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COLORADO / Evolutionary Anthropology / ANTH 1190 / What is the difference between conflict and integration?

What is the difference between conflict and integration?

What is the difference between conflict and integration?

Description

School: University of Colorado at Boulder
Department: Evolutionary Anthropology
Course: Origins of Ancient Civilizations
Term: Fall 2018
Tags:
Cost: 50
Name: FINAL EXAM REVIEW
Description: This covers the first half of the review handed out in class. I will upload a complete study guide later, but I figured y'all might want some of it now. If the term is bolded/big/highlighted, it will be filled in on the next final exam review post
Uploaded: 12/12/2018
41 Pages 175 Views 2 Unlocks
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THIS STUDY GUIDE CONTAINS ALL OF THE PEOPLE/PLACES/IDEAS ETC FROM ALL OF THE REVIEW SHEETS


What is the difference between conflict and integration?



People:

- Plato

- Believed that civilizations go through periods of development, flourishing, and decline in a cyclical pattern

- St. Augustine

- Believed that history followed a linear predetermined course laid out by god - Thomas Hobbes

- Integration theorist, and believed that before civilization, people lived in a ‘state of nature’ that was chaotic

- Civilization develops when humans decide to give up their natural rights - Transfer the collective will of the people to a sovereign ruler

- Social contract - give up natural rights for the betterment of society

- Voluntarily given rights

- Jean-Jacques Rousseau

- Conflict theorist that believed that government develops to suppress class conflict - The government that develops favors the rich and powerful


What is the first city in mesoamerica?



- Charles Darwin

- evolution!

- Herbert Spencer

- A progressive evolutionist and integration theorist, he believed that society was a system of interrelated parts and believed in survival of the fittest - fittest societies - Fitness was defined as moving towards more complex social structures - Warfare and the Rise of the State

- Starts to look through archaeological evidence, saw evidence of war

- War started state

- Lewis Henry Morgan

- He believed that all societies evolve at different rates following a path of evolutionary stages based on social complexity and technology Don't forget about the age old question of Discuss philosophical writings about morality.

- Evolutionary stages based on social complexity We also discuss several other topics like How do witnesses decide whether to report or not report a crime?

- Savagery

- Lower

- Middle (fire)


What is known as one of the most architecturally spectacular mayan cities?



- Upper

- Barbarism

- Lower (agriculture)

- Middle

- Upper

- Civilization (writing) We also discuss several other topics like Which electrons are associated with glycolysis?

- Marx and Engels

- Conflict theorists that developed Marxist theory, argued that history occurs due to the material conditions of existence; conflicts over resources led to the government/state

- Franz Boas

- Believed that each culture is a product of its unique history and culture, and that more data is needed for general theories can be developed

- V. Gordon Childe

- Conflict theorist, he stated that urbanism was one of the main reasons for the development of the state; irrigation theory

- Water and irrigation is a source of conflict

- Elites emerge to organize labor for large-scale irrigation

- Taxes, class conflict

- Julian Steward

- Tried to classify societies in different parts, and rejected the notion of savagery and barbarism, choosing instead to focus on the historical changes as the result of adaptation If you want to learn more check out What are the types of synapses?

- Elman Service

- Bands, Tribes, Chiefdoms, States, Empires

- Robert Carneiro

- Developed the circumscription theory, and believed in civilization based on environmental circumstances

- Circumscription Theory (mix of conflict and integration theories) Don't forget about the age old question of Define homogenous mixture.

- Kent Flannery

- Developed the System Theory of Cultural Evolution, and he was a multivariate integrationist (believed that you can’t rely on single variant explanations) that believed that societies were systems made up of smaller subsystems that was designed to ensure that society survives and maintains an equilibrium with the external environment

- Richard Blanton

- Network vs. Corporate strategy

- Neo-Evolutionists

- Childe

- Steward

- Lewis Binford

- Demographic Stress Model

- Robert Braidwood

- “Nuclear Zone” Theory

- Karl Wittfogel

- Hydraulic Hypothesis

- Leonard Woolley

- Royal cemetery at Ur

- The farther they dug, the more they found, and the richer they bodies got - D. Bruce Dickson

- Artificial environmental circumscription

- Kathleen Kenyon

- Excavated Jericho

- James Mellaart

- Excavated Catal Huyuk

- Ian Hodder

- Excavated Catal Huyuk

- King Sargon

- Akkadian King Sargon, takes Sumer in 2371 BC Don't forget about the age old question of Who is michaelangelo, david?

- Gilgamesh

- Rules Uruk from 2750-2700 BC

- The Epic of Gilgamesh

- He defeats Kish

- Scorpion King

- Conquered the polity of Naqada

- Scorpion Mace Head

- White Crown of Upper Egypt (cone hat)

- Narmer

- Possibly a descendant of the Scorpion King

- Political strategist

- Expanded the scale of irrigation

- When a province was conquered, he used irrigation systems as a

political tool

- Expanded into upper egypt

- Builds new capital city at Memphis

- The Narmer Palette - depicts his final triumph and the unification of Egypt - Depicted wearing the Red Crown of Lower Egypt AND White

Crown of Upper Egypt

- Dead bodies

- Involved in wars with polities along the Nile

- King Zoser

- Zoser’s Pyramid (the stepped pyramid of Sakkara)

- Also Zozer, Djoser, Dzoser, Dsr, Djeser, Djeser

- Stepped Pyramid of Sakkara

- 6 levels, 30 meters high

- Grew out of the architecture of the Mastabas

- Mortimer Wheeler

- Aryan Invasion Theory

- Rig Veda (oldest Vedic Sanskrit literature) refers to conquest of Harappa by Aryan invaders but invasion not well dated

- Aryans: speakers of Indo-European languages (central Asia)

- Approx. 3 dozen unburied bodies at Mohenjo-daro

- No archaeological evidence of a mass invasion

- George Dales and Robert Raikes

- Tectonic uplift in the valley and flooding in the lower valley

- Massive earthquake around the time the Harappan civilization declined - Earthquake triggers flooding of floodplain including Mohenjo-daro - Disrupts trade, perhaps makes Harappa vulnerable to invasion

- Richard MacNeish

- “Settling In’ Hypothesis

- Matthew Stirling

- Excavations at La Venta

- Excavated lots of Olmec sites

- Hernan Cortes

- Leader of the conquistadors

- Formed an alliance with the enemies of the Aztecs

- Cortes, a few hundred of his soldiers, and 75,000 warriors defeated the Aztecs at Tenochtitlan

- First 100 years after the spanish - only 10% of the population of natives remained - Francisco Pizarro

