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UCCS / Nursing and Health Science / HSCI 2070 / What is the science of food?

What is the science of food?

What is the science of food?

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School: University of Colorado Colorado Springs
Department: Nursing and Health Science
Course: Nutrition for Health Professionals
Professor: Jackie berning
Term: Fall 2018
Tags:
Cost: 50
Name: NURTIRION FINAL EXAM (CHOOSE THIS ONE)
Description: FINAL EXAM STUDY GUIDE
Uploaded: 12/09/2018
6 Pages 13 Views 7 Unlocks
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Nutrition Final Exam Review


What is the science of food?



Chapter 1 and 2

1. Define nutrition

a. The Science of Food; the nutrients and substances therein, their  action, interaction, and balance in relation to health and disease  and the process by which they organism ingests, digests,  absorbs, transports, utilizes and excretes food substances. 2. What is the leading cause of death in the US  

a. heart disease

3. Calculate the % of protein, carbohydrates, fat, and alcohol from total  calories  

a. Carbohydrates: 4cal/g

b. Protein: 4cal/g

c. Fat: 9cal/g

d. Alcohol: 7cal/g

4. Process of scientific method  

a. ObservationQuestionsHypothesisExperimentDataResults 5. Phytonutrients: plant components that are physically active a. Lycopene  


What is the leading cause of death in the us?



b. Cynoathnin  

6. DRI’s (dietary reference intakes)

a. RDA (Recommended dietary allowance)

i. Meets the nutrient requirement for 97-98% of healthy  

individuals in a particular age and gender

ii. EAR x 1.2= RDA  

b. EAR (estimated average requirement)

i. Nutrient intake to meet 50% of certain age group and  

gender

ii. An intake below the EAR is inadequate for an individual  c. AI (Adequate intakes)

i. Used when RDA cannot be determined

ii. Recommended intake value based on observed or  

experimentally estimates assumed to be adequate  

d. UL (Tolerable upper intake levels)

i. The maximum level of daily intake of a nutrient that is  


What is the process of scientific method?



likely to cause adverse effects in most healthy people  

ii. Set for protection  We also discuss several other topics like psyc 266

e. AMDRs (acceptable macronutrient distribution range)

i. Protein: 10-35% of total calories

ii. Fat: 20-35% of total calories  

iii. Carbohydrates: 45-65% of total calories  

Chapter 5: carbohydrates

1. What is the difference from monosaccharides and disaccharide? a. Monosaccharides: one sugar

i. Glucose

ii. Fructose

iii. Galactose

b. Disaccharides: two sugars linked together by glyosidic bonds  i. Sucrose: glucose + fructose

ii. Lactose: glucose + galactose

iii. Maltose: glucose + glucose  

c. Types of glyosidic bonds If you want to learn more check out unlv econ 102

i. Alpha: humans can digest

ii. Beta: humans cannot digest  

2. Difference between soluble and insoluble fibers Don't forget about the age old question of stat100 umd

a. Soluble fibers: dissolve in water  

b. Insoluble fibers: does not dissolve in water; structural part of  plant cell wall

3. Source and Health benefits of soluble and insoluble fibers  a. Soluble fiber: oat bran, beans, applesauce  lowers cholesterol  b. Insoluble fibers: celery, wheat fibers, seeds  Lowers the risk of  colon cancer

4. Glucose levels

a. Hypoglycemic: <40-50mg/dl

b. Normal Fasting blood glucose: 70-99mg/dl

c. Pre-diabetes insulin resistance: 100-125mg/dl

d. Hyperglycemic-diagnostic criteria for diabetes: >125mg/dl 5. Difference between glucagon and insulin

a. Glucagon raises blood glucose  pancreas  

b. Insulin decreases blood glucose  panaceas  

6. Glycogen is the storage form of glucose  

a. Stored in liver and muscles  

b. Stored in liver  can be moved around body and used to raise  glucose levels If you want to learn more check out includes the activities managers perform to plan for, attract, develop, and retain an effective workforce.

