KIN 223 Final Exam Study Guide
Chapter 1: An Introduction to A&P
1. Describe anatomical position.
∙ Standing upright with its arms and legs straight down and palms, face, and
toes facing anteriorly (forward).
o A standard frame of reference for the description and orientation of
2. List the various dissection planes.
∙ Sagittal (longitudinal), frontal (coronal), and transverse (horizontal).
3. Describe a feedback loop.
∙ Receptor (receives the stimuli) ➝ Control center (receives/processes info from the receptor)➝ Effector (responds by opposing/enhancing the
4. Positive vs negative feedback loops.
∙ In an NFL, homeostasis is reestablished to the desired range without needing to solve the stimuli. The receptor, or nerves, receive a signal, sending information to the central nervous system (the brain and spinal cord) where it is processed. The CNS then sends commands to the If you want to learn more check out med surg exam 2
effectors (signal ➝ tissue), which act in opposition to the stimulus (e.g. sweating in hot weather).
o This is the ideal loop for homeostasis.
∙ PFLs accelerate to completion and take the body away from homeostasis as it must to remove or correct the original stimulus. In a PFL, the effector amplifies the stimuli instead of working against it. o For example, clotting.
5. List the major body cavities.
∙ Thoracic cavity
o Contains the lungs and the heart within three subdivisions. ∙ Abdominopelvic cavity Don't forget about the age old question of kaplan 66
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o Contains the many digestive glands and organs, urinary bladder,
and the reproductive organs.
6. Locate the following anatomical regions:
a. Cephalic (head, cephalon)
b. Cervical (neck, cervicis)
c. Axillary (armpit, axilla)
d. Brachial (arm, brachium)
e. Antecubital (elbow, antecubitis)
f. Antebrachial (forearm, antebrachium)
g. Pollex & Hallux (thumb & big toe) We also discuss several other topics like rabeculae
h. Umbilical (belly button, umbilicus)
i. Inguinal (groin, inguen)
j. Femoral (thigh, femur)
k. Crural (lower leg, crus)
l. Carpal & Tarsal (wrist & ankle, carsus & tarsus)
m. Pedal (foot, pes)
n. Dorsal (back)
o. Lumbar (loin, lumbus)
p. Gluteal (buttocks, gluteus)
q. Popliteal (back of the knee, popliteus)
r. Sural (calf, sura)
s. Palmar & Plantar (palm & sole of foot, palma & planta)
7. Know the major directional terms in anatomy.
∙ Superficial: at or relatively close to the surface of the body ∙ Deep: toward the interior of the body; farther from the surface ∙ Superior: above, toward the head
∙ Inferior: below, toward the feet We also discuss several other topics like What unique structure was discovered at an 11,500-year-old village in the Middle East?
∙ Cranial, or Cephalic: toward the head We also discuss several other topics like phonetics phonology morphology syntax semantics
∙ Caudal: toward the coccyx (tail, bottom)
∙ Anterior, or Ventral: the front of the body
∙ Posterior, or Dorsal: the back of the body
∙ Lateral: away from the midline
∙ Medial: toward the midline
∙ Proximal: toward the point of attachment of a limb to the trunk ∙ Distal: away from the point of attachment of a limb to the trunk 8. Use basic regional and systemic terminology.
∙ Four Body Quadrants (used by clinicians)
o Right upper quadrant (RUQ): liver, gallbladder, right kidney
o Left upper quadrant (LUQ): spleen, stomach
o Right lower quadrant (RLQ): appendix, reproductive organs
o Left lower quadrant (LLQ): urinary bladder, reproductive organs
∙ Nine Body Regions (used by anatomists)
9. List the major levels of organization in a human organism.
I. Chemical: atoms to molecules to macromolecules (e.g. proteins) II. Cellular: living units and organelles with functions (e.g. the nucleus) III. Tissue: a collection of cells performing a specific function (e.g. muscle
IV. Organ: a collection of two or more tissues working performing
nonspecific functions (e.g. the stomach)
V. Organ system: a collection of organs working together (e.g. the endocrine
VI. Organism: a collection of organ systems working together to support life
(e.g. a human being)
Chapter 2: Chemical Level of Organization
∙ Ion: an atom that is no longer electrically neutral.
∙ Electrolyte: an inorganic substance that produces a conductive solution
when dissolved in polar solvent (e.g. water).
∙ Free radical: an atom/molecule that has an unpaired valence electron. o A highly reactive and unstable atom or molecule. Caused by sun
exposure, pollution, xrays, exercise, etc., this damages proteins (by hitting them with the extra electron) and has been linked to
aging and cancer.
2. Define these mechanisms of bonding:
∙ Covalent bond: the sharing of electrons.
o Polar: unequal sharing.
o Nonpolar: equal sharing.
∙ Ionic bond: opposites (positive and negative) attract, give/take electrons. ∙ Hydrogen bond: H+ bonds to N, O, and F.
3. Explain the physiological importance of water.
∙ Only substance that exists at livable temperatures for all states of matter. ∙ Surface tension: cohesion keeps the surface of water together o Water is more attracted to itself than anything. Because Hbonds
have a strong attraction to each other, they form many strong and flexible bonds. The surface of water is held together by these
relatively weak bonds, but insects such as spiders use surface
tension to walk across water.
∙ High heat capacity: water has so many highly attracted hbonds, it requires more thermal energy to let the molecules develop enough kinetic
energy in order to break their bonds.
o Our bodies are 4565% H2O. The water will absorb a lot of heat, which is circulated through the blood, reaches the capillaries, and is released as sweat where most of the heat evaporates into the air – maintaining homeostasis.
∙ Lubrication: there’s little friction between water molecules, so water
between two opposing forces greatly reduces friction.
∙ Universal solvent: a significant number of inorganic and organic molecules, or solutes, dissolve in water (the solvent) to create a solution –
a uniform mixture of two or more substances.
∙ Chemical reactant: the chemical reactions in our bodies occur in water, and water also participates in some reactions (e.g. hydrolysis and
4. Distinguish solution, solute, and solvent.
∙ A solute (substance) dissolves in a liquid (solvent) forming a solution. 5. Define a salt.
∙ Salt: any ionic compound that dissociates completely in a solution. o For example, NaCl (table salt) breaks into usable components. 6. Define:
∙ pH: the ratio of H+ (proton accepter) to OH (proton donor)
∙ Acid: releases H+, H+ > OH
∙ Base: removes H+, OH > H+
∙ Buffer: resists and neutralizes change in pH by adding or removing H+ o e.g. bicarbonate (HCO3)
7. Identify the monomers and polymers of…
∙ Carbohydrates: monosaccharides, polysaccharides
∙ Proteins: amino acids, polypeptide chains
∙ Lipids: fatty acids, triglycerides (glycerol body with FA tails)
o Lipids are nonpolar covalent bonds, opposite to water’s polarity,
making them hydrophobic.
