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CAL STATE FULLERTON / History / HIST 110 / what is Bureaucratic Monarchy?

what is Bureaucratic Monarchy?

what is Bureaucratic Monarchy?

Description

School: California State University - Fullerton
Department: History
Course: World Civilization to 16th Century
Professor: Stefan chrissanthos
Term: Fall 2018
Tags: history
Cost: 50
Name: History 110A Final Study Guide
Description: This study guide has all the definitions for the terms Professor Rietveld emailed to us. It’s nine pages long and gives you a good review of everything we have covered. Hope it helps!
Uploaded: 12/14/2018
10 Pages 6 Views 10 Unlocks
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1. Minoan Culture/Prosperity= lived on Crete, were literate (Linear A), non Indo Europeans, thrived 3000-1450 BCE


what is Bureaucratic Monarchy?



2. Bureaucratic Monarchy= government of the Minoans, concerned with making  revenue  

3. Bull jumping= popular leisure activity for Minoans, women did it as well 4. Thera eruption= volcano erupted and covered most of the Minoan cities, tidal waves 12 stories high, explosion was like an atomic bomb

5. Women in Minoan Society= men and women equal, didn’t cover their breasts  because it’s a symbol of empowerment  

6. Minoan Religion/Snake Goddess= they loved beauty, nature, love, and peace. They found figurines of a women holding a snake in both hands, could  represent Mother Nature or that women dominated Minoan culture 7. Indo-Europeans = Mycenaeans  

8. Linear A & B =we can read B but not A

9. Mycenaeans (as compared to Minoans)= Indo-Europeans, more like pirates  than merchants, patriarchal  

10.Bards= traveling storytellers


what are Bards?



11.Wanax= king of the Mycenaeans  

12.Troy= city in Anatolia  

13.Emergence of Theater= started in Greece  

14.Homer-Iliad and Odyssey= story about Achilles (Iliad) and story about  Odysseus’s journey back home  

15.Achilles= too proud to fight, has friend dress in his armor and dies 16.Odysseus= takes ten years to come back home after war, wasn’t faithful to  his wife but expected her to be

17.Penelope= Odysseus’s wife

18.Hesiod—Theogony/Ages of Man= articulates ideas concerning the origin of  evil, four ages of humanity

19.The Heroic Code= values strength, courage, and loyalty in warriors. This is  seen in the Iliad  We also discuss several other topics like osu course

20.Dike= goddess of justice and balance

21.Hubris (out of balance)= challenging the gods

22.Ate (delusion of mind)= goddess of mischief  

23.Nemesis (divine judgment) =goddess who enacts retribution against those  who go against the gods  


what is troy?



24.The Age of Gold, Silver, Bronze, Iron= age of gold people were carefree and  happy, age of silver humanity was selfish and wars came about, age of  bronze people were delusional, age of iron people are judged

25.Prometheus= stoke Zeus’s fire to give to humans, he was punished by being  chained up and having birds constant eat his intestines  

26.Pandora= first human woman, created by Hephaestus  

27.Deucalion= built an arc to avoid the flood that Prometheus warned about 28.Olympian & Chthonic gods= Olympian gods were the famous ones like Zeus  and Aphrodite. Chthonic refers to gods of agriculture like hades and Hermès  29.Poseidon= god of the sea earthquakes and horses If you want to learn more check out binary logic bd

30.Zeus/Hera/Hades= Zeus is the god of gods, Hera is the wife of Zeus and  goddess of marriage and family, hades is god of the underworld  31.Polis= city state in Ancient Greece  If you want to learn more check out econ 201 study guide

32.Greek Colonization= took over other places for their resources  33.Monarchy= form of government with a royal family controlling it

34.Aristocracy= the highest social class

35.Oligarchy= a small group of people having control of the country  36.Tyranny= cruel and oppressive government rule

37.Democracy= system of government where the eligible members of the state  all have a say

38.Hoplites= heavily armed foot soldier in Greece  

39.Spartans/Lycurgan reform= all of his reforms favored the three spartan values equality military and austerity  

40.Solon/reforms= he made efforts to legislate against political, economic, and  moral decline in athens

41.Croesus of Lydia=last king of Lydia c.560–546 bc. Renowned for his great  wealth, he subjugated the Greek cities on the coast of Asia Minor before  being overthrown by Cyrus the Great of Persia

42.Tellus—the Happy Life= told Croesus that his isn’t the happiest man but a  man with unfortunate circumstances was

43.Battle of Marathon (490 BCE)= took place in 490 BC, during the first Persian  invasion of Greece. If you want to learn more check out - Anomalies: how far are we from normal?