- Spanish Conquest led by Juan Pizarro

- Perfect timing because the natives were revolting

- Brought diseases

- Alberto Ruz 

- Olmecs

- Famous for their impressive ceremonial buildings, heads of rulers made of rock, imagery (common motif - hybrid beings that are part human part jaguar), jade masks, iconography,

- Significant trade ties

- Influential in the culture of early mesoamerica

- Developed states with cities

- San Lorenzo, La Venta, Tres Zapotes

- Hot, swampy, humid, lots of rainfall in rainy season

- San Lorenzo - earliest site

- 1200-800 BC

- First city in mesoamerica (first regional polity)

- Most of it is located on a river terrace above the river

- Stone retaining walls that retain adobe terrases, where houses and ceremonial buildings would be built

- 10,000 people

- Lots of stone carvings of the heads of rulers - more than any of the other sites

- The basalt they make them from is from far away

- Gulf Coast Levee Settlement

- La Venta

- Major city between 800-400 BC

- 500 ha

- 10,000 people

- Excavations at La Venta (Sterling)

- The Main Pyramid of La Venta

- 34 meters high

- Concave faces

- Possible representation of a volcano??

- Part of a ceremonial center where political and religious

ceremonies were carried out

- Marked by a series of offerings

- Jaguar-Mask Serpentine Pavement (part of active

performances)

- Cache of Carved Jade Celts

- The La Venta Tomb

- 2 juveniles

- Offerings of jade, shell ornaments, stingray spines (bloodletting) - Indicates ascribed status

- Rulers = divine right

- Blood carried a ‘life force’

- Religion = politics

- Through offerings, leaders could petition the gods

- Olmec Noble as Religious Specialist

- Religion and Rulership

- Fertility and Well-being

- Religion justified nobles and rulers as ‘special’ people and their

power

- Monumental art, figurines, Stela (free standing monument),

altar/thrones

- Carved stone from Chalchuapa, El Salvador

- Interregional exchange and status competition

- Were-Jaguars

- Transformation

- Taking on the ‘life force’ - Jaguars are considered powerful

and divine beings

- Ritual Transformations

- Bones of a Bufo marinus

- Secrete a toxin from their skin

- Some people argued that they extract the toxin to make a

hallucinogen to use in ceremonies

- Trade in exotic goods to be used in religious ceremonies

- Olmec Jades

- Jade Celts

- Iron-Ore Mirrors

- Olmec Bloodletters

- Stingray spines

- Obsidian

- Trade in the Early Formative:

- Exchange of iron ore mirrors and obsidian

- Shared motifs on ceramic vessels and figurines

- Decorative motifs on pottery

- Thought to represent gods

- Aztecs

- Great War of 1426-1428: The Aztecs come to power

- Aztec sacrifice

- Weren’t originally mesoamericans, but they migrated into central mexico in the 1200s

- Considered ‘uncultured barbarians’

- Spent time as mercenaries

- Eventually gained more and more prominence

- Innovations to consolidate power:

- Sacrifice - made it the center of their religion

- The scale of sacrifice increased greatly

- Ceremonies of multiple days where thousands of people

would be sacrificed

- Representation of an Aztec skull rack

- Imagery representing sacrifice

- Tribute to acquire wealth

- When they would conquer somewhere, they would force

them to pay tributes

- Capital Tenochtitlan

- 150,000-200,000 people

- Located on an island, connected to the mainland through lots of

bridges

- Ceremonial center

- Dominated by the temple of Mayor

- Zapotec

- Valley of Oaxaca

- Mixtec

- Mixtec Codex

- The Mixtec Creation Story

- Involves interaction with powerful deities associated with earth and sky and a sacred covenant or agreement formed between Mixtec ancestors and these Gods

- Story begins by people unsuccessfully trying to grow crops

- They pierce the earth with their digging sticks, which causes the deities great pain

- Leads to the War of Heaven

- People and Gods forge the sacred covenant

- People agree to offer sacrifices to the Gods in return for agriculture - The ultimate form of sacrifice is death (before this people may have been immortal or lived a very long time)

- People sacrifice in return for the sacrifices of the GOds

- Through sacrifice people petition the deities for fertility and prosperity - 18-Rabbit

- very important ruler in Copan

- There was a war of revolution under 18-Rabbit

- Quirigua defeats Copan A.D. 737

- 18-Rabbit is captured and sacrificed by Cauac Sky of Quirigua

- Inca

- Rise to power in the mid-15th century

- Defeat Chimor state in 1460

- Begin as a small ethnic group in the highlands of Peru

- May have controlled as many as 6 million people

- Capitol: Cuzco

- Massive stone blocks cut so that they fit perfectly together

- Sacsayhuaman Fortress at Cuzco

- Inka Elite

- Sapa Inca (unique Inka or Speaker of the dead)

- Machu Picchu

- Royal estate

- The inca ruler would go to for a few weeks or months during the

year

- Major Deity: Inti (sun god)

- The ruler was considered to be a descendant of Inti

- Inca messengers

- Inca roads

- Inca mummy cult

- Dead rulers were kept and taken care of as a mummy

- Still considered to be animate and to affect the lives of people

- Allows the estate of the ruler to remain intact

- Little to no inheritance of money

- Never leaves the estate to go to the next living ruler

- Left tensions

- Revolution broke out because a ruler wanted to break the tradition and take the wealth and land of the previous estates

- Then the spanish arrived

- Maya

- Maya creation story: Popul Vuh

- Plaster Mask with Creation narrative

- Attached from the sides of buildings

- Often painted

- Depict elements of the Maya creation story

- Relationship between people, gods, sacrifice, and fertility

- Sacrificial Victims in a Late Formative Mayan Tomb

- Ruler’s burial

- Other bodies, some decapitated, probably sacrificial people

- Bones of powerful rulers had powerful religious purposes

- Imagery Interpreting Human Sacrifice

- Sacrifice brings rain, which brings fertility

- Controlled small areas

- Each had their own ruling dynasty

- Evidence for competition between these city-states

- Alliance networks

- Fragile and changing

- Tikal

- Copan

- Palenque

Concepts:

- Complexity 

- Warfare 

- Savagery 

- Barbarism 

- Civilization 

- Class conflict

- As economies diversified, classes began to develop, and with it, came inequality among classes

- In conflict theories, the government forms in order to ‘resolve’ class conflict

- Ethnocentrism

- The idea that your ethnic group as superior to others

- Conflict vs. Integration

- Conflict: society is in a state of perpetual conflict because of competition for limited resources

- Integration: the state as CEO

- Society as a system

- Human societies are complex systems, and should be looked at as systems - Network vs. Corporate strategies

- Network: political authorities focused on individual elites, such as powerful rulers, power is based on the control of personal wealth, and there is warfare between polities

