First Exam chapters 1,2,3.
First Exam chapters 1,2,3. NUTR 120
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Eudijessica Melo de Oliveira
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This 4 page Study Guide was uploaded by Dinha on Tuesday September 1, 2015. The Study Guide belongs to NUTR 120 at University of New Mexico taught by a professor in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 203 views. For similar materials see Nutrition for Health in Nutrition and Food Sciences at University of New Mexico.
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Date Created: 09/01/15
STUDY GUIDE 1ST EXAM Nutrition is the scientific study of nutrients chemicals necessary for proper body functioning and how the body uses them Chemistry is the study of the composition and characteristics of matter and changes that can occur to it Metabolism is the total of all chemical processes that occur in living cells including chemical reactions changes involved in generating energy making proteins and eliminating waste products Cell is the smallest living functional unit in an organism such as a human being Essential nutrient must be supplied by food because the body does not synthesize the nutrient or make enough to meet its needs 0 Deficiency disease is a state of health characterized by certain abnormal physiological changes Diet usual pattern of food choices Nutrients are chemicals necessary for proper body functioning Phytochemicals compounds made by plants that are not nutrients Antioxidant protects cells and their components from being damaged or destroyed by exposure to certain environmental and internal factors Dietary supplement substance that protects other compounds from being damaged or destroyed by certain factors Risk factor is a personal characteristic that increases your chances of developing a chronic dis ease Lifestyle is a person s way of living that includes dietary practices physical activity habits use of drugs such as tobacco and alcohol and other typical patterns of behavior Kilocalorie or Calorie heat energy needed to raise the temperature of 1 liter of water 1 Celsius measure of food energy Macronutrients nutrients needed in gram amounts daily and that provide energy carbohydrates proteins and fats Micronutrients vitamins and minerals The body needs very small amounts milligrams or micro grams of them to function properly Emptycalorie describes food or beverage that is a poor source of micronutrients in relation to its energy value Nutrientdense describes food or beverage that has more vitamins and minerals in relation to its energy value Megadose generallydefinedaslOtimesthe recommended amount of a vitamin or mineral Hypothesis possible explanation about an observation that guides scientific research Anecdote reports of personal experiences Variable personal characteristic or other factor that changes and can in uence an outcome Placebo fake treatment such as a sham pill injection or medical procedure In Vivo experiment that uses Whole living organisms such as mice In Vitro test tube experiments Epidemiology study of the occurrence distribution and causes of health problems in populations EAR amount of a nutrient that should meet needs of 50 of healthy people RDA standards for recommended daily intakes that meet needs of 98 of healthy people AI assigned when no RDA can be determined Assumes a population s average daily nutrient intakes are adequate UL highest average amount that is unlikely to be harmful when consumed daily EER average daily energy intake that meets needs of a healthy person who is maintaining his her weight DAILYVALUES DVs set of nutrient intake standards developed for labeling purposes gtThe six classes of nutrients Carbohydrate proteins lipid water minerals vitamins gtHow many kcals g are in Carbohydrates 4 Lipids 9 Protein 4 Alcohol 7 gtgt0rganic Foods produced without use of antibiotics hormones synthetic fertilizers and pesticides genetic improvements or spoilagekilling radiation Technical or chemical definition Substances containing the element carbon bonded to hydrogen gtDietary Supplements are regulated as Food A CORRELATION is a relationship between variables A correlation occurs when two variables change over the same period For example when a population s intake of sugar sweetened soft drinks increases the percentage of overweight people in the population also increases In this case the correlation is positive because the two variables body weight and regular soft drink consumption are changing in the same direction they are both increasing A negative correlation occurs when one variable increases and the other one decreases Casecontrol study study in which individuals who have a health condition are compared with individuals with similar characteristics who do not have the condition Cohort study study that measures variables of a group of people over time Cohort studies can be retrospective that means to look back and prospective which means to look forward Placebo e ect is the response to a placebo Heart disease stroke type 2 Diabetes and many forms of cancer are some leading causes of death Enrichment is the addition of iron and certain B Vitamins to cereal grain products such as our and rice Fortification is the addition of nutrients to food such as adding calcium to orange juice Vitamins A and D to milk and numerous Vitamins and minerals to ready to eat breakfast cereals gtgtDuring refinement a Wheat kernel is stripped of its nutrient rich germ and bran The endosperm White flour that remains is mostly starch Good Luck on your Exam
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