44.Greek Religion—Olympian/Chthonic gods =the collection of beliefs, rituals,  and mythology originating in ancient Greece in the form of both popular  public religion and cult practices

45.Dionysius-Zagreus story in Orphism/Titans and Dionysius= Dionysius was god of grapes, was dismembered by the titans  

46.Asia Minor/Ionia= ancient region in present day turkey  

47.The Milesian School= school of thought founded in the 6th century BC.  Thales, Anaximander, and Anaximenes went there

48.Thales =a pre-Socratic Greek philosopher, mathematician, and astronomer  from Miletus in Asia Minor If you want to learn more check out mbc exam

49.Anaximander= pre-Socratic Greek philosopher who lived in Miletus 50.Heraclitus of Ephesus= believed that fire is the origin of all things and that  permanence is an illusion, everything being in a process of constant change. 51.Pythagoras= Ionian Ancient Greek philosopher and the eponymous founder of Pythagoreanism Don't forget about the age old question of astro 1030

52.Herodotus= the first writer to have treated historical subjects using a method of systematic investigation—specifically, by collecting his materials and then  critically arranging them into a historiographic narrative

53.Thucydides= Athenian historian and general

54.Delian League= founded in 478 BC, was an association of Greek city-states 55.Women in Ancient Greece/rights/the Hetaera= not equal except in Sparta.  The hetaera were prostitutes, could make enough money to move and own  their own business  

56.Symposium= conference or meeting to discuss a particular subject. 57.Socrates= classical Greek philosopher credited as one of the founders of  Western philosophy

58.Diotima of Mantinea= an ancient Greek prophetess and philosopher thought  to have lived circa 440 B.C.E.

59.Plato’s Allegory of the Cave= men are chained and can only see the shadows  on a cave wall, one gets out and sees the outside world, goes back to the  cave to tell the others and they kill him  

60.Plato’s Cosmology= his book on his theories on the universe  61.Plato’s belief on the Soul= immortal and separate from the body

62.Aristotle =Greek philosopher and scientist. A student of Plato 63.The Classification of Reality:  

Substance/Quality/Quantity/Relation/Determination in time and space/Action,  passion or passivity/Position/Condition

64.Explanation of Causality: Material Cause/Formal Cause/Efficient Cause/Final  Cause

65.Alexander the Great—Hellenism= he created one of the largest empires of  the ancient world by the age of thirty, stretching from Greece to northwestern India during the Hellenistic period  

66.Mystery Cults: Vows/Votives/Finite loss in Interest of an Infinite  Gain/Salvation/Individual= religious schools of the Greco-Roman world for  which participation was reserved to initiates

67.Hellenistic Science= most brilliant age of science prior to 17th century  68.Ptolemy I (305-282 BCE)= ruler of Egypt and founded the Ptolemaic dynasty  which ruled it for the next three centuries, turning Egypt into a Hellenistic  kingdom and Alexandria into a center of Greek culture.

69.The Library of Alexandria= one of the largest and most significant libraries of  the ancient world

70.Zenodotus of Ephesus= Greek grammarian, literary critic, Homeric scholar,  and the first librarian of the Library of Alexandria

71.Herophilos (335-280 BCE)= Greek physician deemed to be the first anatomist 72.Eratosthenes--39,690/40,008= Greek mathematician, geographer, poet,  astronomer, and music theorist

73.Aristophanes of Byzantium= Hellenistic Greek scholar, critic and grammarian, particularly renowned for his work in Homeric scholarship

74.Euclid= founder of geometry  

75.Strato (335-269 BCE)= Indo-Greek king  

76.Greco-Roman Mystery Cults

77.Eleusinian Mysteries= initiations held every year for the cult of Demeter and  Persephone based at Eleusis

78.Seven Wonders of the Ancient World= pyramid of Giza, hanging gardens,  colossus of Rhodes, lighthouse of Alexandria, temple of Artemis, statue of  Zeus, mausoleum  

79.Cult of Dionysus= associated with satyrs, centaurs, and sileni, and its  characteristic symbols are the bull, the serpent, tigers/leopards, the ivy, and  the wine

80.Orphism= a mystic religion of ancient Greece, originating in the 7th or 6th  century bc and based on poems

81.Cult of Magna Meter

82.Cult of Mithras= mystery religion centered on the god Mithras that was  practiced in the Roman Empire  

83.Cyrus the Great= the founder of the Achaemenid Empire, the first Persian  Empire.

