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SYRACUSE / Religion / REL 114 / How to distinguish bible’s religious and moral teachings from ancient

How to distinguish bible’s religious and moral teachings from ancient

How to distinguish bible’s religious and moral teachings from ancient

Description

School: Syracuse University
Department: Religion
Course: Bible in History/Culture/Religion
Professor: Jim watts
Term: Fall 2018
Tags: bible, religion, Christian, christianity, and Early Christianity
Cost: 50
Name: REL 114, Exam 3 Study Guide
Description: Final Exam Study Guide
Uploaded: 12/09/2018
5 Pages 70 Views 3 Unlocks
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Exam 3 Study Guide 


How to distinguish bible’s religious and moral teachings from ancient cultural conventions?



Art 

∙ Most common themes- crucifixion, birth, with Mary, ruling on high ∙ Christian interpretation

o Not: who was Jesus?

o But: who is Jesus?

John 1, 8-9, 17 

∙ In the beginning was the Word, and the word was with God and the word was  God, he was with God in the beginning

∙ The light is Jesus, not John

∙ We're told that Jesus is also everything God says and thinks in human form.  He lives among us and we get to see how glorious he is. He will show us all  God's grace and truth

∙ John didn't even know who Jesus was before this. But when he saw it, he  remembered that God had told him that the person to whom the spirit comes  is the messiah—the one he had been looking for.


How have jews & christians used the bible for social reforms?



∙ Let he who is without sin cast the first stone

∙ I am the light of the world and the only way to Heaven

∙ Jesus heals the blind man

∙ Pharisees try to get him for healing on the Sabbath and say he doesn’t  observe his own laws

∙ Jesus asks God to love and be with the disciples

Luke 2, 4, 24 

∙ Birth story

∙ The devil tries to test Jesus

∙ Jesus is destined to bring peace and justice to all

∙ The empty tomb

∙ Jesus appears and breaks bread

∙ He resurrects


Does the new testament begin with the four gospels?



Matthew 1-2, 5-7, 26-28 If you want to learn more check out What are the 6 main greenhouse gases?
If you want to learn more check out What was the earliest form of print media?

∙ Geneaology

∙ Angel appears to Mary  

∙ Wise men and Herod

∙ Major theme of Like: Jesus came for everybody and is here for the least of  these

∙ The same person who wrote Luke wrote Acts

∙ Mark and Matthew are almost identical except for the quoted language Other Gospels

∙     Other Christian Gospels (2nd century and following) filled in gaps in stories  and elaborated teachings

o Ex: Gospel of Mary Magdalene We also discuss several other topics like What is toxic death?

∙     Only one may contain independent traditions about Jesus: the Gospel of  Thomas

Thomas’ Gospel Gnostic 

∙ Gnosticism: dualism of

o Mind vs. matter

o God vs. world

o Spirit vs. body

∙ Gnostic interpretation of Jesus: Don't forget about the age old question of What is the archaic period known for?
We also discuss several other topics like What characteristics do we use to define life?

o Jesus is God, not human (Docetism)

o Jesus did not really die If you want to learn more check out What are the types of chemical process?

o Jesus came to teach divine knowledge

 Do also the Gospel of Mary: “He who has a mind to understand,  let him understand”

o Salvation through knowledge

The Gospel of Thomas 

∙ Contents: teachings only, no stories

o No crucifixion or resurrection

∙ Shows Christian Gnosticism of 2nd century CE

∙ But does Thomas contain older traditions?

The Limits of Inclusion: Women in early Christianity 

∙ First to proclaim Jesus’ resurrection

∙ Yet not among the church’s official leaders

∙ Some interpreters think women played larger role than the tradition admits o Ex: The Gospel of Mary Magdalene

Women’s Legal Status in Ancient World 

∙ Only free men were legal actors

o Biblical laws have some legal protection for divorced women, captives,  debt slaves

∙ Women defined and controlled by a man (daughter, wife, mother, slave) o Jephthah’s daughter, Levite’s concubine

∙ Unaffiliated women under suspicion and vulnerable

o Ruth, Mary

Women’s Economic Roles 

∙ “women’s work” vital to village economy

o Ex: Sarah and Hagar

∙ Less central to urban life

∙ But wealthy women paid for Jesus’ ministry

o Mary Magdalene= independent business woman?

