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SYRACUSE / STEM / IST 195 / Is server a type of computer?

Is server a type of computer?

Is server a type of computer?

Description

• MOOC


Is server a type of computer?



• Massive Open Online Course

• EX. Coursera, Khan Academy

• Howard Aiken

• creator of the Mark I

• Mark1

• First real computer in the US

• Moore’s law

• Observation made in 1965 that the number of transistors on an integrated circuit will double  every 24 months and cost per transistor decreases

• computers are relatively the same price as they were 3-10 years ago

• moving away from silicon

• Types of Computers

• PC

• Personal Computer

• 2 types — Windows PC and Apple PC

• Server

• controls access to hardwares, softwares, and other resources on a network • aka a more powerful computer


How do social algorithms determine what shows up in one's feed?



Don't forget about the age old question of What are the disadvantages of partisanship?
We also discuss several other topics like What factors determine demand?

• Mainframes

• a large expensive powerful computer that can handle billions of transactions per day • mostly used for financial transactions

• Super Computer

• the fastest and most powerful computer

• used for weather patterns, NSA

• Green Computing

• virtual computing - idea of one computer using software to virtualize as more than one  computer

• Information Warfare

• a tactic used to persuade others to vote for the “more deserved” candidate • “what methods did the russians implement in the 2016 campaign” Don't forget about the age old question of Who are considered mestizos?

• the Internet Research Agency

• Internet Research Agency

• Russian’s created the IRA to put out ads online to persuade voters


What are the principles of of wcag or web content accessibility guidelines?



• Social Algorithms

• how do they determine what shows up in your feed

• Affinity - how close is the relationship between the user and the content • Weight - how likely the content being shared will drive engagement

• Time Decay - how recent/current is the content

• Video - calculated by a user who watches greater than 50%

• Posts bared on timely news We also discuss several other topics like Who wrote the first bossa nova music?

• Rehabilitation Act of 1973

• federally funded cant discriminate against disabilities

• Section 504

• anyone with a disability cant be excluded from any benefits

• Section 508

• amended in 1998 - federally funded WEBSITES cant exclude disabled people • ADA

• private sector - same rules  

• Office of Civil Rights

• fall under the dept of education at the federal level out assuring compliance • WCAG

• web content accessibility guidelines Don't forget about the age old question of Is cognitive psychology evidence-based?

• 4 Principles of WCAG

• perceivable, operable, understandable, robust

• Client vs. Server Side vs. Mobile Languages

• client - scripting, HTML

• server - people logging into your website

• mobile - on a phone or android

• JAVASCRIPT works for all 3

• Structure of a Document

• html, head, title, /title, /head, body, /body, /html

• Title Tag

• important for search engines, bookmarking, visible page name

• Heading Tags

• important for search engines

• PNG, Gif, JPEG

• gifs - 256 colors, has transparency, small file size

• jpegs - millions of colors

• png - millions of colors and transparency  

• CSS

• Cascading Style Sheets

• fonts, colors, layouts

• only styles the document

• Operator precedence

• %, ^, */, +-, =<>  

• Formulas vs. Functions

• Formula - add, subtract, PEMDAS

• Functions - average, sum

• Conditional Formatting

• allows you to set rules for cell formatting Don't forget about the age old question of What is ethnocentric fallacy?

• EX. LAB - if passing class, GREEN : if failing class, RED

• Pivot Tables

• quickly and accurately analyze large amounts of data  

• Delimited Files

• separating the values in each row with specific character  

• moving excel file into another median

• First, Second, Third Party Data

• first you own

• second you obtained

• third you bought

• The four V’s of Big Data

• volume - how much data is coming in

• velocity - how fast it comes in

• variety - how different is the data

• veracity - how trust worthy is it

• 4 Major Types of Data

• structured - delimited data

• unstructured -  

• semi-structured - email (beginning says who its to and from but then the body of the  email is random)

• geospatial - facebook checkins, snap geofilters - things that rely on location • Data Warehouse

• cloud based, flexible and scalable for computing and storage, and handles structured  and semi-structured first and third party data

• Steganography

• hiding something in something else either a message or an image

• Symmetric vs. Asymmetric cryptosystems

• Symmetric

• uses the same key to decrypt and encrypt

• not as secure

• faster

• Asymmetric

• uses 2 keys

• public and private

• public - give to anyone

• the key used to decrypt the message

• private - hidden

• the key used to encrypt the message  

• Cryptography

• scrambling symbols

• Definition - “the art of writing or solving codes”