8. State the four levels of protein structure.
I. Primary (1o): amino acids in a linear polypeptide string.
II. Secondary (2o): different atoms bond to parts of the polypeptide, folded in
III. Tertiary (3o): modified, functional protein made in the Golgi apparatus. IV. Quaternary (4o): multiple polypeptide chains strung together to form a
9. Explain the function of enzymes in chemical reactions.
∙ Enzymes are catalysts for chemical reactions in the body.
o Enzymes lower activation energy (energy needed to react) by
grabbing the reactants (or substrates), turning them into proper
positions, and pushing them together until they form the bond
needed (like doing a puzzle) over and over.
10. Describe the role of ATP in a cell.
∙ ATP is how cells do work.
o Only 40/100 units of the potential energy is used to do work, while
60/100 units are released as thermal energy.
∙ ATP + H2O + (Enzyme ATPase) > ADP + inorganic Pi + (energy) ∙ Catabolic (breaking down), exothermic (releases energy), hydrolysis.
Chapter 3: Cellular Level of Organization
1. Describe the structure of a cell membrane.
∙ A phospholipid bilayer
o A polar, hydrophilic phosphate head
Interacts with cytosol and interstitial fluid to permit cellular
o A nonpolar, hydrophobic lipid tail
Separates the cytoplasm from the extracellular fluid.
Amphipathic cholesterol (having polar and nonpolar portions)
stiffens the cellular membrane by aligning with both the
polar head and nonpolar tail of the bilayer.
2. Describe the following mechanisms of movement and their energy sources. a. Simple diffusion: atoms move from high concentration to low
concentration via Brownian motion and collisions.
b. Facilitated diffusion: atoms move using integral transmembrane protein
channels; Brownian motion.
c. Osmosis: diffusion of water from areas of low solute concentration to high solute concentration.
d. Active transport: requires energy to move solute against its
o Primary: ATP causes the pump to open and bring in the solute. o Secondary: the passive movement of another solute down its
concentration gradient gives the first solute the energy to go
against its own gradient.
e. Endocytosis: membrane creates a vesicle around the solute; ATP
f. Exocytosis: vesicles fuse to membrane and spit out solute. g. Phagocytosis: does the same thing as endocytosis but with larger
molecules and digestive enzymes.
3. Identify each type of organelle in a human cell.
a. Ribosome: creates proteins.
b. Rough ER: transportation and storage.
c. Smooth ER: creates lipids/fat.
d. Golgi apparatus: synthesis,
packaging, and release of
e. Lysosomes & Peroxisomes:
f. Mitochondria: produces energy
through cellular respiration.
g. Nucleus: information center; hold
4. Where and why is RNA synthesized?
∙ In the nucleolus for transcription.
5. Explain the roles of…
∙ tRNA: transfer – carries amino acids and anticodons in the cytosol.
∙ mRNA: messenger – carries genetic information from DNA in the nucleus through nuclear pores to the RER or free ribosomes for translation. Chapter 6: Bones and Bone Structure
1. List the major functions of the skeletal system.
∙ Protection: protects vital organs
∙ Support: framework of the body
∙ Leverage (movement): skeletal system works with the muscular system ∙ Hematopoiesis: production of blood cells
o Bone marrow contains stem cells used in white/red blood cell
∙ Stores minerals and lipids: bones contain high amounts of connective
2. Describe the components of bone tissue.
3. Identify the internal structural components of compact and spongy bone. ∙ Compact bone
o Osteon: basic functional unit of compact bone.
o Canaliculi: tunnels that osteocyte membrane extensions
o Using gap junctions and not requiring blood, osteocytes
share oxygen, waste, and nutrients.
o Lamellae: thin layer of bone matrix.
o Circumferential lamellae: layers of the bone.
o Concentric lamellae: layers of an individual osteon.
o Central canal: large strawlike shaft of an osteon for
blood vessels, nerves.
o Perforating canal: perpendicular passageway (central
canal but sideways).
o Circumferential canal
∙ Trabecular (Spongy) bone
o Lamellae: for diffusion.
4. Describe the roles of osteogenic and hematopoietic cells in bone tissue
∙ Osteogenic: osteoblasts secrete bone ECM and are embedded in it,
where they die and become osteocytes.
∙ Hematopoietic: the mesoderm (where blood originates) is where
osteoclasts come from (monocyte fusion).
5. Intramembranous vs endochondral (intracartilaginous) bone formation. ∙ Endochondral ossification
P1. Mesenchymal cells aggregate to the bone formation site. 1. They differentiate into chondroblasts (secretes cartilage
ECM for cartilage model).
2. Cartilage model is surrounded with perichondrium [contains cartilage ECM secreting chondroblasts (appositional
growth = wider) and chondroblasts in the center reproduce
(interstitial growth = longer)]
3. Chondroblasts get stuck, become chondrocytes.
Chondrocytes attract blood vessels. Some grow too big and
die, leaving a hole (lacuna).
P2. Further chondrocyte hypertrophy (death) in center, attracts
o perichondrium > periosteum
o chondroblasts > osteoblasts create bone ECM, generates a
bony collar. Blood vessels deliver hematopoietic cells.
P3. Arriving blood vessel penetrates the bony collar, goes into
the center of the cartilage model.
o Blood stem cells (used for osteoclastic production) and
osteogenic cells are delivered.
o Osteoclasts dissolve cartilage in the model (center > out),
forming the Primary Ossification Center.
o Osteogenic cells differentiate into osteoblasts and deposit
new bone ECM.
P4. Osteoclasts resorb (break down) trabecular bone to form the medullary cavity (balances strength to weight ratio by making bones less heavy) with compact bone walls. The remaining
chondroblasts are found in the epiphyses.
o Capillaries and osteoblasts migrate to the Secondary
Ossification Center within the epiphyses.
∙ Intramembranous ossification
o Dermal (membrane) bones; flat and sesamoid
o Here, there is no intermediate cartilage. Mesoderm still creates mesenchymal cells, which aggregate at the bone formation site. They then go in different directions, becoming either cartilage or bone.
6. Describe the structures and functions of periosteum and endosteum. ∙ Periosteum: superficially covers compact bone, except within joints. o Outer layer: Dense irregular connective tissue (e.g. collagen) that
serves vessels, nerves, and the lymphatic system.
o Inner layer: Osteogenic + stem tissue that aids in bone growth and
o This layer supports appositional bone growth (wider across). o With bone growth, collagen fibers from tendons, ligaments, and
joint capsules are cemented into the circumferential lamellae using osteoblasts from the inner (cellular) layer of the periosteum,
creating what’s called perforating fibers.
∙ Endosteum: cellular layers that line the medullary cavity for vessels that
penetrate compact bone.
7. List the functions of osteoblasts and osteoclasts during…
∙ Bone growth: Osteoclasts eat the cartilage skeleton, osteoblasts fill the space with bone ECM (periosteum = appositional growth = wider and
center = interstitial growth).