Women in Biblical Religion 

∙ Worshippers at temples (Hannah)

∙ No place in Israel’s priesthood

∙ But prominent as prophets

o Miriam

o Deborah (also a judge)

o Huldah

∙ Women apostles?

o Junia (Romans 16:7)

o Mary Magdalene (in non-biblical Gospel of Mary and a few others) Legacy of Biblical Patriarchalism 

∙ Patriarchalism evident in:

o Stories

o Laws

o Prophets (Hosea)

o NT Gospels and Letters

∙ Often used to justify later patriarchy

∙ Challenge: how to distinguish Bible’s religious and moral teachings from  ancient cultural conventions?

Why 4 Gospels in NT? 

∙ Iranaeus

o Apparently no single gospel sufficient

o 4 preserve a range of “orthodox” views of Jesus

o Exclude “heretical” views, like Thomas

Oaths 

∙ In politics, people take oaths on the Bible

John 20-21 

∙ Three days after Jesus is killed, Mary Magdalene comes to visit the tomb. It's  very early in the morning, so it's still dark outside. When she comes closer to  the tomb, she sees that the stone that laid over the opening has been  removed and the tomb has been open.

∙ He shows the disciples the wounds on his hands and in his side, and the  disciples are thrilled to see him again.

∙ Jesus tells them that they are being sent out, and then… he breathes on  them. They have now received the Holy Spirit and have the power to forgive  the sins of others

∙ He greets the disciples and then tells Thomas that he's free to put his hand in the wound in his side and shows him the nail marks on his hands ∙ At dawn, Jesus stands on the beach and calls out to them. He tells them that  if they try casting their nets on the right side of the boat they're sure to catch some fish

∙ Jesus explains to Peter that when he (Peter) was young, he could go wherever he wanted, but when he gets older, he will be taken by force somewhere he  doesn't want to go. Translation? Peter's going to be a martyr.

∙ Jesus also did so many other amazing things. If someone ever tried to write  them all down, there wouldn't be enough paper in the entire world

Genesis 2-3, 9 

∙ Adam and Eve and the fall

∙ God’s covenant with Noah

Genesis 1-2, 6-8 

∙ Creation of the world except for mankind

∙ Adam and Eve and the fall

∙ There was wickedness in the world so God told Noah to prepare for the flood ∙ God sent the flood

∙ The flood ended and Noah built an altar to God

Psalms 104 

∙ Praise the Lord

∙ God you are great

∙ Talks about God making the world and how great He is to be able to do that ∙ He makes everything happen

∙ May the Lord’s glory endure forever

∙ May sinners vanish from the earth

Genesis 2-3, 9 

∙ Adam and Eve and the fall

∙ God’s covenant with Noah

Genesis 1-2, 6-8 

∙ Creation of the world except for mankind

∙ Adam and Eve and the fall

∙ There was wickedness in the world so God told Noah to prepare for the flood ∙ God sent the flood

∙ The flood ended and Noah built an altar to God

Psalms 104 

∙ Praise the Lord

∙ God you are great

∙ Talks about God making the world and how great He is to be able to do that ∙ He makes everything happen

∙ May the Lord’s glory endure forever

∙ May sinners vanish from the earth

How have Jews & Christians used the Bible for social reforms?

∙ To justify arguments for equal rights

o A mixed multitude rescued with Israel from Egypt (Exodus 12:38) o Men, women, children, and immigrants (Deuteronomy 31:12)

o Paul declares neither Jew nor Greek, neither slave nor free, neither  male or female in Christ (Galatians 3:28)

∙ To justify action against poverty and economic oppression

o Pentateuch’s laws providing for the poor (Leviticus 23:22)

o Prophets condemn business fraud (Micah 6:9-10)

o Jesus’ blessing of the poor and condemnation of the rich (Luke 6:20,  24)

o Ethics of compassionate love: love your neighbor/the immigrant/ your  enemy like yourself (Leviticus 19:18, 36; Mathew 5:44)

∙ The bible has been used to both defend the status quo and to call for reform  and revolution

When Jewish and Christian Scriptures Changed 

Torah/Pentateuch

Ezra

Ca. 400 BCE

Prophets, histories, psalms

Judah Maccabee

Ca. 150 BCE

Mishnah

Judah ha-Nasi

Ca. 200 BCE

Gospels

Iraneaus

Ca. 200 BCE

Scripturalization and religious leadership 

∙     Torah: Aaronide priests

o Not other priests or Davidic kings

∙     Tanak: Hasmonean priest-kings

o Not Samaritans

∙     Mishnah & Talmuds: Rabbis (scholars)

o Not Jewish Karaites or Christians

∙     Gospels & New Testament: apostles and bishops

o Not Gnostic Christians or Jews

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