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UCR / Chemistry / CHEM 001A / Who discovered the mass and charge of an electron?

Who discovered the mass and charge of an electron?

Who discovered the mass and charge of an electron?

Description

School: University of California Riverside
Department: Chemistry
Course: General Chemistry
Professor: Hill harman
Term: Fall 2018
Tags: Chemistry
Cost: 50
Name: Chem 001A Final Exam Study Guide
Description: Notes from cumulative lectures in Ludwig Bartels' Chem001A Class
Uploaded: 12/06/2018
13 Pages 34 Views 2 Unlocks
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Robert Millikan (oil droplet experiment)

  • Discovered mass + charge of an electron with oil dub experiment

We also discuss several other topics like What are the three things seen on bonds certificate?
We also discuss several other topics like What is the definition of parameter in statistics?

Henry Becquerel (radioactivity)

  • Some materials emit invisible radiation consisting of charged particles
  • Radioactivity
  • B particles (high energy)
  • ∝ particles (+) charge; the nucleus + mass
  • Gamma (protons) with energy higher than x rays
  • Protons - particles of light

We also discuss several other topics like What is the sixth largest city in the united states?

Rutherford’s experiment

  • Most x particles travel thru thin gold foil unattracted
  • Atom is mostly made of empty space
  • Some x particles are deflected by small angus
  • Nucleus is positively charged ( x particles bounce away because x particles are positively charged)
  • Some x particles travel back from foil
  • Nucleus (positive) carries most of atom's mass
  • 1 amu = 1 dalton
  • Isotope - same number of protons, different number of neutrons
  • Elements with even number of positive move stable nuclids

Don't forget about the age old question of What does anthropogenic change mean?

  • Alpha

Don't forget about the age old question of Name the famous case study in psychology about amnesia.

  • beta

If you want to learn more check out Why did the portugese undertake navigation around africa in the late 15th century?

  • E = mc²        m = mass

ΔE = Δmc²        c = speed of light - 3 x 108

  •  Binding energy raise - mass lower
  • Modern per table arranged by order of  increasing atomic number
  • Columns: similar chemical + physical properties
  • Benoas: horizontal, group: vertical
  • Metals
  • Shiny solid heat/electric conductor
  • Malleable and ductile
  • Metalloids
  • Shiny but brittle, semiconductors
  • Average atomic mass
  • Weighted average of all naturally occurring isotopes of an element
  • Multiply abundance of isotope by its mass in amu and summing products

Lecture 3

  • Mule: 6.022 X 10^23 particles = Avogadro’s number
  • Number molecules = mass/molar mass
  • Mass spectroscopy

Lecture 1

  • Intensive vs extensive properties
  • Independent of amount of substance present (i.e. color, odor, malleability, density, etc)
  • Extensive dependent upon amount (mass, length, mume)
  • Homogeneous mixtures = solution
  • Separating mixtures: filtering, duplicating, chromatography
  • Work formula
  • W = Fd - distance , F = force, w = work
  • Kin energy
  • kE = 1/2mv²
  • S1 units:

Quantity (dimension)                        Unit

Mass                                kilograms (kg)

Length                         meter (m)

Time                                seconds (s)

Temperature                        kelvin (k)

Electric current                ampere (A)

Amount of substance                mole (mol)

Luminous intensity                candela (cd)

  • Sig Figs: first zeros before decimal point are never significant; after are always significant
  •    0 0 1 . 30 meters

Insig  sig

Lecture 2:

  • Mendeleev’s periodic table: order by increasing atomic mass; no protons yet similar physical + chemical properties
  • J. j. Thompson (plum pudding model + cathode ray experiment
  • Cathode ray beam deflected toward + charge plate
  • Atoms contain e- with constant mass to charge ratio
  • Particle beam in cathode ray behaves same no matter what material
  • + charge distributed throughout spherical atom

Lecture 4: planck's constant

  • Ground state: stable + lowest energy M; excited any e. State above ground stable
  • Electron transition: mvmt of e between e stable
  • Hellenberg uncertainty: one cant knwo both exact position and momentum of e-
  • Quantum numbers
  • N = principal quantum
  • Shell no. - ranges from 1 to infinity
  • E = orbital
  • S, p, d or f; range from 0 - n -1
  • Me = orbital orientation (for p: x, y, z)
  • L to l - 2l + 1
  • Ms = magnetic spin; -½ or ½ np
  • 1(last arrow point up) ; ½ ; (last arrow down) - ½

  • Pauli exclusion principle: no 2 e- in atom can have identical quantum #
  • Orbital energy

  • Attraction of nucleus (+)  cancelled out by repulsions from e- near (negative repels negative)

Electrons Configuration up to neon: (atom no. 10)

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