∙ Remodeling: Happens over the course of a normal active life. Mature bone tissue is removed by osteoclasts and replaced by stronger, newer
tissue by osteoblasts.
∙ Repair: With spongy bone corpses removed, osteoblasts replace external callus cartilage with bone ECM. Osteoclasts remove jagged edges of
bone. This happens over and over.
8. Describe blood calcium regulation.
∙ Low [Ca2+]blood
o[Ca2+]blood < 8.5 mg/dl
Stimulus: low calcium
Receptor: parathyroid gland
Control Center: parathyroid gland
Effector Signal: parathyroid hormone > binds to PTH
receptor on osteoblast
Effector Cell: osteoblast > secretes RankL > binds
osteoclast receptors > 1. increases resorption and
generates more calcium 2. generates more osteoclasts from
PTH also enhances calcitriol.
Receptor + Control Center: PTHRs from PCT cells
Effector Signal: Calcitriol (steroid hormone)
Increased renal calcium reabsorption
Increased osteoclast resorption
via increase of osteoblast Rank L
∙ High [Ca2+]blood
o [Ca2+]blood > 10.5 mg/dl
Stimulus: high calcium
Receptor: Ccells (parafollicular cells of the thyroid)
Control Center: Ccells
Effector Signal: calcitonin
Effector Cell: osteoclasts > binded by calcitonin:
Decreased osteoclast resorption
Decreased differentiation of preOC
Increased renal excretion of calcium and H2PO4
9. Explain the following…
∙ Pituitary growth failure: reduced epiphyseal cartilage activate,
abnormally short bones.
∙ Gigantism: excess growth hormone before puberty, bones lengthen. ∙ Acromegaly: excess GH after puberty, bones thicken.
Chapter 8: Joints
1. Describe the functional classification (ROM) of the following joints. ∙ Synarthrosis: no movement; sternum.
∙ Amphiarthrosis: little movement on both sides; pubic symphysis ∙ Diarthrosis: freely moveable; the knee joint, all synovial joints.
o Uniaxial (single axis), biaxial (two axes, e.g. middle knuckle), and
triaxial (three axes, e.g. shoulder)
2. Describe the anatomical classification of the following joints. ∙ Fibrous
A fibrous collagen joint that connects only cranial bones.
1. In adults, synarthrosis.
2. In infants, amphiarthrosis.
b. Gomphosis (gomph = bolt = nail)
Found in teeth.
Functional class: synarthrosis, because it doesn’t move
Periodontal ligaments keep teeth anchored.
1. These ligaments also have sensory nerves that allow
for shock absorption, measuring how hard or soft the
thing your chewing is.
c. Syndesmosis (togetherband)
Ligaments band bones together, like with ankle articulation.
Longer than sutures.
Functional class: amphiarthrosis.
∙ Cartilaginous: synarthrotic; sternum, ribs.
Bring bones together via cartilage
e.g. ribs, hands (epiphyseal and cartilage plates)
Growing together, a union
e.g. pubic symphysis (dense fibrocartilage)
During pregnancy, a relaxant loosens your cartilage
Functional class: amphiarthrosis
a. Found in phalanges, shoulders, knees, elbow, most places.
b. Consists of a synovial cavity with an inner and outer layer.
Filled with synovial fluid – resists friction by lubricating joints
(with age, lose fluid and risk osteoarthritis), distributes
nutrients, and provides shock absorption.
Fluid is derived from joint blood plasma and proteins.
Outer layer is a continuation of the periosteum.
3. List the structural components of the synovial joint.
∙ Outer fibrous layer: dense irregular tissue.
∙ Articular cartilage: covers bone ends.
∙ Articular joint capsule: encloses the cavity to contain synovial fluid. ∙ Joint synovial cavity: separates two bones and contains synovial fluid. ∙ Articular discs (menisci): fibrocartilage that separates articular surfaces. ∙ Bursae: fibrous sac filled with synovial fluid to prevent bone friction. ∙ Tendon sheaths: elongated bursa wrapped around a tendon, tight
∙ Ligaments: ACL, PCL, Fibular lateral collateral, tibial medial collateral. 4. List the six types of synovial joints.
5. What do bulging and herniated intervertebral discs do?
∙ Bulging disc: If the posterior longitudinal ligaments weaken, the
compressed nucleus pulposus can distort the anulus fibrosus and force it
into the vertebral canal.
∙ Herniated disc: If the nucleus pulposus breaks through the anulus fibrosus, it can also move into the vertebral canal. This compresses spinal
nerves and causes pain and nerve damage that may lead to paralysis
6. List the factors of osteoporosis.
∙ A reduction in bone mass that compromises normal function.
∙ Occurs between 3040 when osteoblast activity begins to decline. ∙ Bones become thinner and weaker.
o Moreso in women as menopause occurs and they lose estrogen. o Low levels of estrogen increase osteoclast bone resorption which
may lead to osteoporosis.
7. Glenohumeral vs hip joints, form vs function.
oShape: very shallow socket, “ball” is more like a doorknob
oFunction: range of motion > stability
oShape: deep socket, a true ball
oFunction: stability > range of motion
8. Explain ligamentous structures’ maintenance of the knee joint.
Chapter 9: Skeletal Muscle Tissue
1. Describe the organization of muscle tissue.
∙ Skeletal: cylindrical (shaped like a tube), striated (dark bands and a
striped appearance), multinucleated (long and wide across).
∙ Cardiac: branched, striated with intercalated discs (the electrical junctions
or gaps between cells), not multinucleated.
∙ Smooth: tapered (fat in the middle and narrow at the ends), no striations,
2. Identify the connective tissue layers.
∙ Epimysium (close upon): wraps the whole muscles.
∙ Perimysium (around): forms around a bunch of muscle fibers, creating
what is called a fascicle.
∙ Endomysium (within): covering around individual muscle cell fibers. o Made up of collagen, these all form your tendons, which connect
muscle and bone and resist tension.
3. Describe a skeletal muscle fiber.
a. Sarcolemma: the cell membrane of muscle; has “holes” or invaginations
for the Ttubule network.
b. Sarcoplasm: cytoplasm of a myocyte (muscle cell).
c. Myoglobin: binds oxygen in skeletal muscle, keeps it close for mitochondria to perform oxidative phosphorylation (ATP synthesis). Most
common in slow fibers.
d. Transverse (T) tubules: continuous with the sarcolemma; allows AP to
travel through; completely consists of ECF.
e. Sarcoplasmic Reticulum (SR): like the smooth endoplasmic reticulum; forms the tubular network around each myofibril; its tubules enlarge, fuse,
and form expanded chambers called terminal cisternae.
f. Triad: combination of a pair of terminal cisternae and a T tubule; tightly
bound but the fluid contents are separate and distinct.
g. Myofibrils: long, cylindrical, internal structure that consists of
h. Myofilaments: protein filaments, the most abundant being:
o Thin filaments (actin)
o Thick filaments (myosin)
i. Sarcomere: functional contractile unit of myofilaments; consists of: o M line: connects the central portion of each think filament.
o H band/zone: lighter region on either side of the M line; contains
only thick filaments.
o A band: the dense (dark) region that contains myosin.
o I band: the light band that contains thin filaments not overlapped by
j. Troponin: three globular subunits; one binds to tropomyosin to form a complex; a second bins to a Gactin to hold it in position; the third has a
receptor that binds to calcium ions.
k. Tropomyosin: covers the active sites on Gactin and prevents actin
myosin interaction; doublestranded protein that is bound to one troponin. 4. Identify each contractile, regulatory, and structural protein of a sarcomere.