84.Cyrus Cylinder= declaration in Akkadian cuneiform script

85.Darius I= fourth king of the Persian Achaemenid Empire

86.Satraps= a provincial governor in the ancient Persian empire. 87.Royal Road= ancient highway reorganized and rebuilt by the Persian king  Darius the Great

88.Qanat= gently sloping underground channel to transport water from an  aquifer or water well to surface for irrigation and drinking

89.Zoroastrianism -Mazdaism= oldest religion, pre-Islamic religion of Iran that  still stands today  

90.Ahura Mazda= all high god in Zoroastrianism  

91.Zarathustra/Zoroaster= ancient Persian prophet, spiritual leader and ethical  philosopher

92.Aura Mainyu= spirit of evil

93.Chinvat Bridge= cross it after you die, either go to house of lies or song 94.House of Lies= hell

95.House of Song= heaven  

96.Saoshyant= the savior of Zoroastrians  

97.Tower of Silence= a circular, raised structure built by Zoroastrians for  excarnation

98.Longshan people

99.Xia Dynasty= the legendary, possibly mythical first dynasty in traditional  Chinese history

100. Shang Dynasty= ruled in the Yellow River valley in the second  millennium BC, succeeding the Xia dynasty

101. Zhengzhou= capital of Henan Province in the central part of the  People's Republic of China

102. Oracle Bones= people would ask a question and write it on a bone  then set it on a fire and read the cracked bone to find out the answer 103. Shang-Di/Di= creator god of the Chinese  

104. Fu Hao’s tomb= an archaeological site at Yinxu, the ruins of the  ancient Shang dynasty capital Yin

105. Zhou Dynasty= followed the Shang dynasty, lasted the longest  106. Book of Songs= the classic of poetry, had all the songs and poems  107. Mandate of Heaven= ancient Chinese philosophical concept  108. Warring States Period= era in ancient China characterized by warfare 109. Confucius= Chinese teacher, editor, politician, and philosopher 110. Confucius’ Ideal Society= all members abide by the social order and  contribute to the public virtue  

111. Naked Ambition

112. Analects= collection of short literary or philosophical extracts. 113. Ren= Chinese word for love, benevolence, goodness 114. Lao Tsu= author of the Tao Te Ching, the founder of philosophical  Taoism, and a deity in religious Taoism

115. Daosim= Chinese philosophy  

116. Etruscans= powerful and wealthy civilization of ancient Italy in the  area corresponding roughly to Tuscany

117. Etruscan Religion= rites for avoiding calamity not a guide for individual spiritual growth

118. Four Quarters of the Sky= Etruscans believed there were good and bad corners of the sky. Where’s the birds flew out of and how determined if good  or bad things were coming  

119. Haruspicy= diviner in Ancient Rome looked at animal intestines to  determine the future

120. Etruscan Inventions= cement and the arch

121. Etruscan Women= equal to men

122. Romulus and Remus= twin brothers, whose story tells the events that  led to the founding of the city of Rome and the Roman Kingdom

123. Patricians/Plebeians= Patricians made up the senate plebeians made  up the assembly  

124. Senate= the wealthy people, more than 100 of them 125. Consul= in charge of the senate  

126. Natural Law/Ius naturale=  

127. Struggle of the Orders/The Twelve Tables= the legislation that stood at  the foundation of Roman law

128. Carthage/Dido/Carthaginian Religion= capital city of the ancient  Carthaginian civilization

129. Punic Wars= series of three wars fought between Rome and Carthage  from 264 BC to 146 BC

130. Paterfamilias= oldest male in the family, others worshiped his genius  131. The Roman Institution of Slavery= slaves are paid a wage and can buy  their freedom  

