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FAU / Art History / ARH 2000 / When was the roman empire united by constantine?

When was the roman empire united by constantine?

When was the roman empire united by constantine?

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Final Exam Study Guide 


When was the roman empire united by constantine?



Christian Art: 

∙ 313 AD: Christianity became tolerated by Constantine

∙ 380 AD: Christianity became the official language

∙ The Arch of Constantine was made right before Constantine converted  to Christianity

∙ Decline of Classicalism/quality of work as the Roman empire fell ∙ Constantine united the Roman Empire in 1313

∙ Romans maid the first coins

∙ Basilica: large building; made to accommodate large groups of people o Ex. All churches are basilicas but not all basilicas are Churches ∙ Early Christians worshipped in the catacombs secretly


Where did the renaissance originate?



o Also, an ancient burial site

o Catacombs were areas for both burial AND worship

∙ The Good Shephard: early symbol of Christ; young boy with a sheep,  sheep becomes a symbol of Christianity and sacrifice

o symbolic of sacrifice Don't forget about the age old question of What building type is madrasa?

o early image of Jesus

∙ Orant: praying figure/stance; figures that are praying

∙ Façade: front of a building

∙ Mosaic: a group of tiles put together to make a picture

∙ Renaissance: rebirth (1400 is the Italian Renaissance)

∙ Giotto: (1270s-1334); brought the importance and image of nature  back from the medieval world  


What is the difference between impressionism and post-impressionism?



o Made wall murals, or frescos

 Painting on a thin, wet, plaster surface

∙ Arena chapel: has famous frescos from Giotto If you want to learn more check out How do social algorithms determine what shows up in one's feed?

∙ Humanism: belief in the value of the individual We also discuss several other topics like What was the effect of the rupture between the presidency and the party?

∙ Panel paintings: painting on a piece of wood; cover it in plaster and  then paint it with tempra paint

o Tempra paint: mixed with egg; dries FAST

∙ Gold leaf is a piece of gold that’s been pounded until it has a tinfoil-like presence

∙ Madonna painting becomes symbolic of the church

∙ The renaissance really began in Florence, Italy. 

∙ Arena chapel was made by a sinful and scared man

o Created so that he wouldn’t go to hell

∙ Portraits began to appear more in the 16th century

∙ Oil paint: dry pigment mixed with oil; dried SLOWLY but gave an  amazing effect

∙ Realism: 1800s, painting exactly what you see

o Goya was a realist If you want to learn more check out What factors determine demand?

o Artist is showing you what he wants you to see

∙ Impressionism: this movement involves sunlight

 ∙     Post-impressionism: using design and form

 ∙     Abstraction: to disassemble and reassemble nature and other things in  their own way

 o Kendinsky: first non-representational abstract painter (made  jagged lines)

 ∙     Picasso: always able to redefine things; FOUNDED CUBISM  o Cubism: reassemble a different way

Other Important Points: 

∙    Venus figures represent fertility and beauty (Venus of Wilendorf) ∙    Prehistoric-35000BC; Neolithic-15000BC

∙    Cave paintings have animals, relief art; nothing primitive about it  ∙     Post & Lintel system: 2 posts with a slab across the 2 posts, like 2 walls with a roof If you want to learn more check out Who are considered mestizos?

o Jericho has a lot of these

o bricks were made of sun-dried clay

o Plastered skulls were preserved skulls

∙    Mesopotamia is the land between two rivers; fertile crescent ∙    Mudbrick: bricks made of mud that were stacked together  ∙     Ziggurat: a mudbrick Sumerian temple

∙    votive statues = praying statues

∙    Cuneiform is the written language of the Mesopotamians and it’s made of symbols

∙    Stele is a land marker from Mesopotamia

∙    Wax-loss method is a form of metal casting; lose wax and replace with  metal

∙    the Babylonians gave us glazed brick 

∙    ancient architecture often decorated with different things like lions ∙    In Egypt, there was the Old Kingdom, Middle Kingdom, and New  Kingdom

∙    most Egyptian art is found in tombs

∙    mummies were preserved and wrapped bodies; often found with  different artifacts; dry

o found in a sarcophagus

 ∙     Stepped Pyramid: made of limestone bricks; one of the earliest forms  of Egyptian architecture If you want to learn more check out Who wrote the first bossa nova music?

 ∙     Mastaba: a shaft tomb (dig a tunnel into the ground)

 ∙     Genre = everyday, relaxed; formal = stiff, formal, fancy  ∙     hieroglyphs are the Egyptian form of writing; their language

 ∙     Rock-cut tomb: was made to discourage looters; dig into the rock and  down

∙    The Great Pyramids were made for three important pharaohs  ∙     Palace tomb: Hatshepsut buried in one; looks like a palace ∙    the insides of tombs are painted, and it looks fresh because there isn’t  a lot of exposure

∙    Minoans and Mycenaeans existed at 1500BC

 ∙     Cycladic = island people, Minoan; Helladic = main land people,  Mycenaean

∙    Marble used in a lot of Minoan art, but very little Minoan architecture  exists

∙    Minoan island had terrible earthquakes, but life there was very good  apart from that  

∙    Minoan architecture is highly decorated and painted

∙    Minoans were not war-like; calm and peaceful

 ∙     Linear B is the written language of the Minoans

∙    Mycenaeans, were more war-like; they made weapons, and had a good  army

∙    Main-land Greece was much harsher

∙    Minoans and Mycenaeans both used animals in their decorations ∙    Four epochs of Greece: Geometric, Archaic, Classical (5th BC),  Hellenistic (1st-3rd BC)

o 800 BC-200 AD

o Archaic=geometric; classical=beautiful; Hellenistic=heroic ∙    On the Mediterranean and Aegean Seas

∙    geometric art and eye makeup are in the Archaic period ∙    Kouros figures is from the Archaic period

o male votive/praying figure place in temples

o Kore is a female votive figure

o Cornrow hair is Archaic

 ∙     Contrapposto is the natural way of standing that indicated the spine ∙    In the Classical period, people were painted/sculpted to look beautiful o math equation for the height of your body

∙    Hairstyles began to change at 500 BC and art was looking like it was  inhaling

 ∙     Doric (plain), Ionic (scrolls), and Corinthian (leaves) are the three  orders of capitals

 ∙     foundation, façade (front of the temple), column (stone pillars),  pediment (triangle in the front), cella (inside, where the Gods were  worshipped), capital (top of the column) = parts of a temple o made of limestone

∙    During the Hellenistic Era, figures became more heroic o figures began to tell more of a story

o Greeks were defeated by the Romans

 ∙     Slip: liquid clay with a silicon base; put in a kiln and then came out with a glaze (black and red figures)

∙    Romans were the first to make portraits and they also defeated the  Greeks

∙    Etruscans and Romans copied the Greeks; 400 BC-600 AD ∙    Etruscans lived in Central Italy

∙    Etruscans were wall painters, they cast metals, had gold, and believed  in cremation

∙    Romans built same types of temple as the Greeks made, but they  added engineering 

o Arch, dome, used cement/brick and mortar, created viaducts  (moved water)

∙ Romans made portraits, or sculptures/paintings of a specific person

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