5. How does an electrical signal reach the neuromuscular junction (NMJ)? ∙ The stimulus is an AP that arrives at the axon terminal.
6. Describe the events that occur at the NMJ.
∙ At the NMJ, a motor neuron stimulates a skeletal muscle fiber into
∙ ACh is exocytosed, diffuses across the synaptic cleft.
∙ Binds AChR on sarcolemmal end plate, opens Na+ ligandgated channels. ∙ Na+ goes down concentration gradient, changes charge of motor end
∙ Voltage Gated Na+ channels beyond the MEP result in sarcolemmal AP. 7. Describe the contraction cycle of skeletal muscle.
∙ Rising calcium is bound by troponin, triggers topomyosin to move and
reveal actin’s binding site.
∙ Myosin binds to actin via the myosin head, forming the crossbridge. ∙ A power stroke by the myosin bends the head and releases ADP + Pi. ∙ ATP attaches to the myosin head, detaching the crossbridge. ∙ ATP hydrolyzes to ADP and Pi and returns myosin to the cocked position, 8. List the characteristics of…
∙ Fast muscle fibers (Type IIx, FG): Smallest, high oxidative capacity, high resistance to fatigue, slowest to reach peak tension after stimulation, lots of myoglobin, dark red; uses carbohydrates, lipids, and amino acids.
∙ Slow muscle fibers (Type I, SO): Large diameters, densely packed myofibrils, low oxidative capacity, low resistance to fatigue, uses massive amounts of ATP, supported by anaerobic metabolism, white muscles;
∙ Intermediate muscle fibers (Type IIa, FOG): High oxidative capacity,
moderate resistance to fatigue, pale; uses carbohydrates.
9. Define motor unit.
∙ A motor neuron and all the muscle fibers it controls. Size determines
10. Interpret a lengthtension graph and explain.
o Sarcomeres best produce tension within a specific range of lengths. Here, the number of crossbridges is maxed, and the greatest tension is
produced. It’s maximal at 2.2 microns.
o Decreasing the resting sarcomere length reduces tension as stimulated sarcomeres cannot shorten very much before thin filaments of either side
collide or overlap.
Tension production is zero when the thick filaments are
stuck against the Z lines and the sarcomere can no longer
o Increasing sarcomere length reduces tension produced by decreasing the
size of the overlap zone and thus the number of crossbridge interactions. o When the zone of overlap is zero, thin and thick filaments are
completely unable to interact, and the fiber cannot produce any
This is typically prevented by titin filaments.
11. Describe concentric and eccentric contraction.
∙ Isotonic: tension rises to a constant level, and the muscle’s length changes. o Concentric: muscle tension exceeds the load and the muscle
Flexing the elbow joint while holding dumbbell. The muscle
must recruit enough motor units to defeat gravity.
o Eccentric: muscle tensions is less than the load, and the muscle
Lowering the dumbbell and extending the flexed elbow joint.
Muscle decreases motor unit recruitment, dumbbell overcomes
tension, and the muscle lengthens.
Chapter 11: Nervous Tissue
1. Identify the parts of the neuron that…
∙ Receive information: dendrites
∙ Integrate information: soma, nucleus
∙ Generates an action potential: initial segment
∙ Conduct action potential: axon, Schwann cells, telodendrion, axon
2. Concentrations of sodium vs potassium vs chloride in and out of a cell. ∙ There are more potassium ions within the cell than sodium, which
dominates the extracellular environment with chloride.
3. Define an electrochemical gradient.
∙ Although the inside of the cell has a greater amount of K+, it also has
many proteins that give it an overall negative charge.
o This polarity forms the current or electrochemical gradient
∙ An electrical gradient is generated by the electric potential of an ion moving
across the membrane (e.g. Na+ attracted to the negative proteins). ∙ A chemical gradient is established by the solute concentration (e.g. K+
moving out of the cell to the sodiumdominated extracellular space). ∙ Together, this forms the electrochemical gradient.
4. Explain the role of the sodiumpotassium exchange pump.
∙ Hydrolyzes ATP into ADP + Pi to pump 2 K+ in (influx) and 3 Na+ out
(efflux) against the leaky current.
o Difficult 2:3 ratio – the only way to produce a sodium current.
o Because we lose more potassium, there are also antiporters to
bring K+ back in.
∙ With only leaky channels, we would reach equilibrium, so the pump allows
cells to produce a current.
5. Voltagegated vs chemicallygated ion channels.
∙ A voltagegated ion channel opens and close in response to a change in
membrane potential. Found mainly on the initial segment and the axon. ∙ A ligandgated (chemicallygated) ion channel opens when the channel
binds specific chemicals. Found mainly on the dendrites and soma. 6. Describe the sequence of events that generate an action potential. ∙ To start a neuron action potential, a neurotransmitter, ACh is released
via synaptic vesicles into the synaptic cleft. ACh binds to a receptor on a ligandgated sodium channel on the dendrites and soma of the
∙ The ligandgated sodium channel opens and sodium goes down its concentration gradient, diffusing into the postsynaptic neuron.
∙ It turns the negative intracellular fluid into a positive like the outside, a
process called depolarization.
o If this happens in only a part of the neuron, this is a local (graded) potential. This is used to make reaching full action potential easier
(like leaving the car running).
o If this happens at a larger rate, the depolarization will reach the initial segment, thus activating the action potential at the trigger
zone. This is allornone and cannot be stopped once started.
o STEP 1: DEPOLARIZATION TO THRESHOLD
∙ Threshold is the membrane potential of 60 mV.
∙ Once the initial segment is depolarized to 60 mV, it releases an action potential that starts a chain reaction down the axon. Sodium vgated channel after sodium vgated channel is opened, rapidly depolarizing the
length of the axon.
7. Discuss positive feedback in AP generation.
∙ Unused ACh is broken up into acetate and choline by AChE. The choline is reabsorbed into the presynaptic axon terminal where it’s used to create
more ACh for AP generation.
∙ A positive feedback loop is seen as sodium influxes, causing more gates to open and more sodium to enter.