- Corporate: emphasizes the good of the group by emphasizing corporate solidarity, and power is based on knowledge (usually religious)

- Neolithic Revolution

- Also called the Agricultural Revolution, and it marks the transition in human history from hunter-gatherer societies to agricultural settlements and early civilization

- Ideology vs. Materialism

- Ideology: ideas and beliefs as reasons for formations of states

- Material: the material conditions of existence as the driving reason for the building of states

- Adaptation

- People changing/responding to stressors

- Equilibrium

- The point at which society can survive and maintain a balance with the external environment

- Stressors

- The point at which society can survive and maintain a balance with the external environment

- Description

- Describing the sequence of events over time

- Explanation

- What factors led to what happened

- Broad-based subsistence

- The broadening of resources exploited; using both hunting-gathering and domestication for sustenance

- Domestication

- Plants or animals that have been extensively modified by humans, often to the extent that the plant or animal cannot survive without human intervention

Places/Sites:

- Jericho

- Levant

- Catal Huyuk

- Levant

- Tell Hassuna

- Tell sites

- Tell: a gradual man-made hill

- Tell Halaf

- Tell-es Sawwan

- 2-3 ha

- Community is surrounded by a wall

- Settlement hierarchy

- First evidence of irrigation

- Long distance trade

- Evidence of social changes

- Social organization

- Some houses larger than others

- Children as well as adults buried with elaborate offerings (ascribed status)

- Monumental architecture (T shaped temples) suggests control of

labor by leaders

- 2-tiered settlement hierarchy

- Eridu

- Vast temple complexes, 50 ha or more with 5000 people or more, craft workshops, religious and political centers

- Surrounded by walls

- Political center

- Evidence for political administration buildings

- Religion and politics intertwined

- Uruk

- Uruk Period Developments (3500-3100 BC)

- Urbanization

- Social stratification

- Complex economic system with markets and full-time craft specialization - Surplus production used by state for temple construction

- State form of political organization

- Massive population growth (Uruk perhaps 50,000 people) in the Jemdet Nasr Period (3100-2900 BC

- Uruk (2750-2700 BC)

- Ruled by King Gilgamesh

- Kish

- Major Sumerian City-State of the Early Dynastic Period (2900-2371 BC) - Kish (2900-2750 BC)

- In 2750, Gilgamesh (from Uruk) defeats Kish

- The Epic of Gilgamesh

- Lagash

- Major Sumerian City-State of the Early Dynastic Period (2900-2371 BC) - Ur

- Major Sumerian City-State of the Early Dynastic Period (2900-2371 BC) - Two harbors

- Ziggurat

- Political/religious complex/Palace complex

- Storerooms

- Economy

- Walled

- Lower class neighborhoods (non-elite)

- Upper class houses - could be two stories and 200 square meters - Low status house - 50 square meters, single floor

- Giza

- The Great Pyramids at Giza

- Naqada

- Early Egyptian Chiefdom

- Political center

- 2 tiered settlement hierarchy

- Warfare: fortified sites, war between Hierakonpolis and Naqada leads to unification of Egyptian state

- Hierakonpolis

- Early Egyptian Chiefdom

- Political center

- 2 tiered settlement hierarchy

- Warfare: fortified sites, war between Hierakonpolis and Naqada leads to unification of Egyptian state

- Abydos

- Political capital of Upper Egypt

- Memphis

- Political capital of Lower Egypt

- Mehrgarh

- 6500-2000 bc

- Covers 200 hectares

- Mud brick houses

- Mohenjo-daro

- 250 ha

- 40,000 people

- Well organized, built on a grid

- Oriented off of a main street that runs north and south

- Sophisticated sewer systems

- Public baths

- Houses: rooms constructed around a central patio

- City center: located on a raised platform that was surrounded by bathrooms - Walled Citadel, 12 m high (wall)

- Citadel 450 x 90 meters

- Ceremonial buildings

- The Great Bath

- 12 x 7 x 2.5 meters

- Harappa

- 1.3 million sq. km

- Indus Civilization

- Kalibangan

- Lothal

- On the Harappan coast, seaport and trading center

- Prestige goods

- Long distance trade, sent goods up the indus valley

- Levant

- Natufian Culture (Jericho and Ain Mallaha)

- Fertile crescent

- Coastal region of the eastern mediterranean

- Jericho and Ain Mallaha: excavation sites

- Jericho

- Catal Huyuk

- Mesopotamia

- Sumerian Culture (5500-4500 BC)

- Early Settlements of Northern Mesopotamia

- Umm Dabghiya (6500-6000 BC), Hassuna (6000-5300 BC), Halaf (5500-4700 BC)

- Small villages of one hectare and 100-300 people

- Tell sites

- Tell: a gradual man-made hill

- Flood water and rainfall agriculture (no irritation)

- Long-distance trade probably with Catal Huyuk and Jarmo

- Halaf culture - unique Tholos Structures

- Religious buildings

- Beneath the floor, there are elaborate burials

- Achieved status

- Irrigation allows settlement (and major population growth) of lower Mesopotamia - Extreme environment

- Dry season

- Hot and arid

- Summer and fall

- No rainfall

- Without rivers, no access to water

- Rainy season

- Short

- Winter and spring

- Flooding

- Anatolian Plateau

- Catal Huyuk is here

- Iranian Plateau

- Lots of precious stones were/are found here

- Copper

- Turquoise

- Sinai

- Copper from the Iranian Plateau and the Sinai

- Upper and Lower Egypt

- Upper

- Southern majority of the river

- The Scorpion Mace Head

- White Crown of Upper Egypt (cone hat)

- Abydos

- Lower

- Just before the river empties into the Mediterranean Sea

- Includes Nile Delta

- Red Crown of Lower Egypt

- Memphis

- At an advantage

- Nile Delta

- 250 x 160 km

- Less prone to drought

- More humid

- Greater variety of crops can be grown

- An ecological advantage over Upper Egypt

- But most sites deeply buried (sediment deposits)

- More rainfall

- Nubia

- Had complex societies as well

- Often trade partners of Egypt

- Upper Egypt, so

- Arable strip only 3 km wide

- Hot and dry

- Irrigation needed

- Nile rich in wild resources

- Long narrow oasis

- Sumer

- Dominant States in Sumer

- Kish (2900-2750 BC)

- In 2750, Gilgamesh (from Uruk) defeats Kish

- The Epic of Gilgamesh

- Uruk (2750-2700 BC)

- Ruled by King Gilgamesh

- Elamites conquer Sumer 2700 BC

- Ur and Lagash dominate over the next 200 years

- falls to Akkadian King Sargon 2371 BC

- Sumerian Culture (5500-4500 BC)

