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OHIO / Geology / GEOL 2150 / What are the 5 types of mining?

What are the 5 types of mining?

What are the 5 types of mining?


School: Ohio University
Department: Geology
Course: Environmental Geology
Professor: Greg nadon
Term: Fall 2018
Tags: Geology, climate, and Energy
Cost: 50
Name: GEOL 2150 Final Exam
Description: The exam will cover everything from the notes starting from November 22 with a focus on Climate change, fossil fuels, and renewable energy.
Uploaded: 12/09/2018
12 Pages 148 Views 2 Unlocks

Exam on notes starting from the 22

What are the 5 types of mining?

Implication of drawdown(5)

lower regional water table

-potential irrigation problems

changes water flow direction

-potential health problems  

Could cause streams to change from effluent to influent Saltwater contamination along coast

-coastal cities could see water shortage  

Land subsidence (aquifer compacting)

-reduction of porosity and permeability

-potential loss of surface aqueduct flow

-potential increase in salinization


Dissolution of minerals (geological)

-adds elements such as arsenic

Precipitation of minerals (geological)

Addition of chemicals and nutrients (human) (5) -oxygen demanding waste  

What is hydroelectricity and how does it work?


Nutrients -phosphorous, nitrogen

Petroleum-spills, gas tanks

Toxic waste-radioactive  


Point source  

Non point source

Pretreatment studies  

DNAPL -dense, sinks  

LNAPL -lights, floats  

Characterize aquifer


Hydrologic characteristics  

Flow direction and rate

Discharge and recharge conditions




Injection and pumping

Hazard impact (3)

Amount of contaminant If you want to learn more check out Why did humans begin to write?

Concentration or toxicity

What are the 6 main greenhouse gases?

Degree and duration of exposure

Maximum contaminant level (MCL) legal limits

Secondary MCL-advisory (changing skin color)

Karst- dissolution of carbonate rocks (limestone and dolomite) -sinkholes We also discuss several other topics like What is the function of the endoplasmic reticulum in a cell?

-disappearing streams  

Mineral recourses (excludes oil and coal)

Prospect vs ore

Metallic vs non metallic  

Phases of extraction (4)


Reserve estimation

Extraction costs  

Types of mining

-strip min- low concentration/ high volume

disseminated ore  

-subsurface mine-high concentration low volume -placer deposits (gold, diamonds)


Labor costs

Transportation costs

Environmental costs

Future value of recovered material  

Nonmetalic materials (3 groups)  

1)Building materials


2)Industrial minerals

-Gravel, salt, REE



Plate tectonics

-prospects made where there is heat + fluid flow -igneous intrusions


Convergent margins  

Timeline for use-will we run out-no

Resource pyramid  


-two types- (steep slope, gentle slope)

-3 forces (wave, tide, river)


->3 km/hr

-Height, wavelength, period affected by 3 things (wind speed, wind duration,  fetch (time wind blows)) If you want to learn more check out What is the archaic period known for?
We also discuss several other topics like What is science? what limitations does it have?

Wave refreaction( waves try to hit shore headon)

Depth of wave energy (= ½ of wavelength)

Beach has two zones – foreshore and backshore

Beach angle higher in lowstorm season

Lower in high storm season  

Longshore drift  


-moon and sun gravity

complex interaction  

-tide rage can be 0

-reaches a max in costal embayments

Deeper the bay bigger the risk

Microtidal (<2 m) long continuous barrier island shorelines Mesotidal



Deltas (3) types

-river( Mississippi)



Envirnometal risks

Steep coast cliff

Low angle coasts


-longshore drift


-Susidence (deltas)

Geoindicators- factors which allow a quantitative measue of risks along  shorelines.  

Results in high, medium, or low risk We also discuss several other topics like What are the types of chemical process?

Mitigation (6)





Soft stabilization..

Hard stabilization ..

Modification of structures


Glacial Ice  

Ice forms from snow

-brittle if<50m thick

-Plastic if >50  

Glacial budget

-Zone of accumulation

-Zone of ablation (melting)

- retreat melts faster than ice coming in

-ice cant move uphill  

Continental ice sheets

-Moraines-made of till( rock= diamictite)




Sriations (grooves made by ice into rock)


Direct evidence of glaciation in the past



Indirect evidence

-sea level change If you want to learn more check out Does conceivability entail possibility?


-river incision/drowning

Oldest evidence > 2 billion years

Causes of glaciation

-energy from the sun

-distance from the sun

solar radiation  

Milankovitch cycles  

Continent motion -albedo reflection of energy to space -water low

-rock medium

-ice high

Continet moves over the equator cooling occurs

Continent over a pole even more cooling  

If ice forms even more cooling positive feedback snowball earth

Atmospheric gasses

-greenhouse gasses end snowball earth methane CO2 water vapor CO2 emitted by volcanoes consumed by weathering rocks  

Formation of limestone absorbs CO2

Ice Sheets form slowly

Ice sheet smelt quickly

Energy resources  




-Fossil Fuels

Energy type used varies because of


-population density  


Wind uses low velocity but sustained flow

Solar works best where there are few clouds

Geothermal works best where there is a hallow source of heat such as: -Mid-ocean ridges

-Convergent zones

Hydroelectric -needs a location to build a dam

-dams have a limited life span

-damns displace people and have environmental impacts


-Efficient but has a waste problem  

Fossil fuels

Maturation of organic matter (heat and time)

Coal- maturation of terrestrial plant matter

-different plants make different coal types

-Impurities make different coal grades

-amount of heating makes different coal ranks (peat vs. anthracite) -Hydrocarbons (oil and gas)

Part 2


What types? Conventional (oil well) vs unconventional  

Maturation- how they form

Move in porous and permeable beds

Accumulate in pools formed by traps

A pool pf hydrocarbons is an anomalous accumulation that can be extracted  at a profit 