8. Explain absolute and relative refractory periods.
∙ Absolute: The sodium voltagegated ion channel has an inactivation and activation gate. Both gates open to allow sodium influx, but when the next channel opens, the previous inactivation gate closes, preventing anymore AP from occurring and signaling the absolute refractory period (when
you cannot generate anymore AP no matter what).
∙ Relative: All the sodium vgated ion channels’ inactivation gates are shut. Repolarization occurs when K+ vgated channels finally open (as they are slow) and causes potassium to influx. Partway to full repolarization, you reach the relative refractory period. Here, with a strong enough
stimulus, you can get another AP.
9. How do the following affect conduction velocity?
∙ Axon diameter: larger diameter = quick conduction
oThe increase in surface area means an increase in number of sodium channels. So, at a Node of Ranvier, there will be more
channels, a larger gradient, and faster diffusion/AP propagation.
∙ Myelination: Schwann cells create Nodes of Ranvier that allow AP to “jump” across the myelinated portion and skip over many voltagegated Na+ channels it otherwise would have had to open individually. [Saltatory conduction]
1. Describe the gross anatomy of the spinal cord and spinal nerves. ∙ Spinal cord: surrounded by bony vertebral foramen.
o There are 24 individual vertebrae (C1 C7, T1 – T12, and L1 – L5),
but only 20 surround the spinal cord proper.
∙ Spinal nerves: collections of axons of both afferent and efferent PNS
o Five regions
o 31 pairs: named similar to their corresponding vertebra.
Mismatch between numbers of cervical vertebrae (7) and
cervical spinal nerves (8); cervical spinal nerves start above
the Atlas (C1) as opposed to starting under the vertebra as
with the other two regions.
o Vertebra grow in size, but nerves don’t, which causes them to
o Because the spinal cord proper ends at the conus medularis (L1 or L2 depending) the ventral and dorsal roots of the remaining
nerves must extend downward to form the cauda equine (“tall
2. Identify anatomical features of a crosssectioned spinal cord.
3. List the four spinal nerve plexuses.
1. Cervical plexus: phrenic nerve originates here and innervates the
2. Brachial plexus:
I. Musculocutaneous nerve: innervates the biceps brachii for
II. Median (middle) nerve
III. Radial nerve
IV. Ulnar nerve: responsible for the funny bone
3. Lumbar plexus: femoral nerves (have alphamotor neurons that contract
4. Sacral plexus: superior and inferior gluteal nerves (sciatica). 4. Distinguish the pairs of reflexes:
∙ Intrinsic (inborn) reflexes: those we are born with (e.g. plantar and
∙ Learned reflexes: those we acquired from training or learning.
∙ Somatic reflexes: involving the somatic (voluntary) NS.
∙ Visceral reflexes: involving organs (autonomic), such as the contraction of smooth muscle to prevent excessive blood flow through vessels to delicate tissues.
∙ Monosynaptic reflexes: when a sensory neuron synapses directly with a
motor neuron; single segment.
∙ Polysynaptic reflexes: at least one interneuron; multisegmental. o Decussation
∙ Ipsilateral reflexes: sameside; arcs do not cross over to the other side of the spinal cord and only synapse with effectors near the sensory neurons
(e.g. the stretch reflex test).
∙ Contralateral reflexes: otherside; activate motor neurons on both the opposite and same side of the spinal cord.
5. Differentiate between spinal reflexes and intersegmental spinal reflexes. ∙ Spinal reflexes are the simplest arcs and involve only one segment of
the spinal cord, while intersegmental reflex arcs result in APs in neurons
across several segments.
6. Describe the following reflexes.
∙ Stretch reflex (monosynaptic and ipsilateral): involves a special skeletal muscle cell with a centrally located nucleus. The sensory fiber coils around, forming the muscle spindle, and constantly generates AP
with more rapid stretching.
o Overstretching is prevented with an afferent signal to the spinal
cord, causing the muscle to contract.
o Gamma motor neurons adjust and maintain sensitivity, resetting spindles’ lengths (e.g. when you nod off and your neck pulls your
head back up).
o When the patellar ligament is stretched, stretch receptors in the quadriceps femoris are stretched. This stimulates sensory neurons that synapse and control motor units in stretch muscle. Info
processes in the motor neuron soma and activates it, propagating an AP to the effector. Skeletal muscle fibers are stimulated,
contracts the stretched muscle in the knee in a brief kick.
∙ Flexor (Withdrawal) reflex (polysynaptic and ipsilateral): moves affected body part away from a stimulus. This stimulus can range from
mild to powerful, even activating reverberating circuits.
o Sensory neurons activate interneurons in the spinal cord that
stimulate motor neurons in the anterior gray horns, creating flexor muscle contraction to yank the body part away.
Flexors stimulated, extensors inhibited
∙ Crossedextensor reflex (polysynaptic and contralateral): o Step on a tack, the flexor reflex pulls the affected foot away. The
crossed extensor reflex occurs simultaneously because collaterals of the excitatory and inhibitory interneurons cross to the other side of the spinal cord to motor neurons controlling muscles in the safe leg. The uninjured, opposite leg is extended and straightened to
support shifting weight.
7. Locate and define the first, second, and thirdorder neurons in a sensory
∙ Firstorder neurons: unipolar, sensory, somatic or visceral neurons that are stimulated and produce APs. Enter the spinal cord via the dorsal root
and synapse with a secondorder neuron in the dorsal gray horn. ∙ Secondorder neuron: an interneuron; decussates and the axon ascends
the spinal cord via the white matter tract to the thalamus where it
synapses with a thirdorder neuron.
∙ Thirdorder neurons: integrated in the primary somatosensory cortex.
8. Locate and define the upper and lower motor neurons in a motor pathway. ∙ Upper motor neuron: in the primary motor cortex, generates and
propagates its AP to a lower motor neuron in the brain stem (i.e. midbrain,
pons, or M.O.).
∙ Lower motor neuron: excited, propagates its AP along a descending
motor tract (spinal cord white matter) to where the axon exits via a ventral root and enters a spinal nerve to a target tissue (e.g. skeletal muscle).
9. Explain decussation…
∙ In sensory (ascending) and motor (descending) pathways:
o Medulla oblongata: the primary decussation site for both
ascending and descending axons.
Exceptions: some ascending (Anterior Spinothalamic Tract,
decussates in spinal segment) and descending (Anterior
Corticospinal Tract, decussates in spinal segment) tracts.
∙ Correlate to brain damage in stroke patients
o CNS damage is contralateral. For example, a sudden inability to produce or control muscle contractions on the right side of the body suggests damage to the primary motor cortex and cranial motor
nerves in the leftbrain hemisphere.