c. Stored in muscle  can’t be moved, must be used by that muscle 7. What type of diabetes is more common?  

a. Type 2 usually because they are overweight or obese

Chapter 7: proteins

1. Where does protein digestion start in the body?

a. Stomach  

2. Calculate protein requirement  

a. Weight in lbs./2.2= kg of body weight (kgbw)  kgbw x protein  recommendation = protein requirement (gPRO/day)

b. recommendation is 0.8g/kgbw

3. DNA in protein synthesis  

a. Messengers job is to line up amino acids to make a protein  4. What distinguishes the difference between amino acids. a. Side chain or R group  

5. 9 essential amino acids (must obtain from food)If you want to learn more check out the thalamus is on the receiving end for all sensory input except the

6. 11 nonessential amino acids (body makes)

a. Made through Transamination: the transfer of an amino acid  group from one amino acid to carbon-carbon skeleton to make a  new amino acid Don't forget about the age old question of which method of treating phobias involves progressive relaxation and exposure to the feared object?

b. Requires vitamin B-6

7. Know two incomplete proteins that combine together to make a  complete protein  

a. Grains + Legumes = complete protein  

b. Nuts/seeds + legumes = complete protein  

c. Grains + Nuts/Seeds = incomplete protein (missing Lysine) 8. Main type of protein in the US is red meat  high in saturated fat  

Chapter 6: lipid

1. What fatty acid raises cholesterol?  

a. Saturated fat  

2. Know the difference of monounsaturated fats and polyunsaturated fats  a. Monounsaturated fats: come from plants, lower cholesterol,  liquid at room temp  olive oil, canola oil, peanut oil  

b. Polyunsaturated fats: come from plants, lower cholesterol, liquid  at room temp  corn oil, soybeans, sunflower (2 exceptions: palm and coconut oil)

3. Definition of hydrogenation  

a. Adding of hydrogen to a carbon-carbon double bond producing a  single bond (breaking a double bond)

b. Makes a trans fat  

i. Raises LDLs and lowers HDLs

4. Function of omega-3 fatty acids: reduced blood clot formation  a. Cold water fish, dark leafy greens

5. Function of omega 6: increases blood clot formation

a. Vegetable oils  

b. Americans eat more of this  

6. LDL Function: delivers cholesterol to the body

7. HDL function: take up excess cholesterol and takes it back to the liver  to get rid of it  

8. Chylomicron: Fats that come out of the digestive system (transporting  fat in the blood)

a. Goes to the lymphatic system first where the enzyme breaks it  apart onto VLDLs then it turns into an LDL  

b. Mostly composed of triglycerides  

9. Know the recommendations for saturated, monounsaturated,  polyunsaturated fats  

a. Saturated: no more that 7% of total calories

b. Monounsaturated: up to 20% of total calories  

c. Polyunsaturated: up to 10% of total calories  

10. What is the dietary cholesterol recommendation?

a. < 300mg/day

11. 200mg?

Chapter: digestion  

1. How long do gut cells survive?  

a. 2-5 days  

2. Where does most digestion occur?

a. duodenum  

Metabolism ‘

1. Definition of glycolysis  

a. Breaking down of 1 molecule of glucose to 2 molecules of  pyruvate

2. How many ATP in glycolysis?

a. 2

3. What is beta oxidation  

a. Taking the fatty acid chain and breaking them down 2 amino  acids at a time to enter the Krebs cycle as acetyl coA

4. Review Krebs cycle  

5. How many ATP can you make for 1 glucose molecule a. 32

6. Rate limiting step in the Krebs cycle

a.