- landscape degradation is part of the reason for the fall of the Sumerian states - Tigris and Euphrates Rivers

- Lots of settlement, Braided

- The bed of the river built up at a greater rate than the floodplain - All you needed to irrigate was gravity

- Easy to build canal systems

- Took lots of labor to maintain

- People settle along irrigation canals

- Risk of irrigation culture

- Major river channels prone to flooding

- Euphrates is a braided river prone to channel shifts

- Could shift up to 100 miles

- Great variation in onset and intensity of rainy season flooding

- Can’t grow summer crops

- Potential for conflict over water along irrigation systems

- Between people close to the river and people farther away

- Salinization and desertification

- Akkadia

- Sumer falls to Akkadian King Sargon 2371 BC

- Indus Valley

- Indus River

- Agricultural rich region

- Navigable through most of its length

- Trade, communication, movement between cities in the state

- Environmentally circumscribed (not as severely as in Egypt)

- Mesoamerica

- Highlands

- Most of mesoamerica

- Continuation of the Rocky Mountains that continue down Mexico - High-rugged mountains

- Not great for agriculture

- Cool

- Mountains reach 5,000 ft above sea level

- Volcanic peaks can reach up to 18,000 ft

- Series of Highlands valleys are where the most people are located - The Basin of Mexico: Teotihuacan and Aztecs

- Where we find the largest populations and large cities

- Central Mexico

- Valley of Oaxaca: Zapotecs and Monte Alban

- Highlands of Southern Mexico and Guatemala: Mayans

- Also called the Mayan Highland Region

- Lowlands

- Coasts

- Warm

- Tropical/semitropical

- More rainfall

- Gulf Coast: Olmec

- Lots of rainfall

- Very tropical

- Wet, rivers, swamps, marshes

- Yucatan Peninsula: Northern Mayan Lowlands (Mayapan)

- Dryer (still wet)

- Limestone

- Southern Maya Lowlands: Tikal

- Jungle variety

- Very large buildings and temples

- Pacific Coastal Lowlands:

- Harder to characterize

- Dryer the farther north you go

- More tropical the southern you go

- Andean South America (coast and altiplano)

- Andean Altiplano and Cost of Peru, Bolivia, Ecuador, Chile, and Columbia - South America

- Very diverse environmentally

- Highlands vs lowlands

- Andean Lowlands

- Narrow strip of coastal plain

- Andean Coast

- Very dry

- Desert

- Doesn’t rain very often, so rivers are essential for irrigation

- Traditional fishing on the Andea coast

- Very rich marine environment

- Highlands

- The Titicaca Basin

- Huge highland valley

- Dominated by a large shallow lake

- High elevation, so corn doesn’t grow

- Can get cold

- Temperate, cool

- Bering land-bridge

- The Bering Land Bridge (Beringia)

- Lots of ice + lower sea levels = land bridge

- Pleistocene megafauna in Beringia

- Mammoths, mastodon, giant sloth horse, bison, etc.

- Theories of the peopling of the Americas: ice free corridors; sea craft; “Iberia not Siberia”

- Ice free corridors

- Sea Craft

- Iberia not Siberia

- Proposed that it was possible that people from the Iberian

Peninsula used sea craft to enter eastern north America

- Comparing projectile points

- Coastal Migration using sea craft

- Ice-free corridor

- There was an area that came across/down the new world that allowed passage from Russia to Mesoamerica that was ice-free

- Coastal migration

- ‘Hopping’ along islands and ice with small settlements until they made their way to Mesoamerica

- Monte Verde, Chile

- 12,000-13,000 BC

- Swampy area, so things have been preserved and been able to be dated - Stone Tools found

- Basin of Mexico

- Teotihuacan and Aztecs

- Where we find the largest populations and large cities

- Central Mexico

- Teotihuacan

- Emerges as an urban center by Terminal Formative (100 B.C-A.D. 300) - Oriented on a grid

- Oriented towards a large ceremonial avenue

- Street of the Dead and Pyramid of the Sun

- Around the Street of the Dead were where the large ceremonial

buildings were located

- Pyramid of the Sun

- 61 meters high, 213 meters on a side

- Built over an artificial cave

- Entryways into the underworld, contact gods

- Pyramid of the Moon

- Temple of Quetzalcoatl

- Quetzalcoatl: feathered serpent deity

- Prominent central-mexican god

- Sculptures on the facade of the building depicting the

feathered serpent

- Tunnel inside - to look at earlier versions of the building

for archeological research

- Burials

- Bodies found with upper jaws on/around them (hint

at human sacrifice)

- Inlays in teeth

- Jade, iron ore

- Over 100 bodies

- Many had arms tied behind backs

- People were sacrificed before the building

was constructed

- Chemistry of bones - show that many of them were

foreigners

- War captives?

- A.D. 1 - covered 6-8 sq km, 20,000 people

- A.D. 300: 20 sq km, 90,000 people

- Valley of Oaxaca

- Zapotecs and Monte Alban

- Yucatan

- Northern Mayan Lowlands (Mayapan)

- Dryer (still wet)

- Limestone

- Coxcatlan Cave

- Dry Cave Sites

- Coxcatlan Cave, Tehuacan (Richard/Scotty McNiece)

- Organic material does not decay

- Tehuacan Valley 

- Pan-Isthmian Corridor 

- Soconusco Coast 

- San Lorenzo

- Hot, swampy, humid, lots of rainfall in rainy season

- Olmec people and the Gulf coast

- 1200-800 BC

- First city in mesoamerica (first regional polity)

- Most of it is located on a river terrace above the river

- Stone retaining walls that retain adobe terrases, where houses and ceremonial buildings would be built

- 10,000 people

- Lots of stone carvings of the heads of rulers - more than any of the other sites - The basalt they make them from is from far away

- La Venta

- Major city between 800-400 BC

- 500 ha

- 10,000 people

- Excavations at La Venta (Sterling)

- The Main Pyramid of La Venta

- 34 meters high

- Concave faces

- Possible representation of a volcano??