Chapter 13: The Brain, Cranial Nerves, and Sensory and Motor Pathways
1. Identify the five developmental regions of the brain.
1) Telencephalon: cerebrum (largest, gyri and sulci)
2) Diencephalon: thalamus (relay center for the cerebrum) and
hypothalamus (emotions, autonomic function, hormone production) 3) Mesencephalon: midbrain (visual and auditory information, controls those
reflexes, helps maintain consciousness)
4) Metencephalon: cerebellum (more than half the brain’s neurons, coordinates/modulates motor commands from cerebral cortex) and pons
(connects cerebellum/brainstem, somatic and visceral control)
5) Myelencephalon: medulla oblongata (relays sensory info through
brainstem to thalamus, regulates autonomic functions)
2. Identify the lobes of the cerebral cortex and how motor/sensory functions are
1) Frontal lobe
o Primary motor cortex: anterior to central sulcus for somatic motor
o Prefrontal cortex: motor association, intentional AP, tells the
primary motor cortex “I want to do this.”
2) Parietal lobes
o Primary somatosensory cortex: picks up touch.
o Association Area: where stimulus is integrated.
3) Occipital lobe
o Primary visual cortex
o Association area: in various parts of the brain
o Primary auditory cortex
o Association area: in various parts of the brain
3. Discuss cerebral hemispheric specialization and the role of the corpus callosum. ∙ Left and right actually are different.
∙ Left hemisphere: speech, language, math
o Broca’s (speech and motor control) and Wernicke’s (ability to
understand speech) areas.
o Fine motor control if righthanded
Handedness: righthanded = writing in left hemisphere, left is
slightly larger than right due to use.
∙ Right hemisphere: art, space, time
∙ Both are good at spatial relationship because of crosstalk.
∙ Corpus callosum – “crosstalk”
o Both hands have good spatial relationship
o Putting both sides together, how they communicate
4. Locate and define the limbic system.
∙ Grouping of nuclei and tracts along the border between the cerebrum and
diencephalon (which contains the thalamus and hypothalamus). ∙ Responsible for emotion, linking the conscious and unconscious,
facilitating memory storage and retrieval, and motivation.
∙ Primitive brain (emotions and motivations)
o Fear, anger, aggression, fightorflight response
5. Describe longterm memory storage and consolidation in the brain. ∙ Hippocampus: primary nuclei system for memory formation
o Short to long: long term potentiation (LTP) between hippocampus
and associated neurons
Repetition, dial it
∙ Strengthens neural pathway between the
hippocampus and visual cortex – where the memory
is finally stored.
Use multiple senses
6. Locate and define the reticular activating system (RAS).
∙ Located in the midbrain; maintains consciousness and attention. o Stimulation = alerts, damage = unconsciousness
7. Identify the meninges.
∙ Dura mater: fields of collagen
o Endosteum (Periosteal)
∙ Subdural space
∙ Arachnoid mater: spiderwebs (collagen fibers) connect arachnoid and pia
∙ Subarachnoid space: contains CSF.
∙ Pia mater: thinnest collagen layer, right on the grey matter.
o Extends to form filum terminale anchors spinal cord to coccyx
o Forms lateral, triangular denticulate ligaments that stabilize the spinal
cord and absorb shock.
∙ Dura and arachnoid extend to about S2.
8. Describe the function of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and its production, circulation,
o Cushions the brain
o Medium of transport and diffusion
o Four ventricles and brainstem are lined with ependymal cells that filter
blood plasma to create and secrete CSF, circulated in the ventricles. Ependymal cells have a Blood CSF Barrier.
o Ciliated ependymocytes in ventricles and spinal canal circulate CSF
through those structures and the subarachnoid.
o Periosteal and meningeal dura mater separate and surround veings that circulate reduced blood in venous circulation (e.g. Superior
Sagittal Sinus; arachnoid granulation; 150 mL of CSF 3 times/day). 9. List the cranial nerves.
o Motor (M) cranial nerves: carry only efferent axons.
o Sensory (S) cranial nerves: carry only afferent axons.
o Mixed (SM) cranial nerves: carry both efferent and afferent axons. I. Olfactory (S)
II. Optic (S)
III. Oculomotor (M)
IV. Trochlear (M)
V. Trigemmal (SM)
VI. Abduceas (M)
VII. Facial (SM)
VIII. Vestibulocochlear (S)
IX. Glossopharyngeal (M)
X. Vagus (SM)
XI. Accessory (M)
XII. Hypoglossal (M)
1. Describe the two divisions of the autonomic nervous system.
∙ Sympathetic (thoracolumbar) division: excitation, fight or flight,
innervates ganglia close to the spinal cord.
∙ Parasympathetic (craniosacral) division: rest and digest, innervates
close to target muscle. Cranial nerves III, VII, IX, X are a part of this. 2. Contrast the anatomies of the parasympathetic and sympathetic divisions. ∙ Sympathetic
o Sympathetic Chain ganglia (Paravertebral): synapsing points,
ganglia connected to each other, lateral to the aorta.
Either climbs or descends this trunk to get to the effector
tissue or leaves the chain through the splanchnic nerve to a
o Collateral ganglia (Prevertebral): ganglia on top of or in front of the
CNS outflow: preganglionic neurons in lateral grey horns of
T1L2 through ventral root.
PNS ganglia: near vertebral column
o Lengths and neurotransmitters
Preganglionic fibers: short, ACh
Postganglionic fibers: long, NE, ACh
Cardiac, pulmonary, celiac, superior or inferior mesenteric
ganglia and plexuses
Either goes through the sympathetic ganglion to the target
tissue or through the adrenal medulla (chromaffin cells),
excretes epinephrine, to the blood stream to the target
o Collateral ganglia (prevertebral): ganglia on top of or in front of the
CNS outflow: preganglionic neurons in brainstem and spinal
PNS ganglia: intramural
o Lengths and neurotransmitters
Preganglionic fibers: long, ACh
Postganglionic fibers: short, ACh
3. Describe specific effectors that are dually innervated by both branches of the
ANS and the effect thereof.
∙ The branches’ relationship is a teeter totter; same tissue, different receptor; they turn each other down.
∙ The sympathetic division increases norepinephrine which boosts heart rate. Parasympathetic inhibits heart rate using the vagus nerve which
boosts ACh and inhibits muscles.
4. Describe examples of effectors innervated only by the sympathetic or
∙ When you’re cold, the sympathetic branch constricts your blood vessels,
whereas during high heat or activity it dilates your vessels.
∙ There is no effector innervated only by the parasympathetic branch. 5. Cholingeric vs adrenergic nerve fibers.
∙ Cholingeric nerve fiber neurotransmitters interact with cholingeric
receptors on the parasympathetic postsynaptic membranes.
o Nicotinic: found pretty much everywhere; excitatory; ACh excites the ganglionic neuron or muscle fiber by opening chemically gated sodium channels in the postsynaptic membrane and beginning
depolarization. Stimulated by nicotine.
o Muscarinic: produces longerlasting effects than nicotinic; can be excitatory or inhibitory; stimulated by muscarine (mushrooms). ACh activates a muscarinic receptor which activates a Gprotein
receptor (second messenger) activating protein after protein in a
∙ Adrenergic nerve fiber neurotransmitters interact with adrenergic receptors o Alpha receptors: less stimulated by NE; stimulation activates
associated G proteins on the cystoplasmic cide of the cell. Alpha1
excites, alpha2 inhibits.
o Beta receptors: located on the plasma membrane in many
organs; stimulation changes the metabolic activity of the cell. 1, 2, and 3.