• Kryptos

• sculpture at CIA headquarters

• Caesar Ciphers (3 types)

• shift cipher

• multiple numbers as keys

• words as keys

• Encryption/Decryption

• to encrypt, 2 keys means C=E and F=H

• to decrypt, -2 keys means C=A and F=D

• EX. if the original is “camille is crazy” and it’s shifted 5, the outcome would be hfrnqqj  nx hwfed

• Multi Factor Authentication

• something you know, something you are, something you have

• 4 main computing functions

• Accepts input, Process input, Produce output, Storage (this one is changing) • Motherboard

• The main circuit board of the system unit

• CPU

• Central Processing Unit

• “the electronic component that interprets and carries out the basic instructions that  operate a computer” - book definition

• The speed at which your system runs programs, depends in part on the processor.  Clock speed and the number of cores in the processor all help determine processor  performance.  

• intel/AMD are brands of CPU chips

• rated by number of “cores”

• Benchmark - software used to test and evaluate CPUs

• Overclocking - pushing it beyond rated speeds

• rated by clock speed (MHz)

      measured in Hertz (1 Hz = 1 cycle/signal per second) • Control Unit, ALU, Registers

• Control Unit — fetches and interprets instructions from RAM

• ALU — executes instructions

• Registers — fast accessing storage inside the CPU

• Transistors

• can act as an electronic switch that opens or closes the circuit for electrical charges.  Today’s computer chips contain millions or billions of transistors (book definition) • Nanotechnology

• the study of manipulating matter on an atomic or molecular level

• RAM

• holds data and instructions waiting for processing by the CPU

• temporary storage

• contents are deleted when computer is powered down

• USB-C, USB 3.1 vs. USB 3.0

• USB 3.0

• 5 gigabytes/second

• USB 3.1

• 10 gigibytes/second

• USB-C

• new standard which uses USB 3.1

• smaller and thinner

• REVERSIBLE

• can be used in laptop computers, phones, tablets, monitors

• Traditional Hard Drives vs. SSD

• Hard Drive

• how does a 7200 RPM compare to a 5400 RPM hard drive?

• SATA - 150 MB per second (7 wires)

• SATAII - 300 MB per second - big increase in price

• Solid State Drive (SSD)

• uses flash memory technology

• no moving parts

• less susceptible to shock

• no noise

• reduced access time

• more expensive

• RFID Technology

• Radio Frequency Identification

• It is simply a system which transmits the identity of an object or person wirelessly using  radio waves

• Auto-ID

• example of RFID’s - RETAIL 

• accuracy!!!

• Macy’s switched to using RFID to track every item across its fleet of stores • because of this, the retailer’s sales volume surged more than 200%  

• very much helps in the shoe deptartment

• rate of items not being displays after implementation of RFIS was in the 4%-6%,  instead of the 30% prior to the RFID’s

• Passive vs. Active Tags

• Active Tags

• it is battery powered

• it has an improved operating range

• costs more than passive tags

• ranger is greater than 100 meters and 100 MPH

• Passive Tags

• commonly used

• does not need battery power

• activates itself and transmits data using power generated by the radio waves from the  RFID reader

• usually less than 3 meters

• RFID / Barcodes

• barcodes are antiquated and they will be one of the past

• RFID

• can be read without line of sight

• multiple tags can be read simultaneously

• can cope with harsh or dirty environments • can identify a specific item

• new information can be over-written

• can be automatically tracked removing human error • Barcodes

• require line of sight to be read

• can only be read individually

• cannot be read if damaged or dirty

• can only identify the type of item

• cannot be updated

• NFC

• required manual tracking and therefore are susceptible to human error

• near-field communication

• uses same frequency as RFID High Frequency

• typically requires communication within 5cm/2in

• 2 way communication

• mainly used for payments

• Beacon

• How it works:

• An iBeacon (bluetooth 4 LE device) broadcasts a UUID every 100 milliseconds • a phone enters the broadcasting “region” and triggers an app to open in the  background

• Uses:

• one the app is opened, it can detect the distance from the broadcasting beacon

• providing visitors to a museum with information about the art they are standing  in front of

• giving patrons important information about eh tradeshows/events they are  attending

• unlock your hotel door when you are within a range

• get around campus (inside or outside of buildings)

• business can set up a multiple Bluetooth Beacons within and around their store  and can pinpoint customers that are in range of its signal