- Part of a ceremonial center where political and religious ceremonies were carried out

- Marked by a series of offerings

- Jaguar-Mask Serpentine Pavement (part of active performances)

- Cache of Carved Jade Celts

- The La Venta Tomb

- 2 juveniles

- Offerings of jade, shell ornaments, stingray spines (bloodletting)

- Indicates ascribed status

- San Jose Mogote

- Carving

- Heart removal/heart sacrifice

- First evidence of human sacrifice in the valley (between 600-500 BC) - First evidence of writing in the valley

- First evidence of the calendar in the valley

- Kaminaljuyu 

- Monte Alban

- Valley of Oaxaca

- Founded at 500 BC

- Founded by people from the Northern part of the valley

- Late Formative (400-100 BC)

- Grows rapidly

- 400 ha

- 15,000 people

- 4 tiered settlement hierarchy (state)

- Rising inequality

- Main plaza - estimated to hold 50,000 people

- Early ceremonial buildings

- Two-room temples

- Ballcourt

- Monte Alban palace

- Tombs beneath noble patios

- Danzante: a sacrificial victim/autosacrifice

- Images of genital bloodletting, human sacrifice, decapitations, etc - Defensive wall: indicates conflict

- Tikal

- Southern Maya Lowlands

- Jungle variety

- Very large buildings and temples

- One of the largest of these maya cities

- Mostly were political capitals for small areas (referred to as city-states) - Jungles of northern Guatemala

- 123 sq km

- 100,000 people

- Ceremonial center is focused on the plaza

- Many temple pyramids, ballcourts, palaces, raised causeways

- Plastered and painted red

- Murals on sides of buildings

- Stelae often facing sacrificial altars

- Free standing carvings

- Depict rulers with their history recorded in hieroglyphic writing

- Birth, death, accession, conquests, marriages, alliances, etc

- El Mirador 

- Copan

- Southeastern edge of Mayan region

- Now - western end of Honduras

- Hilly region

- The Copan Acropolis

- Platform that supports multiple monumental buildings

- Much smaller than Tikal

- Known for sculptures

- 18-Rabbit: very important ruler in Copan

- There was a war of revolution under 18-Rabbit

- Quirigua defeats Copan A.D. 737

- 18-Rabbit is captured and sacrificed by Cauac Sky of Quirigua

- Hieroglyphic Stairway

- Each block on the stairway has a glyph on it

- Dynastic history

- Copan ball court

- One of the largest in the Mayan lowlands

- 12 sq km

- Quirigua

- Quirigua defeats Copan A.D. 737

- 18-Rabbit is captured and sacrificed by Cauac Sky of Quirigua

- Palenque

- Known as one of the most architecturally spectacular mayan cities - Between the lowlands and the highlands

- Overlooking the Gulf Coast

- Palace Complex

- Spectacular

- Two story building that included a four story tower

- Multi story buildings were rare in mesoamerica

- Storage areas, living areas

- Temple of the Inscriptions

- In the temple on the top of the pyramid, there were inscribed monuments that represented part of the mayan creation story

- Tomb of Lord Pacal

- Carved sarcophagus

- Tula

- Tula of the Toltecs

- Chichen Itza 

- Chavin de Huantar site

- Large sunken plazas associated with temple platforms

- Moche

- Moche state

- North coast of Peru

- 200 BC - AD 600

- Irrigation agriculture

- Major El Nino event c.a. A.D. 530s

- Ruled by powerful rulers

- The Lord of Sipan

- So dry, that it takes forever for things to break down (things like textiles and bones can be found)

- Sipan Gold

- Moche iconography

- Shows that they were ‘warrior-priests’

- Huaca del Sol

- Painted murals

- Preservation is pretty good because there is no rain

- Large urban center, population in the thousands

- Began to decline after 500 A.D.

- The river shifted its channel and caused flooding

- Nazca

- Famous for the Nazca lines

- Tiwanaku

- Titicaca Basin, Bolivia

- Wari

- Peruvian Highlands

- Cuzco

- Capital of Inca Empire

- Machu Picchu

- Royal estate of the inca elite

- The inca ruler would go to for a few weeks or months during the year - Temple of Inscriptions

- In the temple on the top of the pyramid, there were inscribed monuments that represented part of the mayan creation story

- Tomb of Lord Pacal

- Carved sarcophagus

- Tomb of Lord Pacal

- Carved sarcophagus

- Templo Mayor

- Capital Tenochtitlan

- Dominated the ceremonial center

- Caral

- Complex societies on the coast by 2500-1800 B.C.

- El Paraiso

- Complex societies on the coast by 2500-1800 B.C.

Ideas/Symbols/Things:

- Characteristics of states

- 1. Urbanism

- 2. Social stratification

- 3. State form of Political Organization

- 4. Economic Specialization

- 5. Surpluses and taxes

- 6.Intensive Agriculture

- 7. Cycles for development and collapse

- Great Rift Valley

- Where Lucy - one of the first hominids to walk on two legs - was found - Upper Paleolithic

- The paleolithic era is from 14,000 to 12,000 BCE, ice age ends leading to dramatic changes in the environment and climate (including seasons), small family based foraging groups

- Homo sapiens sapiens

- Humans!

- Characteristics of hunter-gatherer societies

- Small, family based

- Egalitarian

- Mobile

- Consensus based

- Environment

- People/societies adapt to their environment, and the environment is a stressor - Ecology

- The study of the relationships of organisms, so in anthropology, it is the study of how humans interact with other organisms and how that led to societies - Measures of social complexity

- Savagery, Barbarism, Civilization

- Advantages and disadvantages of states 

- Band

- Small family based

- Hunter-gatherer societies

- Egalitarian

- Consensus based

- Little economic specialization

- Mobile

- Tribe

- Semi-sedentary

- 100s-1000s

- Mostly hunter-gatherer

- Better integrated

- Largely consensus

- Power is achieved, not inherited

- Chiefdom

- One ruler, power is passed down

- Complex society

- Mostly agricultural

- Trade

- Larger

- Political leaders = religious leaders

- State

- Large (1000s-billions)

- Cities

- Intensive agriculture

- Highly integrated

- State form of government

- Bureaucracy

- Law backed by military

- Taxes

- Social classes

- Empire

- Multi-state polities

- Definition of archaeology

- The study of human behavior and culture in the past through the recovery and analysis of material remains

- Survey

- The discovery, collection, recording and study of remains on the surface - Excavation

- The discovery, collection, recording and study of remains from below the surface - Types of evidence that suggest a state 

- Pleistocene

- Geological epoch that is characterized by ice, 2 million - 12,000 bce - Holocene

- Ice melted, 12,000-present

- Glacial conditions

- Cold, no seasons, low water levels

- Mesolithic

- 12,000-10,000

- Seasons begin to develop, and this allows for people to begin agriculture - Early Neolithic Period

- Technologies develop to exploit plants

- Transitional Village Period

- First evidence of early domestication, people begin relying on domestication, fully sedentary, pottery

- Fully Agricultural

- No longer hunter-gatherer societies

- Neolithic Village Period

- Reliance on domesticates, fully sedentary, pottery, trade

- Jericho

- Major excavation site

- Natufian culture

- The name given to the sedentary hunter-gatherers living in the Levant region - Zagros Mountains