∙ Vasomotor reflexes: change in major artery blood pressure > change in diameter of peripheral vessels > coordinated in vasomotor center in the
∙ Pupillary visceral reflex arc (change in pupil diameter):
o Parasympathetic: Photon > retina > activates signals to optic tract > synapse > interneuron synapses with brain stem nuclei > AP
generated along the oculomotor nerve > ciliary ganglion > ciliary
muscles of eyes > pupil constriction.
o Sympathetic: pupil dilation from decreased AP generation.
∙ Heart muscle cell maintains resting heart rate by vagus nerves releasing
ACh to muscolinic receptors on the cardiomyocyte.
7. Explain the roles of baroreceptors and chemoreceptors in cardiovascular
∙ Baroreceptors (sympathetic): stretch receptors that monitor pressure changes; regulates heart rate, blood flow, respiration, and waste
∙ Chemoreceptors: detects change in chemical concentration within the blood, manages respiration and arterial blood aerotic bodies, expels CO2. Chapter 15:
1. Describe the functions of accessory structures of the eye.
∙ Eyelids: protection, spread tears.
∙ Eyebrows: expression, protection from rain and sun rays
∙ Lacrimal glands + ducts: produces antibacterial tears that go through
ducts to the sclera.
∙ Lacrimal caruncle: pink corner of eye; produces thick mucus (sand) to trap debris.
∙ Superior + inferior canaliculi, punctum: tears flow through into the
lacrimal sac, to the nasolacrimal duct (causing tear boogers)
2. Trace the path of light from the eye to various parts of the brain. ∙ Light hits ganglion cells, then bipolar cells.
∙ Photon goes through the cornea (transparent cover) to the anterior chamber to the pupil to the posterior chamber to the lens (shape determines focus point, bends to bring light to fovea) through the vitreous humor to the circular central region of the retina called the macula. It hits the very center of the macula called the fovea centralis, the highest
concentration of receptors in the retina.
∙ The photo. will either hit a cone or a rod. If it misses, it will go to the
pigmented epithelium and be converted to heat energy.
o Cats and cows have night vision because they have a layer in front
of the pigmented epithelium.
∙ With the ganglion cells activated, from the retina the AP signal will go ipsilaterally (same side) or decussate to the contralateral visual cortex in
the occipital lobe.
oThe optic nerve (II) joins at the optic chiasm, which is where
decussation occurs. Goes along the optic tract to the midbrain to the visual cortex in the occipital lobe. Sensory neurons: firstorder, secondorder to visual cortex to visual association areas (make
sense of what you’re looking at).
oSuperior colliculus – the reflex of a loud sound grabbing your attention. Quickly turn your head in its direction, a reflex for survival that gathers visual information
3. Describe the structure of the retina and its cells.
∙ The retina contains: photoreceptors, supporting cells, pigment cells, and
o The pigment epithelium: covers the optic section of the retina
directly on the choroid, connected to the vitreous plate.
o Photoreceptors (lightsensitive cells): chronically activated, they always release glutamate (inhibitory to bipolar cells) which prevents
AP. Cones: color. Rods: black and white.
∙ The cones are active only in bright illumination conditions. The number of the cones amounts to 7 million in the human retina. They ensure central
form vision and color perception.
4. Locate the olfactory receptors.
∙ 1020 million receptors located in the upper epithelium (nose mucus layer) 5. How do odorants activate olfactory receptors?
∙ Odorants are small, airborne, and water and lipidsoluble.
∙ Bind to an odorant binding receptor protein.
∙ Activate adenylate cyclase, converts ATP to cAMP
∙ cAMP opens the Na+ channel, depolarizes the membrane
∙ Sufficient depolarization triggers AP in the axon
∙ Axon travels into the CNS
6. Trace the path of olfactory receptor nerve impulses to various parts of the brain. 1) Chemicals activate olfactory receptor cells, depolarizing bipolar olfactory
2) Axons leave the olfactory epithelium.
3) 20 or more bundles penetrate the ethmoid bone.
4) The first synapse occurs in the olfactory bulb (cranial nerve I). 5) Axons travel the olfactory tract.
6) Axons reach the olfactory cortex, hypothalamus, and various parts of the
7. Identify the location and structure of taste buds (linguinal papillae).
∙ Vallate papillae: pencil eraser tipshaped; found in deep epithelial folds in
a V shape.
∙ Foliate papillae: leaves; found in lateral margins of the posterior region. ∙ Fungiform papillae: button, mushroomshaped; in shallow depressions. ∙ Filiform papillae: not for tasting; increase surface area and friction, stops
slippery things from moving around.
8. Explain how dissolved chemicals activate gustatory receptors. ∙ Tastants bind receptors on microvilli, activating a 2nd messenger (like in
9. Trace the path of gustatory receptor nerve impulses to various parts of the brain. ∙ Sweet, bitter, and umami tastants bind receptors and activate a second
oSalty and acidic molecules have their own channels.
∙ Cranial nerves III, IX, and X conduct APs to the medulla oblongata (first
∙ Second order neurons decussate to the thalamus (limbic system). ∙ Third order neurons move to the gustatory cortex of the insula in the
10. List the five primary taste sensations.
∙ Sour, bitter, salty, sweet, and umami (savory).
11. Describe the structures that enable hearing (audition).
∙ Auricle: a funnel that catches soundwaves (compressed layers of
∙ Auditory canal: where the soundwaves travel.
∙ Tympanic membrane: what the waves hit, causing it to vibrate inward towards the middle ear. The vibration is transduced to three bones
(ossicles) of the middle ear:
∙ The malleus, incus, and stapes: have a connection to the… ∙ Cochlea (snail’s shell) where the receptor cells for audition are located. ∙ Tensor tympani and stapedius (smallest in the body) muscles:
connected to the ossicles; part of a reflex arc to cause a large movement
in the tympanic membrane with a large sound efferent signals cause them to contract and doesn’t allow them to vibrate very much, protecting
12. Describe the sound conduction pathway.
∙ Vibration of the tympanic membrane vibrates the stapes, which extends to
the footplate which is attached to the oval window of the cochlea. ∙ This produces pressure waves in the inner ear fluid perilymph. ∙ Pressure waves undulate (up and down movement) in the basilar
membrane of the cochlea.
∙ The hair cells (mechanoreceptors) within the basilar membrane bend. ∙ APs are generated and conducted by the cochlear nerve.
