● Oily sheen covering her body: fruity, garlicky odor that thought was coming from her mouth
● Noticed upon drawing blood from her, the blood had a chemical scent to it
● Welch (one of the doctors on call that night) reported her blood smelled like ammonia.
● Noticed unusual manilla colored particles floating in the blood
Note: Apnea is a condition in which someone stops breathing for several seconds, takes a few breaths, then stops breathing again.
● The cell is the basic unit of living
● The simpler the cell, the greater it’s regeneration power and the more specialized the cell, the weaker its power ● Cell Theory- states that the entire human (or animal or plant) is the aggression of living cells arranged to function
Basic Units of a cell
● Plasma membrane
Protoplasm contains a high percentage of water, inorganic ions (Potassium, magnesium, and calcium) and organic compounds (proteins, lipids, and carbohydrates)
Ribosomes are the sites of protein synthesis
Mitochondria are threadlike structures within the cytoplasm that
provide most of the body’s adenosine triphosphate (an enzyme that stores energy) If you want to learn more check out What are the main characteristics of eastern woodlands tribes?
Golgi Apparatus modifies concentrates (such as secretory products) and is associated with formation of proteins and other substances
Endoplasmic reticulum- extensive network of membrane enclosed tubules in the cytoplasm
Rough ER - produces certain proteins
Smooth ER - produces lipids
Lysosomes- takes part in intracellular digestion
Centrosomes- contains centrioles, which take part in cell division
Inclusions- temporary: non functioning units; examples are the stored nutrient glycogen in the liver cells and melanin in epithelial cells
Peroxisomes contain oxidases capable of reducing oxygen to hydrogen peroxide and hydrogen peroxide to water Don't forget about the age old question of What are the qualifications of a scientific hypothesis?
Cytoskeletal elements form a network of protein structures DNA
● Found in the chromosomes of the cell
● Carries genetic information and provides the blueprint for the protein synthesis
● Composed of two long, twisted chains of phosphate, sugar
molecules (deoxyribose), purines, and pyrimidines RNA
● Controls protein synthesis
● Serves as the genetic material for many viruses (it is also found in the cytoplasm)
● Cells reproduce through division
● Divide by mitosis and meiosis
Dna Ligase fills in the gaps between the new stretches of DNA formed” DNA ligases are very important in “fixing” breaks that occur and thus prevent mismatched strands of DNA. DNA polymerases can correct mismatched base pairs or replace mutated ones.
Histones (protein) of chromatin RNA polymerase cause the double helix of DNA to unwind (let’s simplify to histones cause the DNA molecule to unwind).
Despite the complexity of the process, each DNA polymerase works at an impressive rate of about 100 base pairs per second and there are thousands of polymerase molecules at work such that all 46 chromosomes can be replicated in a mere 6 to 8 hours. If you want to learn more check out How many atoms are in 228.0 grams of lead?
Don't forget about the age old question of What is descartes’ dreaming argument?
We also discuss several other topics like How does structure affect function in cells?
Nucleolus- a dark staining body within the nucleus that lacks membrane and contains ribosomal RNA and proteins; produces ribosomes
Plasma membrane is only 7 nm to 8 nm thick, has a
semipermeable membrane and has a double layer of phospholipids with proteins molecules and serves as the cell’s external boundary.
● Cells reproduce through division
● Divide by Mitosis and Meiosis We also discuss several other topics like What is dimensionless formula?
Electrolytes- when ions become dissociated into charged particles (with a+ and - charge)
Cytosol- viscous, semi transparent fluid consisting of 70% to 90% water; contains salts, sugars, and soluble proteins