- At the base, houses were found at Jericho

- Karin Shahir culture

- Archaeological site near Jericho

- Ain Mallaha

- A Natufian settlement

- Fertile Crescent

- The first site of agriculture

- Ali Kosh

- Archaeological site in western Iraq

- Ganj Dareh

- Settlement in Iraq (Zagros Mountains)

- Oasis Theory

- Saw the material conditions of existence as the key to understanding cultural change

- Domestication of plants and animals was due to the changes in the environment and therefore changes in resources

- Trend of increasing temperature and period of less rainfall

- Domestication occurred around permanent water sources

- During this dry period, plants and animals would congregate around permanent water

- Springs

- Lakes

- Rivers

- People began to more intensively focus on those resources,

- Theory flowchart:

- Desiccation of Near East at end of last Ice age (from wet and cool to hot and dry)

- Plants survived only near rivers or oases, animals stayed close to

water sources

- Human beings were also forced to stay near water sources

- Human beings closely observed the behavior of

plants and animals

- Natural irrigation by rivers led to natural

growth of dense stands of grain

- Stubble from harvested fields attracted

animals (especially during dry season)

- Human beings established symbiotic

relationship by planting and harvesting grain

- Human beings established a symbiotic

relationship by protecting animals from

other predators and by feeding them during

lean seasons

- Problems:

- Little data in 1930s when Childe developed the theory

- Sites with early domesticates not found in “oasis” settings

- There was not a post-glacial drought

- Nuclear Zone

- Excavated Jarmo to investigate early domestication

- Nuclear zones - where things were most abundant, so people begin to focus on these areas

- Theory flowchart:

- Wild progenitors of domesticates existed in restricted area (similar to their distribution today, because climate is almost constant)

- Adequate technology was developed to utilize plants and hunt

animals effectively

- Period of settling into regions: permanent communities,

specialization of labor and tools

- Close relationship developed between human

beings and potential domesticates

- Period of experimentation with potential

food resources: incipient agricultural

practices

- Establishment of village farming

community with fully recognizable

agriculture

- Problems:

- Does not really explain the origins of domestication; esp. The timing - Jarmo is no longer one of the earliest sites with domesticated

- Early sites with domesticated like Ali Kosh are found outside the Fertile Crescent

- Demographic Stress

- Looked at human populations as part of systems

- Humans should adapt so as to keep the population in balance with the environment

- Focused on demographic issues and why people were finding sites of early domestication outside of the Fertile Crescent

- The changing environment of the holocene leads to rich coastal environments - Optimal zones, biologically productive

- The Levant - eastern Mediterranean (Natufian)

- Allows for sedentism

- People focus on marine technologies as well as sheep and goats and wheat/barley

- Theory:

- 1. Environmental changes at the end of the Pleistocene leads to

establishment of rich coastal environments

- 2. Allows for increased sedentism

- 3. People develop new technologies to exploit wild cereals, herd animals, and marine resources

- 4. Sedentism eliminates population control mechanisms

- 5. Population growth triggers population pressure

- 6. Responses to population pressure

- Intensify exploitation of wild resources (esp. Storable grains and

nuts)

- Migrate to more marginal areas (drier and hotter) and transplant

wheat, barley, herd animals, which then have to be intensively

managed resulting in domestication

- Advantages:

- Explains Natufian

- Explains first evidence of domestication outside the Fertile Crescent - Explains why marginal and optimum zones have similar technology - Disadvantages

- No evidence of population pressure

- Jericho and Catal Huyuk as anomalies

- Economic centers

- Religion

- Agriculture

- Pests, putting all eggs in one basket, disease, drought

- More insecurity, the more belief in a higher power

- Tied together larger groups of people living together

- Bitumen

- Oil based substance used to make bass of Ziggurats and waterproof houses - T-shaped temples

- Sacrificial altars

- Elaborate burials

- Burials of rulers

- Store rooms

- Long distance trade

- Sacrificial altars

- Elaborate burials

- Burials of rulers

- Store rooms

- Chiefdoms

- Simple chiefdoms

- One tier administrative hierarchy

- One political center

- 2 tier settlement hierarchy

- complex/paramount chiefdoms

- 2 tier administrative hierarchy

- Multiple centers with one paramount political center

- 3 tier settlement hierarchy

- Paramount chief controls other chiefs

- These patterns of hierarchy begin to show at places like Tell es Sawwan - Tholoi structures

- Religious buildings

- Beneath the floor, there are elaborate burials

- Achieved status

- Ziggurat

- temple built on a man-made hill

- Artwork depicting gods and rulers

- Statues

- Store rooms (to store materials collected as taxes)

- Cuneiform Writing

- Written text

- Long narratives

- Mostly about economics

- Cylinder seals

- Writing

- Royal Cemetery of Ur

- “Death Pit”

- 2500 burials

- Mostly non-elites, but those that accompanied nobles in death

- Accompanied by goods, offerings, etc

- Vaulted tombs

- 30-50 ft below ground level, accessed by shafts

- Tomb of Queen Puabi

- Elaborate tomb

- Two rooms, one where she was buried, the other filled with even more offerings and 59 people, carts, oxen

- Nobility, artisans, commoners, slaves

- Epic of Gilgamesh

- He defeats Kish

- Irrigation

- Long term effects of irrigation

- Salinization: Water spreads salt in the soil, which eventually stops plants from growing

- Short term effects of irrigation

- Food

- Landscape Degradation

- Irrigation triggers landscape degreation

- Declining agricultural productivity leads to competition over land and endemic warfare

- Salinization

- Risk of irrigation culture

- Major river channels prone to flooding

- Euphrates is a braided river prone to channel shifts

- Could shift up to 100 miles

- Great variation in onset and intensity of rainy season flooding

- Can’t grow summer crops

- Potential for conflict over water along irrigation systems

- Between people close to the river and people farther away

- Salinization and desertification

- Salinization: Water spreads salt in the soil, which eventually stops plants from growing

- Long term problem for irrigation anywhere, not just

Mesopotamia

- Salt from the upper drainage basin

- Permeable salt - salt concentrations get highest at the stop of the

flood table

- They gradually rise, and will hit the roots of the crops

- Solutions to salinization and desertification

- Rapidly drain off irrigation water

- Leach soils just before plowing to flush soils

- Weed fallow with Shoq and Agul

- Nitrogen fixers

- Deep rooted plants that use a lot of water

- Grazing animals to fertilize soils

- Remove saline topsoil

- Abandon fields until salt levels decrease (50-100 years)

- Evidence of Salinization:

- Barley becomes focus of agriculture as shown in cuneiform

records

- More salt resistant

- Evidence of loss of soil fertility

- Artificial environmental circumscription (Dickson)