• reports 3 ranges

• immediate: within a few centimeters

• near: within a few feet

• far: 20-30 feet away

• BLE — Bluetooth Low Energy

• continuous low power connection

• indoor GPS alternative

• no need to “pair” with a device - don’t want to waste your battery • Bit vs. Byte

• Bit: binary digit  

• 1 bit = 2 values

2 bits = 4 values

3 bits = 8 values

4 bits = 16 values

8 bits = 256 values = 1 bytes  

• Decimal vs. Binary

• Decimals: base 10  

• Binary: base 2

• Storage Capacities

1 Kilobyte

1,000 Bytes

1 Megabyte

1,000 Kilobytes

1 Gigabite

1,000  

Megabytes

1 Terabyte

1,000 Gigabytes

1 Petabyte

1,000 Terabytes

1 Exabyte

1,000 Petabytes

1 Zettabyte

1,000 Exabytes

1 Yottabyte

1,000 Zetabytes

• Binary Arithmetic

• Easy to convert the 2  

• Take a number

• Figure out what bit sizes add up to it  

• Drop the leading 0  

• DoD 5220.22-M / NIST SP 800

• media destruction  

• disintegrate

• incinerate

• pulverize

• shred

• melt

• Ubiquitous Computing

• a world in which objects of all kinds could sense, communicate, analyze, and act or  react to people and other machines autonomously in a manner no more intrusive or  noteworthy than how we currently turn on a light or open a tap

• Pieces of IoT

• Sensors

• location data using GPS sensors. Eyes and ears using cameras and microphones,  along with sensory organs that can measure everything from temperature to  pressure changes

• Connectivity

• the inputs are digitalized and placed onto networks

• People and Processes

• these networked inputs can then be combined into bi-directional systems that  integrate data, people, processes, and systems for better decision making • Zigbee

• open wireless standard to provide foundation for the Internet of Things • non-profit

• standard protocol for shared info

• Mesh Network

• any device can talk to another device

• example - google wifi, zigbee

• Information Value Loop

• act

• create

• communicate

• aggregate

• analyze

• IaaS vs. SaaS

• Saas

• software as a service

• Iaas

• infrastructure as a service

• Reasons to Move to the Cloud

• lower cost of operations

• better compete and address market demands

• lower downtime; higher performing applications

• always up to date

• more efficient IT staff - shifting focus

• security and compliance

• Virtualization

• building block of cloud computing  

• simulating a hardware platform, operating system, storage, and network resources • Amazon EC2 and S3

• Amazon S3

• Simple storage service (Saas)

• Amazon EC2

• Elastic compute cloud (Iaas)

• People behind Operating Systems

• Ken Thompson - Unix

• Steve Jobs - Apple

• Linus Torvalds - Linux

• Types of OS’s

• Mobile

• Google Android

• Apple iOS

• Windows Phone

• Server

• Windows Server

• Mac OS X Server

• UNIX

• Linux

• Desktop

• Windows

• OS X

• UNIX

• Linux

• Chrome OS

• LINUX vs. UNIX

• UNIX

• multiuser, multitasking operating system

• more expensive

• requires high level of technical knowledge

• harder to install, maintain, and upgrade

• Linux

• open source

• has been collaboratively modified by volunteer programmers all over the world • android is built on top of Linux

• Ubuntu

• most popular Linux version

• main goal is security

• makes money off support

• graphic linux environment

• ARPANET

• original internet

• Packets

• digital envelopes

• Application / Transport / Network Layer protocols

• Transport / Network Protocols

• TCP — transmission control protocol

• IP — internet protocol

• Application Protocols

• HTTP — hypertext transfer protocol

• SSL — secure sockets layer

• TLS — transport layer security

• FTP — file transfer protocol

• POP — post office protocol

• IMAP — internet message access protocol

• SMTP — simple mail transfer protocol

• HTTP, SMTP, SSL/TLS, TCP, IP

• IPV4 vs. IPv6

• Every node on the internet needs an IP address to communicate • IPv6

• set of 6 bytes

• IPv4

• set of four bytes (or four 8 bit numbers)

• ICANN

• barely used anymore - will become history

• responsible for managing and coordinating the Domain Name System

• delegates control over each TLD to a Domain Name Registry

• is responsible for registrar accreditation

• WIPO

• World Intellectual Property Organization

• settles domain name disputes

• Database Schema

• how a database is organized/constructed  

• Records, Fields

• Records (rows): collection of related fields in a database (all the fields for one customer)  • Fields (columns): every table consists of fields (i.e. first_name, last_name, email)  • Primary vs. Foreign Key

