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FSU - CLP - Chapter 4 Notes - Class Notes

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FSU - CLP - Chapter 4 Notes - Class Notes

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background image Learning Objectives  1. Understand what constitutes a scientific attitude and why skepticism and humility are  important  2. Describe the advantages and limitations of a study.
3. Explain why correlational methods are used. What is the Pearson product­moment 
correlation coefficient (r) and how is it used? 4. Describe the limitations of correlational methods.
5. What is a third variable? Determine what type of method eliminates the third variable 
problem and how it is eliminated. 6. Describe the components of the experimental method. Clinical Psychology = SCIENCE! Our understanding of human behavior, mental illness, and treatment is based on 
rigorous scientific study
Regardless of a psychologist’s career path, it is ESSENTIAL to understand research 
methods!
Why do we need research? To accumulate facts To establish relationships To identify causes and effects To extend and modify theories To predict and understand thoughts, behaviors, and feelings EXAMPLE ~ lack of research was hurtful
Lobotomies: procedure that was popular in the 1940s­1950s; 40,000 people in the US had the 
procedure which cut connections of the prefrontal cortex
Side effects included: mental dullness, loss of personalities, loss of daily living skills, incapability
of living independently
*Having a “scientific attitude” is important for evaluating research and delivering quality care* Healthy Skepticism Involves not taking things at face value; not trusting simple explanation DEMANDING EVIDENCE This can be applied to so many “facts” we think we know This is essential for clinicians ­ you must evaluate research. Humility Involves being open to the possibility of being wrong; being able to understand and 
admit when wrong; being open to alternate explanations and new ideas.
In science, its OK to be wrong!
background image Research Methods Used
Case Studies
The intensive study and description of one person What they can do Provide descriptions of phenomena Provide disconfirming information Disprove “always” or “never” General testable hypothesis What they cannot do Develop general principles Lead to cause­effect conclusions Demonstrate correlation Correlational Methods Used to determine the degree to which variable X is related to variable Y. Correlations can be positive or negative Degree of correlation The closer to a straight line, the more perfect the relationship Or there can be no correlation Pearson product­moment correlation coefficient (r) :  Index to determine the degree of a relationship between 2 variables Can range from ­1.00 to +1.00 Sign = direction of relationship # or spread indicates strength of relationship (strong v.s. weak) Cannot determine directionality or causality A & B Third variable ­­ something related to A & B (or causing A or B) that you have not 
measured
A & B may be correlated due to the effects of C Reason why correlation does not equal causation Important to measure potential third variables Experimental Methods Manipulate one variable and measure its effect on another The only way to determine causality and directionality Components to an experimental design Experimental hypothesis: your prediction regarding what the outcome of the 
study will be
Independent variable: the variable that is under the control of the experimenter, 
the one you manipulate in the study
Dependent variable: what you expect to change, what you measure Random assignment: a system where everyone who participates has an equal 

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School: Florida State University
Department: OTHER
Course: Clinical and Counseling Psychology
Term: Spring 2019
Tags:
Name: Chapter 4 Notes
Description: Chapter 4 Notes
Uploaded: 01/15/2019
3 Pages 44 Views 35 Unlocks
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