- Article: as less and less land is available for agriculture due

to salinization, increasing competition for land, and that is

why warfare becomes more prevalent

- Led to rulers becoming more powerful because they were

managing war and defence

- Less land to feed the same amount of people, so they have

to more intensively use land, which further ruins land

- Weakens Sumerian state

- Conditions worsen after 1700 BC

- Further decline of Sumerian state

- Desertification

- Desertification: transforming the environment into a desert

- Theories on the rise and fall of the Sumerian State and important factors - Materialist

- Ideological

- Irrigation theory (Childe, Wittfogel, and Steward)

- Childe, Wittfogel, and Steward

- Theories of Irrigation and the Rise of the Sumerian State

- Large scale irrigation

- Often called Hydraulic Hypothesis

- Theory

- 1. Irrigation agriculture developed to deal with aridity

- 2. Large-scale irrigation requires lots of labor and labor

organization

- 3. Irrigation requires leaders to organize labor and adjudicate

disputes

- 4. Leaders who take on these roles gain power and wealth

- 5. Organizational problems lead to development of bureaucracy

- 6. Trade and warfare also coordinated by rulers and state

bureaucracy

- Problems with this theory

- There were states before large scale irrigation

- Doesn’t take into consideration religion and ideas

- Materialist theory in a very narrow sense

- Artificial environmental circumscription

- Article: as less and less land is available for agriculture due to salinization, increasing competition for land, and that is why warfare becomes more prevalent - Led to rulers becoming more powerful because they were managing war and defence

- Less land to feed the same amount of people, so they have to more intensively use land, which further ruins land

- Weakens Sumerian state

- Sumerian responses to problems with irrigation agriculture

- Rapidly drain off irrigation water

- Leach soils just before plowing to flush soils

- Weed fallow with Shoq and Agul

- Nitrogen fixers

- Deep rooted plants that use a lot of water

- Grazing animals to fertilize soils

- Remove saline topsoil

- Abandon fields until salt levels decrease (50-100 years)

- Geography of Egypt

- Narmer’s Palette

- carving on both sides. One side Narmer dressed as king of Upper Egypt, other side wearing crown of Lower Egypt. Showing he is the ruler of both upper and lower egypt

- Sakkara Necropolis

- Mastaba

- Large scale irrigation

- Egyptian bureaucracy

- Provincial Governors (Nomes)

- Scribes

- Craft Specialists

- Architects

- Priests

- Mastaba

- above ground temple, underground shaft led to a tomb underneath the ground - Egyptian pyramids

- 1 Zoser’s Pyramid (the stepped pyramid of Sakkara)

- 2 Pyramid at Meidum

- 52 degree angle

- Began as a stepped pyramid, decided to change it to a true, smooth sided pyramid

- It collapsed

- Many people killed

- 3 Bent Pyramid

- Bottom is 52 degrees, and the top is 43.5 degrees

- Plastered over to be smooth and white

- Still has lots of remains of plaster

- 4 Red Pyramid at Dahshur

- More gentle angle, almost no plaster left

- 5 Khufu

- Khufu is the largest

- About 300 feet high

- Each block weighed many tons

- Represent power

- The power of the pharaoh to mobilize labor

- Tower over moden Cairo (basically across the river)

- All at 52 degree angle (architecture is more developed)

- Wasn’t slave labor

- Housing has been found

- People that were members of the commoners were ‘paying their

taxes’ by participating in the construction

- 6 Khafre

- 7 Menkaure

- Fortified Citadels of Harappa

- City center: located on a raised platform that was surrounded by bathrooms - Walled Citadel, 12 m high (wall)

- Citad el 450 x 90 meters

- Ceremonial buildings

- The Great Bath

- 12 x 7 x 2.5 meters

- Great Bath of Mohenjo-daro

- 12 x 7 x 2.5 meters

- Indus Script 

- Social organization of Indus Valley civilization

- Theories of the collapse of the Indus Valley states

- Harappan states were only around for 700-800 years

- Sir Mortimer Wheeler

- Aryan Invasion Theory

- Rig Veda (oldest Vedic Sanskrit literature) refers to conquest of Harappa by Aryan invaders but invasion not well dated

- Aryans: speakers of Indo-European languages (central Asia)

- Approx. 3 dozen unburied bodies at Mohenjo-daro

- No archaeological evidence of a mass invasion

- George Dales and Robert Raikes

- Tectonic uplift in the valley and flooding in the lower valley

- Massive earthquake around the time the Harappan civilization

declined

- Earthquake triggers flooding of floodplain including Mohenjo-daro - Disrupts trade, perhaps makes Harappa vulnerable to invasion

- After harappan collapse, power in South Central Asia shifts east to Ganges river, where large cities develop by 1100 BC

- Olmec Colossal Heads

- Famous for their impressive ceremonial buildings, heads of rulers made of rock - Made of basalt

- Street of the Dead

- Around the Street of the Dead were where the large ceremonial buildings were located

- Pyramid of the Sun

- Pyramid of the Moon

- Pyramids of the Sun and Moon

- 61 meters high, 213 meters on a side

- Built over an artificial cave

- Entryways into the underworld, contact gods

- Temple of Quetzalcoatl

- Quetzalcoatl: feathered serpent deity

- Prominent central-mexican god

- Sculptures on the facade of the building depicting the feathered serpent - Tunnel inside - to look at earlier versions of the building for archeological research

- Burials

- Bodies found with upper jaws on/around them (hint at human sacrifice) - Inlays in teeth

- Jade, iron ore

- Over 100 bodies

- Many had arms tied behind back

- Feathered Serpent

- On the Temple of Quetzalcoatl

- Quetzalcoatl: feathered serpent deity

- Prominent central-mexican god

- Shamanism 

- Sacrifice

- Many different forms

- Human (rare until the Aztecs)

- Nobles, blood of nobles is more powerful

- People captured in warfare

- Heart extraction

-

- Animal

- Earth

- Bloodletting

- Prestige goods

- Defined the relationship between people and the gods

- Defined the relationship between commoners and rulers

- Creation narratives: stories about the creation of the world

- “We eat the earth and the earth eats us”

- Defines the relationship between people and the gods

- Defines the relationship between nobles and commoners

- Heart extraction

- Sacrificial knives

- Maya lowlands mural showing war captives and decapitation

- Skull racks

- Autosacrifice

- Offerings of goods to the gods

- Burning of incense

- Blood sacrifices were seen as transferring the life force to the gods - Only nobles were able to carry out human sacrifice

- Special place of nobility in relation to sacrifice

- Original sacrificers were nobles

- The sacrificial blood of nobles was more powerful

- Through bloodletting nobles could open a portal to the Otherworld and communicate with Dieties and ancestors