• Primary key: a unique attribute for each table  

• Uniquely identifies the records in a table  

• Field in table that is used to relate that table to other tables  

• Foreign key: the heart of the “relation"

• RDBMS

• Relational Database Management System

• E.F. Codd

• IBM Research Scientist, invented the relational model for database management  • Meta Data

• Metadata: information about the data, not the data itself  

• SQL

• Software that allows a user to query through a database

• Based on work done by IBM in 1974 for mainframes

• The American National Standards Institution standardized SQL in 1986  • Stereotypes of IT jobs

• Stereotype: IT people work alone in a cubicle  

• Interpersonal skills were the highest rated non-technology skill  

• Stereotype: Working with IT requires writing lots of code

• Most IT people do planning, architecture, and configuration, but little coding  • Stereotype: I can’t get a job other than in an IT company  

• IT affects every industry

• Stereotype: only IT people have to know how to deal with IT

• IT tasks are distributed through every department of organizations one ever sector • Sales

• Marketing

• Engineering

• Logistics

• Government

• Nonprofit  

• Careers in IT

• Information Systems  

• Systems administrator  

• Network engineer  

• Security specialist  

• Systems programmer  

• Systems architect  

• Applications/Production

• Applications developer  

• Applications architect  

• Web content  

• Manager/producer  

• Graphic designer  

• QA tester  

• Technical writer  

• Technical trainer  

• IT Management

• Operations manager  

• Applications project manager  

• Product management  

• Systems/support manager  

• CIO/CTO/director

• New product development  

• Operation and Support

• Help desk

• Tech sales/account management  

• Support engineer

• Business development specialist  

• IT recruiter

• Install/support engineer

• IT architect  

• Quadrants of Information Jobs

• Technical  

• Have one or more specialty areas such as distributed databases, web applications,  or network security  

• Managerial

• People, planning, and budgetary components

• Production  

• Create, make, engineer, or build something new: chips, software, devices, products,  etc.  

• Operations

• Keep processes running, making them efficient, and productive  

• Phases of SDLC

• SDLC - System Development Life Cycle

• Planning

• Review project requests

• Prioritize project requests  

• Allocate resources  

• Form project development team  

• Analysis

• Conduct preliminary investigation

• Determines and defines the exact nature of the problem  

• Interview the user who submitted the request  

• Perform detailed analysis activities

• Study current system  

• Determine user requirements  

• Recommend solution

• Information System

• collection of hardware, software, data, people, and procedures that work together to  produce quality information  

• Project Management

• The process of planning, scheduling, and then controlling the activities during system  development  

• To plan and schedule a project efficiently, the project lead identifies  

• Project scope

• Required activities

• Time estimates for each activity

• Cost estimates for each activity

• Order of activities

• Activities that can take place at the same time  

• Gantt Chart

• A popular tool used to plan and schedule the time relationships among project activities  • Data Flow Diagrams

• a tool that graphically shows the flow of data in a system  

• Feasibility Study

• a measure of how suitable the development of a system will be to the organization  • Blockchain

• public distributed ledger  

• Decentralized Ledger

• secure and transparent way to digitally track the ownership of assets

• Public vs. Private Chains

• Public Block Chain: This is what bitcoin uses. Public block chain is permission less,  meaning anyone can participate and contribute the ledger  

• Private Block chain: Companies are experimenting with this type of permission based  Block chain where the network is made up only of known participants  

• Food Safety

• using blockchain technology to figure out where the contaminated food is coming from • eBusiness vs. eCommerce

• eCommerce: infrastructure and data allow one or more types of online or electronic  transaction

• eBusiness: a business activity that creates value within the assistance of networking  and telecommunications technologies  

• B2C, B2B, C2C, C2B, B2E, G2B

• B2C: business to consumer  

• B2B: business to business

• C2C: consumer to consumer  

• Crowd funding  

• C2B: consumer to business  

• Consumer is the driver  

• ex. priceline

• B2E: business to employee

• G2B: government to business

• Due Diligence

• prove that you really made that amount

• consists of

• Product review / Tech Review

• Customer references

• Executive team references

• Legal Review

• Financial modeling / Audit

• Market analysis  

• Competitive analysis.

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