132. Roman Marriage= only had to live together for a year  133. Cult of the Heroes

134. Roman Ancestral Cult= worshiped dead members of their family  135. Refigeria

136. Sulla= Roman general and politician; elected dictator in 82 137. Gracchii Brothers/Land Reform= politicians and reformers tried to get  rid of latifundia, were murdered

138. Latifundia= big farm that could undersell family farms  139. Julius Caesar= Roman politician, military general, and historian 140. Pompey= military and political leader of the late Roman Republic 141. First Triumvirate= Julius Caesar, Gnaeus Pompeius Magnus, and Marcus Licinius Crassus.

142. Gallic Wars--Strategies

143. Mark Antony= Caesar’s best friend

144. Cleopatra= loves Caesar, had a kid, travelled to Rome  145. Octavia= elder sister of the first Roman Emperor, Augu 146. Second Triumvirate= Julius Caesar Octavianus, Marcus Antonius 147. Octavian/Augustus= Roman statesman and military leader who was  

the first Emperor of the Roman Empire, controlling Imperial Rome from 27 BC  until his death in AD 14

148. Battle of Pharsalus= battle between Caesar and Pompey  149. Octavian Religious Innovation

150. The Augustus Settlement

151. The Aeneid/Virgil= The Aeneid is a Latin epic poem, written by Virgil 152. Romans views of the afterlife= dead lived in their tombs 153. Duty or Passion?

154. Ages of Humanity/Heroic Cycle

155. The Imperial Cult= identified emperors and some members of their  families with the divinely sanctioned authority of the Roman State 156. The Octavian Innovation

157. Tiberius (14-37 CE)= Roman emperor from 14 AD to 37 AD, succeeding the first emperor, Augustus

158. Gaius Caligula (37-41 CE) = Roman emperor, son of the popular Roman general Germanicus and Augustus' granddaughter Agrippina

159. Claudius (41-54 CE)= member of the Julio-Claudian dynasty, he was  the son of Drusus and Antonia Minor

160. Nero (54-68 CE)= last Roman emperor of the Julio-Claudian dynasty. 161. Vespasian (69-79 CE)= Roman emperor from 69–79, the fourth, and  last, in the Year of the Four Emperors

162. The Fall of Jerusalem—70 CE= the decisive ev

163. Titus (79-81 CE)= Roman emperor from 79 to 81. A member of the  Flavian dynasty,

164. Mount Vesuvius, Pompeii & Herculaneum (79 CE)= somma stratovolcano located on the Gulf of Naples in Campania, Italy 165. Domitian (81-96 CE)= Roman emperor from 81 to 96. He was the  younger brother of Titus and the son of Vespasian

166. Pax Romana/Five Good Emperors

167. Trajan (98-117 CE)= Officially declared by the Senate optimus  princeps, Trajan is remembered as a successful soldier-emperor who presided  over the greatest military  

168. Hadrian (117-138 CE)= Roman emperor from 117 to 138. He was born  Publius Aelius Hadrianus in Italica, near Santiponce, into a Hispano-Roman  family.

169. Antoninus Pius (138-161 CE)= Roman emperor from 138 to 161. He  was one of the Five Good Emperors in the Nerva–Antonine dynasty 170. Marcus Aurelius (161-180 CE)= the Philosopher, was Roman emperor  from 161 to 180. He was adopted by Antoninus Pius

171. Commodus (180-192 CE)= Roman emperor with his father Marcus  Aurelius from 177 to his father's death in 180

172. Septimius Severus (193-211)= Roman emperor from 193 to 211. He  was born in Leptis Magna in the Roman province of Africa

173. Septuagint= a Greek version of the Hebrew Bible

174. Messiah/Christ= son of God

175. Origins of Christianity= Early Christianity has its roots in Hellenistic  Judaism and Jewish messianism of the first century

176. Jesus Christ= son of God

177. Historical Jesus= refers to attempts to "reconstruct the life and  teachings of Jesus of Nazareth by critical historical methods"

178. Jewish Christianity= the original members of the Jewish movement that later became Christianity.

179. Pauline (Gentile) Christianity= Christianity associated with the beliefs  of Paul the apostle  

180. Johannine Christianity= placed great emphasis on the teachings of  Jesus, particularly as revealed through the Gospel of John

