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UVU - PHIL 2050 - Class Notes - Week 2

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UVU - PHIL 2050 - Class Notes - Week 2

School: Utah Valley University
Department: Philisophy/Political Science
Course: Ethics and Values IH
Professor: N. Webster
Term: Spring 2019
Tags: philosophy, Kant, The Enlightenment, and WesternPhilosophy
Name: Phil 2050 Class Notes 1/15/19
Description: Class Notes for the lecture on 1/15/19
Uploaded: 01/15/2019
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background image Ethics and Values  Philosophy  1/15/19 
Lesson 1: Kant: What is Enlightenment? 
Attendance quiz: 8784 
“Once upon a time on a little star in a distant corner of the  universe, little clever animals invented for themselves proud  words, like truth and goodness. But soon enough the little star  cooled, and the little animals had to die, and with them their  proud words. But the universe, never missing a step, drew another  breath and moved on, dancing its cosmic dance across endless  skies.” -Nietzsche's Parable  - This idea was not really possible on a large scale before the ​Enlightenment.   What is ​Nihilism​?   The rejection of all religious and moral principles, in the belief that life is ​meaningless​.  Who is Socrates?  Socrates was a relentless pursuer of wisdom and truth, suspicious of “reasonless” truth handed down  by the gods (for which he was, for the philosophical cause martyred). For theologians Socrates showed  that the examined life of faith exposes the depths of existence and how much we are ignorant of.  Becoming is more primal than being.”  For theologians (Christian) Socrates created a place for Gods.  What is ​Ultimate Concern​? 
Since God is infinite and ultimate and faith in God is the ultimate concern, Tillich asserts that only 
symbolic language is sufficient to express faith and God. Thus, he outlines the definition of the term  “symbol.” Like signs, symbols refer to that which is beyond themselves.  - The Enlightenment brings the idea of ​Becoming​. 
background image - The Enlightenment also separates Philosophy and Theology  Philosophy: “Unanswerable questions.”  Theology: “Unquestionable answers.”  Which came first?  Theology.  What is “​Modernity​”?  17th to 20th centuries.   What is ​Enlightenment​?  Intellectual maturity.  “In the pre-modern world the “and” (Philosophy AND  Theology) worked pretty well. Philosophy was the “handmaiden”  of theology.”  Spinoza (atheist philosopher) was a Pantheist. 
What is a ​Pantheist​? 
There is no distinction between the world and God.   Plato   Believes in the “forms.” The world is too corrupt. He doesn't trust anything on the ground.   Aristotle   Believes that you have to look to the world for answers. Looked at Plato's beliefs as “religious” and  “ehh.”   Considered the father of Biology. - He was very concerned with making observations about the world  like a scientist would.   “Aristotle calls God the Unmoved Mover.”  “The Church (mostly Catholicism) set off a war between reason  and faith.” - Galileo 
background image “Theology and faith were now made to answer before the  tribunal of Reason: “anything that claims to be must possess  sufficient reason for being”(PSR). (Principle of Sufficient  Reason)”  - Galileo was put under house arrest to not publish his ideas.  Rene Descartes  “Start with self-evident axioms and deductively proceed from there. Put everything in doubt in  order to discover what is most certain. What is most certain is the foundation of reason or  “foundationalism.” “Even if I doubt I must think in order to doubt--therefore I must exist.” In the  meantime theologians were retreating from Reason to pure Revelation.”  I am the only thing that I can prove that exists. I think therefore I am (must exist). That and God.  - Another idea with the Enlightenment is that God is the best reasoner.   “God and religious faith now on the run, hunted by Reason.  Theologians conceded knowledge of natural sciences and  associated religion with “feeling.””  Why was this dangerous for theology?  If you can’t give reasons the more you look for a community.   What is a ​Fideist​?   Fideism is an epistemological theory which maintains that faith is independent of reason, or that  reason and faith are hostile to each other and faith is superior at arriving at particular truths. The  word fideism comes from fides, the Latin word for faith, and literally means "faith-ism"  The Enlightenment was good in some ways for theology:  1. Focus on commonalities, not divisive relations. 
2. God has given us intellect and the world has given us science, in some ways they can work 
together.  Kant​: 

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School: Utah Valley University
Department: Philisophy/Political Science
Course: Ethics and Values IH
Professor: N. Webster
Term: Spring 2019
Tags: philosophy, Kant, The Enlightenment, and WesternPhilosophy
Name: Phil 2050 Class Notes 1/15/19
Description: Class Notes for the lecture on 1/15/19
Uploaded: 01/15/2019
8 Pages 15 Views 12 Unlocks
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