- Relationship between Nobles, Commoners, and Deities

- A social contract

- Elites had special ritual roles and carried out the most potent forms of ritual so as to petition the deities for prosperity and fertility on behalf of all their people

- Dommoners depended on elites to carry out these rituals

- Commoners receive security and prosperity

- In return, commoners provided allegiance and tribute to nobles

- Elites gain in wealth, but have special religious and political roles and were often sought for capture and sacrifice

- Bloodletting and autosacrifice

- genital bloodletting, human sacrifice, decapitations, etc

- Were-jaguar

- Transformation

- Taking on the ‘life force’ - Jaguars are considered powerful and divine beings - Stelae

- Free standing carvings

- Depict rulers with their history recorded in hieroglyphic writing

- Birth, death, accession, conquests, marriages, alliances, etc

- San Jose Mogote Monument 3

- Heart removal/heart sacrifice

- First evidence of human sacrifice in the valley (between 600-500 BC) - First evidence of writing in the valley

- First evidence of the calendar in the valley

- Danzantes

- a sacrificial victim/autosacrifice

- Images of genital bloodletting, human sacrifice, decapitations, etc

- Sacred Covenant

- Relationship between Nobles, Commoners, and Deities

- A social contract

- Elites had special ritual roles and carried out the most potent forms of ritual so as to petition the deities for prosperity and fertility on behalf of all their people

- Dommoners depended on elites to carry out these rituals

- Commoners receive security and prosperity

- In return, commoners provided allegiance and tribute to nobles

- Elites gain in wealth, but have special religious and political roles and were often sought for capture and sacrifice

- Jade

- Distinctions between nobles and commoners becomes more apparent - Pottery (skilled craftspeople)

- Shells

- Hieroglyphic writing

- Only nobles were literate

- Pachuca Obsidian 

- Popol Vuh

- Maya creation story

- Creation myth

- stories about the creation of the world

- Explain the relationship between religion and politics and the role of sacrifice

- Mixtec codices

- Involves interaction with powerful deities associated with earth and sky and a sacred covenant or agreement formed between Mixtec ancestors and these Gods - Story begins by people unsuccessfully trying to grow crops

- They pierce the earth with their digging sticks, which causes the deities great pain - Leads to the War of Heaven

- People and Gods forge the sacred covenant

- People agree to offer sacrifices to the Gods in return for agriculture - The ultimate form of sacrifice is death (before this people may have been immortal or lived a very long time)

- People sacrifice in return for the sacrifices of the GOds

- Through sacrifice people petition the deities for fertility and prosperity - Vision Serpent 

- Hero Twins 

- Ball court

- Considered to be places that were entryways to the underworld

- Gods could be effectively communicated with

- Ceremonies carried out in ball courts

- Political alliances through ball games

- Calendar systems

- Solar Calendar (365 days/year)

- 18 months of 20 days each

- Short month of 5 days, a time of ritual danger

- 260 day ritual calendar

- Roughly the human gestation period

- 52-year calendar round

- Where both calendars started on the same day

- Writing

- Only in Mesoamerica (not in Andes)

- Maya hieroglyphic writing

- Inti: Sun God

- Major Deity: Inti (sun god)

- The ruler was considered to be a descendant of Inti

- Three sisters (corn, beans, squash) 

- Broad based subsistence teosinte

- Teosinte as a weed successful around Archaic period hunting camps - More intensive management of teosinte leads to domestication of corn - Effects of disease

- Wiped out 90 percent of the native population in 100 years

- Effects of Spanish incursion 

- Settling In theory

- These wild precursors to later domesticates were most abundant in highland valleys

- Because they were abundant, people began to focus on them, and begun to acquire more knowledge about their life cycles and began to increase the plant’s productivity, leading to domestication

- Problems:

- No timeline - why did it happen when it happened

- The optimal zone for maize wasn’t the highland valleys - it was at the coast

- Role and nature of nobility

- Special place of nobility in relation to sacrifice

- Original sacrificers were nobles

- The sacrificial blood of nobles was more powerful

- Through bloodletting nobles could open a portal to the Otherworld and communicate with Deities and ancestors

- Wattle and daub

- Early Formative Housing

- Slash and Burn agriculture

- Relies on the cycles of the rain and dry season

- During the dry season, vegetation dies, so a month before the rains begin, the remaining vegetation on a field is cut down

- It is left to dry out

- It is burned

- The burning transforms the vegetation into ash, which is easier for plants to assimilate

- Forms a fertilizer

- Timing of the burn is really important

- To early - ash will blow off

- To late - harder to fire the field because of the rain

- After a few seasons, the productivity of the field decreases and will be left alone to build back up nutrients

- Fallow period

- Raised Field agriculture Terracing agriculture

- Used in areas that are swampy or marshy

- Dig lattice work of canals

- The sediment of the canal is very fertile, so the sediment is used between the canals (raising the level of the field)

- Highly productive

- Sometimes raise fish in the canals

- Classic-Period Collapse

- Population at urban centers declines

- Many cities are abandoned

- Cessation of the construction of monumental buildings and palaces - Cessation in the raising of stelae

- Cessation of hieroglyphic writing

- Collapse of political authority and the end of ruling dynasties - Teotihuacan: A.D. 600

- Monte Alban: A.D. 800

- Maya Cities A.D. 900

- East to west pattern of collapse

- Theories of the Classic Period Collapse

- Environmental degradation due to land use/landscape degradation - People had been using the land for centuries, so the exhaustion of agricultural areas may have started to become apparent

- Led to the decline of agricultural productivity

- People begin to redispurse

- Evidence: Mayan city of Copan

- Evidence of malnutrition in some bodies

- Skull image

- Internal conflict/rebellion

- Revolution or if people no longer believed in their rulers

- Both would cause people to leave

- Evidence: Teotihuacan

- Many buildings along the Street of the Dead have been

burned

- Lots of broken pottery, defaced artworks

- No sites close to its size near it, so probably not intensive

warfare

- Intensive warfare

- Changes in the nature of warfare

- Evidence: Maya Lowlands

- Some of the cities in this area seem to be under siege

- Some of the pyramids were taken apart to build defensive

walls

- Became more destructive and larger in scale

- Climatic change (less rainfall)

- Climate got somewhat drier at the end of the classic period

- Climate change is well documented, but no documentation of the effect it had on agriculture and economics

- Could be a combination of some factors, which is more likely

- The interconnectedness could have meant that once a few began to collapse, the others followed because of the economic and political ties being broken

- Multiplicity of factors is more likely

- Regardless of what the mix is in any one place, people began to question the ability of their rulers to petition the gods for fertility and success - Stopped paying taxes or tribute, and eventually moved, leading to the collapse

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