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FAU / Art History / ARH 2000 / When was the roman empire united by constantine?

When was the roman empire united by constantine?

When was the roman empire united by constantine?


Final Exam Study Guide 

When was the roman empire united by constantine?

Christian Art: 

∙ 313 AD: Christianity became tolerated by Constantine

∙ 380 AD: Christianity became the official language

∙ The Arch of Constantine was made right before Constantine converted  to Christianity

∙ Decline of Classicalism/quality of work as the Roman empire fell ∙ Constantine united the Roman Empire in 1313

∙ Romans maid the first coins

∙ Basilica: large building; made to accommodate large groups of people o Ex. All churches are basilicas but not all basilicas are Churches ∙ Early Christians worshipped in the catacombs secretly

Where did the renaissance originate?

o Also, an ancient burial site

o Catacombs were areas for both burial AND worship

∙ The Good Shephard: early symbol of Christ; young boy with a sheep,  sheep becomes a symbol of Christianity and sacrifice

o symbolic of sacrifice

o early image of Jesus

∙ Orant: praying figure/stance; figures that are praying If you want to learn more check out What was the influence of charlemagne in the medieval christianity?

∙ Façade: front of a building

∙ Mosaic: a group of tiles put together to make a picture

∙ Renaissance: rebirth (1400 is the Italian Renaissance)

∙ Giotto: (1270s-1334); brought the importance and image of nature  back from the medieval world  

What is the difference between impressionism and post-impressionism?

o Made wall murals, or frescos

 Painting on a thin, wet, plaster surface

∙ Arena chapel: has famous frescos from Giotto

∙ Humanism: belief in the value of the individual

∙ Panel paintings: painting on a piece of wood; cover it in plaster and  then paint it with tempra paint

o Tempra paint: mixed with egg; dries FAST

∙ Gold leaf is a piece of gold that’s been pounded until it has a tinfoil-like presence

∙ Madonna painting becomes symbolic of the church

∙ The renaissance really began in Florence, Italy. 

∙ Arena chapel was made by a sinful and scared man

o Created so that he wouldn’t go to hell Don't forget about the age old question of Is server a type of computer?

∙ Portraits began to appear more in the 16th century

∙ Oil paint: dry pigment mixed with oil; dried SLOWLY but gave an  amazing effect

∙ Realism: 1800s, painting exactly what you see

o Goya was a realist

o Artist is showing you what he wants you to see

∙ Impressionism: this movement involves sunlight

 ∙     Post-impressionism: using design and form

 ∙     Abstraction: to disassemble and reassemble nature and other things in  their own way We also discuss several other topics like What are the disadvantages of partisanship?

 o Kendinsky: first non-representational abstract painter (made  jagged lines)

 ∙     Picasso: always able to redefine things; FOUNDED CUBISM  o Cubism: reassemble a different way

Other Important Points: 

∙    Venus figures represent fertility and beauty (Venus of Wilendorf) ∙    Prehistoric-35000BC; Neolithic-15000BC

∙    Cave paintings have animals, relief art; nothing primitive about it  ∙     Post & Lintel system: 2 posts with a slab across the 2 posts, like 2 walls with a roof

o Jericho has a lot of these

o bricks were made of sun-dried clay

o Plastered skulls were preserved skulls

∙    Mesopotamia is the land between two rivers; fertile crescent ∙    Mudbrick: bricks made of mud that were stacked together  ∙     Ziggurat: a mudbrick Sumerian temple

∙    votive statues = praying statues

∙    Cuneiform is the written language of the Mesopotamians and it’s made of symbols We also discuss several other topics like What is the correlation between product market and resource market?

∙    Stele is a land marker from Mesopotamia

∙    Wax-loss method is a form of metal casting; lose wax and replace with  metal

∙    the Babylonians gave us glazed brick 

∙    ancient architecture often decorated with different things like lions ∙    In Egypt, there was the Old Kingdom, Middle Kingdom, and New  Kingdom

∙    most Egyptian art is found in tombs

∙    mummies were preserved and wrapped bodies; often found with  different artifacts; dry

o found in a sarcophagus

 ∙     Stepped Pyramid: made of limestone bricks; one of the earliest forms  of Egyptian architecture

 ∙     Mastaba: a shaft tomb (dig a tunnel into the ground)

 ∙     Genre = everyday, relaxed; formal = stiff, formal, fancy  ∙     hieroglyphs are the Egyptian form of writing; their language

 ∙     Rock-cut tomb: was made to discourage looters; dig into the rock and  down

∙    The Great Pyramids were made for three important pharaohs  ∙     Palace tomb: Hatshepsut buried in one; looks like a palace ∙    the insides of tombs are painted, and it looks fresh because there isn’t  a lot of exposure Don't forget about the age old question of Who are considered mestizos?

∙    Minoans and Mycenaeans existed at 1500BC

 ∙     Cycladic = island people, Minoan; Helladic = main land people,  Mycenaean

∙    Marble used in a lot of Minoan art, but very little Minoan architecture  exists

∙    Minoan island had terrible earthquakes, but life there was very good  apart from that  

∙    Minoan architecture is highly decorated and painted

∙    Minoans were not war-like; calm and peaceful

 ∙     Linear B is the written language of the Minoans

∙    Mycenaeans, were more war-like; they made weapons, and had a good  army

∙    Main-land Greece was much harsher

∙    Minoans and Mycenaeans both used animals in their decorations ∙    Four epochs of Greece: Geometric, Archaic, Classical (5th BC),  Hellenistic (1st-3rd BC) We also discuss several other topics like What are the two forms of candomble?

o 800 BC-200 AD

o Archaic=geometric; classical=beautiful; Hellenistic=heroic ∙    On the Mediterranean and Aegean Seas

∙    geometric art and eye makeup are in the Archaic period ∙    Kouros figures is from the Archaic period

o male votive/praying figure place in temples

o Kore is a female votive figure

o Cornrow hair is Archaic

 ∙     Contrapposto is the natural way of standing that indicated the spine ∙    In the Classical period, people were painted/sculpted to look beautiful o math equation for the height of your body

∙    Hairstyles began to change at 500 BC and art was looking like it was  inhaling

 ∙     Doric (plain), Ionic (scrolls), and Corinthian (leaves) are the three  orders of capitals

 ∙     foundation, façade (front of the temple), column (stone pillars),  pediment (triangle in the front), cella (inside, where the Gods were  worshipped), capital (top of the column) = parts of a temple o made of limestone

∙    During the Hellenistic Era, figures became more heroic o figures began to tell more of a story

o Greeks were defeated by the Romans

 ∙     Slip: liquid clay with a silicon base; put in a kiln and then came out with a glaze (black and red figures)

∙    Romans were the first to make portraits and they also defeated the  Greeks

∙    Etruscans and Romans copied the Greeks; 400 BC-600 AD ∙    Etruscans lived in Central Italy

∙    Etruscans were wall painters, they cast metals, had gold, and believed  in cremation

∙    Romans built same types of temple as the Greeks made, but they  added engineering 

o Arch, dome, used cement/brick and mortar, created viaducts  (moved water)

∙ Romans made portraits, or sculptures/paintings of a specific person

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