181. Basic Christian Ethics= love each other and treat everyone with  respect  

182. Pontius Pilate= known for adjudicating on the trial and crucifixion of  Jesus.

183. Apostle Paul= apostle who taught the gospel of Christ to the first century world.

184. Persecution of Christians--Why?= it was a misunderstanding, their  beliefs went against what the Romans believed  

185. How did the Bible develop?= written, edited, and collected over  centuries  

186. Roman Luxuries= silk

187. Rome in the Third Century (disasters & shifts of viewpoints)

188. The three main reasons Christianity survived and expanded 189. Columbaria= room or building with niches for funeral urns to be stored. 190. Catacombs= underground cemetery

191. Christian Catacomb Art & Symbols= vast underground burial area and  art on wallls

192. Cult of the Saints

193. Origins of the Papacy= the office held by the pope as head of the  Roman Catholic Church

194. Persecution of the Christians= persecuted for their faith at the hands  of both Jews from whose religion Christianity arose and the Romans who  controlled many of the lands across which early Christianity was spread

195. Reforms of Diocletian= his economic reforms compensated for  devalued currency  

196. Tetrarchy= describes any form of government where power is divided  among four individuals

197. Princeps= Latin word meaning first in time or order

198. Imperator= commander

199. Pontifex Maximus= chief high priest of the College of Pontiffs in ancient Rome.

200. Reasons behind the Christian persecution under Diocletian 201. Galerius= Roman emperor from 305 to 311. During his reign, he  campaigned, aided by Diocletian, against the Sassanid Empire 202. Constantius= was a Caesar from 293 to 305 and a Roman Emperor  from 305 to 306. He was the father of Constantine the Great

203. Constantine the Great (306-337 CE)= victorious in a series of civil wars against Emperors Maxentius and Licinius to become sole ruler of both west  and east by 324 AD.

204. The Vision/Milvian Bridge (312)= The Battle of the Milvian Bridge took  place between the Roman Emperors Constantine I and Maxentius 205. The Edict of Milan (313)= agreement to treat Christians benevolently  within the Roman Empire

206. The Council of Arles (314)= Arles in the south of Roman Gaul hosted  several councils or synods

207. Council of Nicaea (325)= council of Christian bishops 208. Arius & Arianism= nontrinitarian belief that asserts that Jesus Christ is  the Son of God, created by God the Father

209. Constantine’s Moral Legislation

210. Conversion of Barbarians to Arian Christianity and its results 211. Constantinople (330)= capital city of the Roman/Byzantine Empire 212. Julian the Apostate= was Roman Emperor from 361 to 363, as well as a notable philosopher and author

213. Theodosius the Great (379-395 CE)= last emperor to rule over both the Eastern and the Western halves of the Roman Empire

214. Massacre at Thessalonica= an atrocity carried out by Gothic troops  under the Roman Emperor Theodosius

215. Ambrose, Bishop of Milan= one of the most influential ecclesiastical  figures of the 4th century

216. Edicts against Paganism

217. Greek East/Latin West Differences

218. Roman Catholic/Greek Orthodox

219. Barbarians= member of a community or tribe not belonging to one of  the great civilizations

220. Council of Ephesus (431)= council of Christian bishops 221. Council of Chalcedon (451)= a church council held from 8 October to 1  November, 451

222. Monophysites (Miaphysites)

223. The Fall of the Western Roman Empire (476)= Romulus Augustulus  being deposed by Odoacer

224. Causes of the Fall of Rome & survival of the Eastern Roman Empire=  fell because of latifundia  

225. Saint Augustine & the New Latin West Mindset= Christian theologian  and philosopher from Numidia whose writings influenced the development of  Western Christianity and Western philosophy

226. The Mindset of the Greek East

227. The City of God

228. Simeon Stylites (Pillar Saint)= a Syriac ascetic saint who achieved  notability for living 37 years on a small platform on top of a pillar near Aleppo 229. The Visigoth Sack of Rome (410)= city was attacked by the Visigoths  led by King Alaric