2 main trap types

1. Structural- anticline (non-permeable) faults (non-permeable) 2. Stratigraphic- edge of a sandstone or lime stone , salt domes

Permeability limits trap

Hydrocarbons are only a resource if they can used for profit

4 aspects of petroleum business

1 explore- geologists and geophysicists  

2 produce- geologists and engineers

3 transport- engineers

4 refine – engineers and chemists

1-2 Upstream  

3-4 downstream (transport and refine)  

Only recover about 50% of oil in a reservoir  

Better recovery techniques

A) Not producing the gas first

B) Pumping in water or gas to increase pressure

C) Heating oil with steam

2) horizontal drilling- better drilling technique  

Unconventional resources

Producing from shales

2 techniques needed

1) Fracing

2) horizontal drilling  

Peak oil vs resource pyramid  

Peak oil not as big an issue better at recovery price change  The price of hydrocarbons drops then coal becomes less economic  If environmental costs factored in both then coal would become even less  economic

Climate change  

Climate vs weather

Climate is 30 years  

Climate variables impacted by..

Plate tectonics -(consumes co2) mountains weathers stuff Evolution -makes plants

Ocean salinity -ocean flows

Greenhouse gasses -volcanoes

Sun -output from sun on constant  

Humans- our energy use

Earth has 4 climate states

Snowball -Precambrian- ice at the equator

Icehouse -25% of the Phanerozoic- major ice caps at the poles Greenhouse -70% of phanerozoic

a) Cool- some ice

b) Warm – no ice

Hothouse -5% of phanerozoic – Black shales (euxinic) in deep ocean

Most data we get from ice or ice deposits

Diamictites = till deposits

Dropstones= ice rafted pebbles

Striations= grooves cut by ice

Shift to cool greenhouse estimated at 2 times present CO2 (800 ppmv) Hot house won’t happen unless large volcanic eruptions  Shift too warm 4 times present CO2 level

Hot house events require an extra push from large volcanic eruptions  TP= tipping point

Times without ice caused by..

1. Variations in solar radiation  

a) Milankovitch orbital changes

b) Variations in sunspot activity

2. Greenhouse gasses

A greenhouse gas is one which is relatively transparent to solar radiation but  which absorbs long wave radiation  

Lets energy comes in but wont let it go out  

Gasses with 2 atoms do not absorb longwave radiation  

Gasses with 3 atoms do absorb radiation at specific wavelengths  

Primary greenhouse gasses

Carbon dioxide CO2

Methane CH4

Nitrous oxide N2O

Water vapor H2O

Measure co2 and ch4

1) Direct measurement -most accurate and precise

a) From atmosphere

b) From bubbles in ice

2) Proxies- less precise but can be accurate  

a) Stable isotopes

b) Others

 SOME correspondence between methane concentration and glacial periods. Ice record is based toward CO2 fluctuations  

There are other more potent greenhouse gasses invented by humans as well Effects of low concentration are not well known  

We pay more attention towards co2  

Gasses humans produce is in low concentration and effects are not known  

Tipping points appear to be the norm in climate change  

Once you reach a certain point wont stop

Glacial to interglacial can occur within 30 years

Rates matter

Biggest Source of Co2 is electricity generation and transportation

Knew climate was changing from data from 1990s about artic ice  

2000 looked at old records we miscalculated and found oceans were  warming at every level

Oceans have absorbed a lot of energy  

Changing over human time scale  

Per capita use is constant and # of people increasing so co2 is increasing  SO2 also a product of fossil fuels not heating the planet not high in  atmosphere  

Other climate impacts

Melting of permafrost – releases methane the warmer we get the increases in possibility of getting even more warm  

Heating of oceans releases methane from clathrates

Methane in oceans in ice  

Methane hydrates are common along continental shelves  

Only a problem where  

a) Permafrost is melting  

b) Shallow artic shelf (sea warming)  

Geological example  

PETM – The Paleocene -Eocene thermal maximum was a short term sharp  rise in temperature  

Carbon Removal  


a) Weathering of silicates (2%)

b) Burial as organic matter and carbonate (50%)

c) Terrestrial (uptake by plants) (3-19%)  


a) Biological reforestation  

b) Geological  


a) Reforestation +/- using plants that use more carbon  


Carbon sequestration  

Make carbonate  

Liquid CO2 and pump into the Earth  


Artificial weathering

Make carbonate

Liquid co2 and pump  

Basalts are found in 3 places

Mid ocean ridges plates diverge makes the most basalts

Where hot spots occur (Hawaii)

Terrestrial fissure eruptions flood basalts  

Make carbonate

Desalinate ocean water or deep ground water and combine the cations with  co2

This makes a carbonate powder and potable water  

Pump co2 into the ground  

Liquefy it  

We know about drilling and moving liquids

CONS -Have to deal with the water that is toxic  

Rates and volumes matter  

Regulation will be vital


Greenhouse gas remediation

Solar radiation management  

Reduce incoming energy by 2%

Global warming environmental risks  

Sea level rise

Coastline risks

Simple submergence

Affects sea ports

Affects all deltas  

Change in tidal range

Storm impacts

Less frequent but more intense  

Flood risks shift  

Drought risk shifts  

Fix greenhouse gas


Standard of living  


+ and – feedback loops  

Global community  

Weaponization in climate -climate engineering 

Solar flares  

Results of storms on the sun surface


Bolides-entering atmosphere from space Most explode in atmosphere

 Than 25 meters..

Bolide risk factors  



Angle of entry


Most will hit water

Sunami will be several meters high

Earthquakes -volcanic eruptions  

Dinosaur extinction cause by 10 km in diameter rock Environmental factors  

Nuclear winter dust + aerosols 






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