∙ The cochlear nerve is connected to receptors hair cells embedded in a
∙ Pressure waves go down and push the basil membrane upward 13. How do ear structures influence the pitch and loudness of sounds? ∙ Low frequency: distance between peaks is longer, processed in the
smaller end of the cochlear. Measured in hertz
∙ High frequency: peaks are closer together, processed in early part of
∙ Soft amplitude: short waves, less hair cells are bent.
∙ Loud amplitude: high waves, more hair cells are bent.
14. Static vs dynamic equilibrium.
∙ Static equilibrium: when you change your head’s position and don’t
o Saccule (transverse): receptors are arranged horizontally, hair
cells go left and right
You step into an elevator, feel it go up or down. Sinking
feeling is because of saccules. Otoliths don’t immediately
move due to density and bend hair cells.
o Utricle (vertical): arranged up and down.
Otoliths (crystalline objects) shift on the otolithic membrace
when your head goes down, bending the hair cells and
creating AP to tell you where your head is pointing.
The cerebellum compares the change in stretched muscles
∙ Dynamic equilibrium: your head is actively moving (shaking or nodding). o Semicircular canals filled with endolymph fluid.
Anterior semicircular duct: “yes,” sagittal plane
Lateral semicircular duct: “no,” transverse plane
Posterior semicircular duct: tilting head side to side,
Vertical plane is for spinning.
o At the end of each canal is an ampulla which has a gelatinous
component called the ampullary cupula with hair cells.
o Bending the hair cells leads to AP generation and follows the
vestibular sensory nerve.
o Newton’s 1st law of motion: fluid moves first and bends the hair
15. Describe the maculae and their function in static equilibrium.
∙ The saccules and utricle of have maculae, special mechanoreceptors, that detect static equilibrium using hair cells. The nerve impulses generated go
along the vestibular branch (VIII).
16. Describe the crista ampullaris and its function in dynamic equilibrium. ∙ Cristae ampullaris detect acceleration in the three perpendicular planes
using hair cells as well, except these ones detect the fluid changing. Chapter 23:
∙ Metabolism = all the anabolic and catabolic processes in the body ∙ Catabolism: complex to simple structures
o Exergonic (energy releasing)
∙ Anabolism: simple to complex structures
o Endergonic (energy inputted)
2. Describe the following processes:
o Location: Cytosol
o Substrates: Glucose, ADP, NAD
Glucose (ATP > ADP)
1) Glucose (Hexokinase) > Glucose6Phosphate
2) Glucose6Phosphate > Fructose6Phosphate (ATP >
3) Fructose6Phosphate (PFK) > Fructose1,6Bisphosphate
4) Fructose1,6Bisphosphate > Dihydroxyacetone phosphate 5) (splits into two) Glyceraldehyde3Phosphate
ENERGY GENERATION: everything below happens twice
6) Glyceraldehyde3Phosphate > 1,3Bisphosphoglycerate
(NAD+ > NADH, H+)
7) 1,3Bisphosphoglycerate > 3PhostphoGlycerate (ADP >
8) 3PhostphoGlycerate > 2PhostphoGlycerate
9) 2PhostphoGlycerate > PhosphoEnol Pyruvate
10) PhosphoEnol Pyruvate > Pyruvate (ADP > ATP)
Any pyruvate that doesn’t enter the mitochondria is
converted to Lactate + H+, and NADH, H+ > NAD+
o Products: 4 ATP, 2 Pyruvate, 2 NADH
o Energy yield: 2 ATP net
∙ Formation of AcetylCoA
o Location: Mitochondrial matrix
o Substrates: Pyruvate, Coenzyme A, NAD+
o Products (for one pyruvate): Acetyl CoA, 1 CO2, 1 NADH
o Energy yield: [In the Krebs Cycle]
∙ The Krebs (TCA) Cycle (aerobic glycolysis)
o Location: Mitochondrial matrix
1) AcetylCoA (CoASH) > Citrate
2) Citrate > Isocitrate
3) Isocitrate > XKetoglutarate (NAD+ > NADH)
4) XKetoglutarate > SuccinylCoA (NAD+, CoA >
5) SuccinylCoA > Succinate (GTP > GDP; ADP, Pi >
6) Succinate > Fumarate (FAD > FADH2)
7) Malate > Oxaloacetate (NAD+ > NADH)
8) Oxaloacetate + AcetylCoA > Citrate
o Products: 3 NADH + 1 NADH from AcetylCoA formation, 1 CO2, 1
GDP, 1 ATP 1 FADH2
o Energy yield: 12.5 ATP for one cycle, 25 ATP for two
1 NADH = 2.5 ATP
1 FADH = 1.5 ATP
∙ Electron transport chain (ETC)
o Location: Mitochondrial matrix
1) NADH provides electrons to convert O2 > NADH oxidizes
H+ goes into the outer mitochondrial region.
2) Outer mitochondrial region has more H+ than the matrix,
uses the electrical concentration gradient by sending H+
through the final channel into the matrix.
3) Kinetic energy generated turns the ATP synthase motor,
rephosphorylates ADP into ATP with chemical energy.
o Products: CO2, metabolic water, ATP
o Energy yield: 30 ATP
3. Predict the metabolic conditions of…
∙ Glycogenesis: glycogen synthesis; absorptive state (post meal). ∙ Glycogenolysis: breakdown of glycogen, doesn’t need sugar; post
absorptive (overnight, after digestion), starvation + stress.
∙ Gluconeogenesis: making sugar from noncarbons; starvation + stress. 4. Summarize beta oxidation of fatty acids and relate it to ketogenesis and
∙ Most energy: 106 ATP x 3 fatty acyl chains = 318 ATP total.
∙ Boxidation of fatty acids removes 2 carbons from the end of fatty acyl
CoA, producing acetyl CoA, NADH, and FADH2.
∙ Ketogenesis breaks down fatty acids and ketogenic amino acids to produce ketone bodies (not enough food intake or insulin, so the body
must break down fat instead of sugar).
∙ If left untreated, a buildup of ketone bodies and acid is called
ketoacidosis. Can be treated with buffers.
5. Define metabolic rate and basal metabolic rate.
∙ Metabolic rate: metabolism over a period of 24 hours.
∙ Basal metabolic rate: the minimum amount of energy needed to survive. o Measured while alert and relaxed.
6. Differentiate between radiation, conduction, evaporation, and convection. ∙ Radiation: objects warmer than the environment lose heat energy as
infrared radiation. For instance, the heat from the sun.
∙ Conduction: direct transfer of energy through physical contact. Not
effective; depends on temperature of the object and skin area.
∙ Evaporation: water changes from a liquid to a vapor, absorbing energy
and cooling its respective surface.
∙ Convection: heat loss to cooler that moves across your skin. As the body loses hear to the air next to your skin, the air warms up and rises away from your surface, replaced by cooler air. This is 15% of the body’s heat loss indoors.