records

∙ Timely notice of ARD meetings

∙ Home language

 Amy Rowley Case

∙ Deaf child who relied on sign language, total  

communication

∙ In school, provided services, doing okay

∙ Parents wanted a sign language interpreter and  

school district denied them of one

∙ Satisfactory progress was all the law required, not  

that the child excells

 Mediation/due process

Mainstreaming

∙ Educational Placement for the Deaf/Hard of Hearing Child o ARD committee/IEP team must consider communication needs ∙ Consider language and communication needs in terms of the  child having direct communication with peers and teachers at  

academic levels

∙ Consider how the child is going to communicate with other  people

 Does the child have to rely on an interpreter for  

everything they do?

∙ Special Ed directors know very little about deaf children ∙ Law in Texas that requires that child is allowed to go to the  School for the Deaf if the parent requests

 Districts lose out on money when they lose a child to the  Deaf School

∙ Lose funding for attendance of that child

∙ Mainstreaming Deaf Students

o Least restrictive environment for needs of child means we have to  have options

o Mainstreaming

∙ Kids with disabilities educated in regular schools

∙ This term does not appear in official documents, just one used to talk about this situation

∙ Can be partial or full

∙ Cluster Programs

o Services in public school systems

o Public school services in one place that is not the neighborhood school o Regional Day School Programs for the Deaf

∙ Administrative idea

∙ Any deaf kid that lives in the area that needs to be in a special  class will have a home in one of these schools

∙ Within particular public schools

o Permitted under the IDEA

∙ Reasonable way to handle the fact that our society does not  have unlimited resources

o Services

∙ Classrooms

∙ Resource rooms

∙ Individual special services

∙ Coordination of IEP and services

∙ Mainstreaming Pros

o Socialization

o Learn about hearing students, understanding

o Exposure to real world

o Good for hearing students

o Higher standards for achievement

∙ Some people argue against this notion

∙ Mainstreaming Cons

o Appropriateness issues

∙ Use of interpreters

o Bigger classes, less 1:1

o Cost issues

o Lack of trained personnel

o De facto segregation

∙ Can still be no interaction between deaf and hearing because of  language barriers

o Diminished sense of community

∙ Center Schools

o Traditional residential school for the deaf

∙ "Commuter" and residential students

∙ Various arrangements for boarding

o Day schools for the deaf

∙ All "commuter," no residential boarding

o In both of these, ALL of the students in the school are deaf o Pros

∙ Full communication and socialization opportunities

∙ Cultural community

∙ Trained, qualified personnel

∙ Cost effective

o Cons

∙ Less interaction with hearing people

∙ Institution (residential)

∙ Separated from parents, not living with family

∙ Lack of academic challenge

Speech, Language, Literacy Development

∙ Effective Communication Skills with Hearing People

o Family situations

∙ Siblings

∙ What is used in the home

∙ Motivation, family commitment

o Motivation of the Child

∙ Child's self-image

∙ Intelligence

∙ Speech and Language Intervention

o What does the child bring to the table?  

∙ Child's system

 Mental and physical equipment to acquire speech  and language

∙ Does a deaf child have this equipment?

∙ Approaches to Speech and Language Intervention

o Bottom-Up Approach, Structured-Sequential (also called  structured, analytic…)

∙ Subskills build to desired behavior

∙ Break behavior down into component parts, work up to  target behavior

 Time-honored approach to teach behaviors

∙ Developing target behavior in a step-by-step fashion o Top-Down Approach, (also called holistic, naturalistic)

∙ Modeling; successive approximations

∙ Some behaviors are not well suited to be taught a  

particular way

∙ The bigger issue is the fluent USE of specific speech skills in connected discourse

o Not so much the acquisition of speech skills

∙ TVAK Channels 

o Tactile

∙ Sense of touch

∙ Touch throat to show voicing

o Visual

∙ Showing mouth movements

∙ Use mirrors

o Auditory

o Kinesthetic

∙ Determine position in space

∙ Muscle tension, gravity,…

∙ Ex: tongue hits different part of mouth in making different sounds

∙ Child has to learn how to hit the target, make the speech sound ∙ Ling (1976) Speech Program: Bottom-Up Approach 

o Now know enough about speech science to make a  developmental program in order to help the child develop speech skills in the same way as hearing kids do

o Starts at the beginning and builds so that deaf children can talk o General Process

∙ Phonetic level skills

 Non-meaningful sounds, syllables

∙ Then transfer

 Babbling phase

 Playing with how to make various speech sounds ∙ Phonologic level skills

 Meaningful, communicative use

o Phonetic Level Skill Development

∙ Undifferentiated vocalizations

 Making sounds generally

 Not a big deal for most kids (hearing aid, cochlear  implant)

 However, could be the case that a deaf child does  not know he can make sound

∙ Varied non-segmented voice patterns

 Duration, pitch, intensity

∙ Vowels

∙ Simple Consonants

 Single

 First, contrasted by manner of production

 Then by manner and place

 Then by manner, place, and voicing

∙ Consonant blends (clusters)