7. Electron transport chain: NADH FADH2

a. End product is ATP

8. Metabolism is regulated by eating  

a. Gluconeogenesis is turned on by not eating  

b. Gluconeogenesis is using protein as an energy source 9. Eat  insulin levels go up  

10. Not eating  glucagon  gluconeogenesis  

Vitamins  

1. What’s a food source of thiamin?

a. Green beans, PORK  

2. What are food sources of B-12?

a. Only found in Animal products  

3. What vitamin, if taken in large does, results in nerve damage? a. B-6

4. What vitamin is associated with birth defects’

a. Folate

5. Ariboflavinosis riboflavin deficiency

a. cracks of the corners of your mouth  

6. What vitamin is synthesized by the digestive track?

a. K

7. Vitamin that prevents night blindness

a. A

8. Look at anemias

a. Macrocytic or megaloblastic anemia: Folate deficiency (Spina  bifida)  

b. Pernicious anemia: vitamin b-12 deficiency (Megaloblastic  anemia w/ nerve damage)

c. Microcytic hypochromic anemia: Vitamin b-6 deficiency (carpal  tunnel syndrome)

Minerals  

1. Peak bone mass occurs at what age?

a. 14-25 years old  

2. What is the % of calcium in bone and blood

a. 99% stored in bone  

b. 1% stored in blood

3. You will always maintain blood calcium even if you have to take it from  the bones  

a. Trabecular bone goes first (inner portion of bone)

b. Cortical bone goes last (outer portion of bone)

4. What compounds prevent calcium from being absorbed? a. Oxalate: spinach: leafy green

i. binds calcium so it cannot be absorbed  it is excreted  b. Phytate: unleavened bread, wheat

5. Dairy has high bioavailability and in fish as well (salmon and shrimp) 6. Women are 8 times more likely to get osteoporosis compared to men  a. Risk factors

i. Tend not to consume enough calcium  

ii. Pregnancy: women is the host, so it will go to the baby  before it goes to you

iii. Menopause: loss of estrogen  calcium floods out of bones iv. Women have less bone mass

7. Sedentary life style  

8. Asian decent tend to be more petite: greater risk for osteoporosis  9. Age also play a role in risk for osteoporosis  

10. What calcium supplements should you avoid

a. Dolomite, Bone meal, oyster shell  

b. Contaminated with heavy metals and lead poisoning  

11. Iron absorption:

a. How do you increase it?

i. Consume with vitamin C or fortified cereals  

ii. Cook in an iron skillet

12. Hem iron: iron that is the most absorbable  

a. Animal products: red meat, dark poultry

13. Nonheme iron: not well absorbed

a. fortified cereals, whole grains

Alcohol

1. Binge drinking number for men and women

a. Men: 5 or more drinks in a row  

b. Women: 4 or more drinks in a row

2. Recommendation for a serving size of alcohol

a. 1 mixed drink w/ 1.5fl oz 80-proof liquor  

b. 5fl oz of wine

c. 12fl oz of beer  

3. When does ADH (alcohol dehydrogenase) kick in?

a. Low to moderate drinking  

4. When does MEOS (microsomal ethanol oxidizing system) kick in? a. High to excessive drinking  

Weight control  

1. DEXA: measures body composition by using x-ray to scan body; highly  accurate 1-4% error

2. Calculate basal metabolism  

a. Men: 1cal/ kgbw/hr  

b. Women: .9cal/kgbw/hr

3. Factors that increase basal metabolism  

a. Fever

b. Growth

c. stress

d. Exercise  

e. Muscle Mass  

f. Environmental temperatures  

4. Factors that Decrease basal metabolism  

a. Not eating enough  

b. Age

c. Loss of muscle mass  

5. What burns the most calories per day

a. Basal metabolism: it is what keeps your organs going (keeps you  alive)  

6. Calculate BMI (body mass index)

a. (Weight in lbs/ height in inches squared) x 703

7. BMI results

a. >30: obese

b. 25-29.9: overweight  

c. 18.5-24.9: normal  

d. <18.5: underweight  

100 questions + 1 bonus question

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