230. Romulus Augustulus= His deposition by Odoacer traditionally marks  the end of the Roman Empire in the West

231. Visigoths in Spain= western branches of the nomadic tribes of  Germanic peoples

232. Justinian I (527-565 CE)= his reign is marked by the ambitious but only  partly realized renovatio imperii, or "restoration of the Empire". 233. Theodora= one of the most influential and powerful of the Eastern  Roman empresses

234. Justinian Code (529-548)= collection of fundamental works in  jurisprudence

235. Hagia Sophia= former Greek Orthodox Christian patriarchal cathedral  236. The growth of the power of the Papacy in the Latin West 237. Pope Sylvester (314-335) = filled the See of Rome at an important era  in the history of the Western Church

238. Pope Leo I (440-61)= Leo's papacy "...was undoubtedly one of the most important in the Church's history."

239. Pope Gelasius I (492-496)= He was probably the third and last Bishop  of Rome of Berber descent

240. Executive (potestas) and Legislative (auctoritas) Power 241. Pope Stephen II (752-757)= Roman aristocrat was Pope from 26 March  752 to his death in 757

242. Pepin= King of the Franks

243. Lombards= Germanic people who ruled most of the Italian Peninsula 244. The Donation of Constantine= forged Roman imperial decree 245. Pope Hadrian I (772-795) =Pope, He was the son of Theodore 246. Pope Leo III (795-816)= Protected by Charlemagne from his enemies in Rome

247. Charlemagne= King of the Franks from 768, King of the Lombards from 774, and Holy Roman Emperor from 800

248. “Protector of the Roman Church”

249. Fall of Constantinople & the Eastern Roman Empire/Byzantine Empire  (1453)= Fall of Constantinople was the capture of the capital of the Byzantine Empire by an invading Ottoman army

250. Islam= Abrahamic monotheistic religion

251. Muhammad= founder of Islam

252. Basic Muslim Beliefs

253. Five Pillars: Shahada, Salat, Zakat, Sawm, and Hajj= Islamic creed 254. Khadija= the first wife and follower of the Islamic prophet Muhammad 255. Waraqah ibn Nawfalv Arab priest  

256. Qur’an/Hadith= central religious text of Islam

257. Jihad

258. Kaaba= building at the center of Islam's most important mosque 259. Muruwwa Code= pre Islamic code of conduct for men 260. Night Flight (621 CE)

261. Sunnis/Shi’ites= Sunni Islam is the largest denomination of Islam 262. Jesus in Islam= understood to be the penultimate prophet and  messenger of God

263. Caliphate= the rule or reign of a caliph or chief Muslim ruler 264. The seven reasons for the Crusades

265. The Crusade Conquest of Jerusalem (1099)

266. Saladin= first sultan of Egypt and Syria and the founder of the Ayyubid  dynasty

267. Accomplishments of Qin Unification

268. Emperor Qin Shi Huang= first emperor of a unified China 269. The Great Wall= meant to keep the Huns out, didn’t work 270. The Han Dynasty (206 BCE-CE 220)

271. Liu Bang (Emperor Gaozu)= one of the few dynasty founders in  Chinese history who was born in a peasant family.

272. Xiongnu= confederation of nomadic peoples

273. Mouton (Maodun) = sheepskin cut and dyed to resemble beaver fur or  sealskin.

274. Wu-ti (Han Wudi)= seventh emperor of the Han dynasty 275. Wang Mang= a Han Dynasty official and consort kin who seized the  throne from the Liu family

276. The Silk Road= network of trade routes that connected the East and  West

277. Invention of Paper= in China by Cai Lun

278. Tang Dynasty (618-907)= high point in Chinese civilization, and a  golden age of cosmopolitan culture

279. Tang land distribution program

280. The Song Dynasty (960-1279)= ended the Five Dynasties and Ten  Kingdoms period. The Song often came into conflict with the contemporary  Liao and Western Xia dynasties

281. Foot-binding= custom of applying tight binding to the feet of young  girls to modify the shape and size

282. Matchmakers

283. Chinese Economic Revolution (800-1100)

284. Porcelain= a white vitrified translucent ceramic; china 285. Gunpowder= invented in China during Tang Dynasty  286. Printing= invented in China

287. Banking= invented in China  

288. Personal check= invented in China  

289. Paper money= invented in China during Tang Dynasty  290. Compass= invented in China during Han dynasty

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