 Put consonants together

∙ Argues that will help child go through this specific  program in order for child to talk

∙ Start off using auditory channel, if not working well, then  introduce visual, then others channels if necessary

∙ Goal is to make it natural as possible

∙ Practice repeating sounds at 3 times per second, because  that's what happens in real speech

∙ Learn in short but frequent sessions

∙ Does Ling's method work?

o Can teach children to make the sounds, but don't necessarily  see the children making the sounds in the real world

∙ Problem of transfer and generalization

o Issues

∙ Units

 Words and sentences not part of the program

 Child has only been practicing syllables

∙ Contexts

∙ Top-Down Procedures

o Start with general exposure and interaction -> Strategies to encourage and guide what they system is doing -> Specific needs when necessary o (Semi)naturalistic Speech Approach: Calvert & Silverman ∙ Basic Idea

 Phased approach

 Kid doing all the work, child's system "does the work"  From initial natural development to guided development then remediation 

∙ Different than bottom-up because this approach engages the  child with interaction that is focused on communication, encourages  and guides the student's own efforts, and pulls out certain aspects to  expand on when needed but plugs back into context

∙ Child will be able to learn  

∙ Always operating in meaning

o Features

∙ Full, rich, interactive communication environment

 Open access, not hiding mouth

∙ Child's system does the work

∙ Focused attention on child's communication needs 

 Read the child

 No order in which you teach things

 Personal needs of child

∙ Specific training only as necessary, in functional contexts  Sharpen specific sounds

∙ Learning skills while practicing, not learning skills to apply them  later

 Learning specific target sounds, phonemes

∙ Identify target for intervention

∙ Identify words containing target

∙ Work on specific skills in syllables extracted from  

these words 

∙ Once target hit, plug back into words for practice 

∙ Practice in communicative contexts

∙ Structured (Bottom-Up) Language Development Approaches o Fitzgerald Key 

∙ Template/slot-filling approach 

 Different kinds of words, and blanks to fill in to string  together sentences

 Patterns

∙ 1: Noun Phrase, Verb…John ran.

∙ 2: NP, V, NP…John threw the ball.

∙ 3: NP, Linking Verb, Adj…John is tall.

 Sentence tree diagrams

 Still did not put language into practice

o Modern Transformational Systems

o Pros

∙ Relatively easy to use

∙ Sequences clearly defined

∙ Quick interim results

o Cons

∙ May not match normal development

 Goes against child's natural system

∙ May not engage language and speech learning systems ∙ Mechanistic, non-contextual

∙ Generalization issues

∙ Naturalistic (Top-Down) Language Development Approaches o Same basic idea as for speech approaches

o Language intervention strategies

∙ Follow student's lead

∙ Expansion and modeling

∙ Self-talk

∙ Parallel talk

 Back and forth

∙ Informative talk

 Give facts to child

∙ Saboteur strategies

 Elicit language

 Find ways for child to ask questions

o Pros

∙ Engages child's system

∙ Carried out in functional communicative contexts

∙ Better long term success

o Cons

∙ Harder to do

 Require creativity

∙ Complex, subtle evaluation of progress

∙ Specific techniques unspecified, left to teacher

∙ Takes a long time to blossom

 Impatient parents

 Pointing to what goes on with typically developing  

students

o What works best is a careful, judicious combination of both approaches ∙ Nothing wrong with direct techniques to teach child to talk ∙ But, enforcing a specific program is not successful  

∙ "Rational eclecticism"

Literacy

∙ Language and Literacy

o Importance of context 

o Integrating speech, language, cognition, and literacy 

o "Language experience" activities

∙ Write about experiences to read

o Reading in two languages

∙ Using signed language and speech

∙ Tell the story in ASL

∙ Knoors & Marschark Article

o Shift in cochlear implant "debate"

∙ Cochlear implants won

 They are here to stay

∙ No point in arguing that cochlear implants are evil, that deaf kids should not be implant

∙ Improved technologies

∙ They work well

o Acknowledgement that many deaf kids will grow up with spoken  language

o Insistence on sign or bi-b- may be silly for most deaf kids, even  counterproductive

∙ 90% of deaf kids have hearing parents

 Typically don't develop adequate first language in ASL o Yet, SC and/or use of ASL can be facilitative

o Proposed solutions

∙ Recognize 3 groups of students

 Early implants (infant, 1 year)

 Mid-age implants (2-3 years)

 Late implants & others

∙ Different approaches for each

 Future, will mostly be early implants

∙ Start with spoken language, train parents, teach sign as a formal subject 

Post-graduation Options

∙ What happens after?

o Mainstream students, mainstream education

o Students from schools for the deaf

∙ Mainstream higher education

∙ Trades

∙ SSI

 Don't work, paid for disability

∙ "Deaf" higher education

 Gallaudet

o More active deaf citizens

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