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LSU / Biological Sciences / BIOL 1000 / What is toxic death?

What is toxic death?

What is toxic death?


School: Louisiana State University
Department: Biological Sciences
Course: General Biology
Term: Spring 2019
Tags: Biology and Bio Concepts/Controversy
Cost: 50
Name: Bio Study Guide
Description: These are what is going to be on the next exam
Uploaded: 01/15/2019
4 Pages 74 Views 2 Unlocks

Toxic Death

What is toxic death?

● Oily sheen covering her body: fruity, garlicky odor that  thought was coming from her mouth

● Noticed upon drawing blood from her, the blood had a  chemical scent to it  

● Welch (one of the doctors on call that night) reported  her blood smelled like ammonia.

● Noticed unusual manilla colored particles floating in the blood

Note: Apnea is a condition in which someone stops breathing for  several seconds, takes a few breaths, then stops breathing again.


● The cell is the basic unit of living

● The simpler the cell, the greater it’s regeneration power and  the more specialized the cell, the weaker its power ● Cell Theory- states that the entire human (or animal or plant) is the aggression of living cells arranged to function

What is the function of the endoplasmic reticulum in a cell?

Basic Units of a cell  

● Nucleus 

● Protoplasm 

● Plasma membrane  

Protoplasm contains a high percentage of water, inorganic ions  (Potassium, magnesium, and calcium) and organic compounds  (proteins, lipids, and carbohydrates)  

Ribosomes are the sites of protein synthesis  

Mitochondria are threadlike structures within the cytoplasm that

provide most of the body’s adenosine triphosphate (an enzyme  that stores energy)  If you want to learn more check out What are the main characteristics of eastern woodlands tribes?

Golgi Apparatus modifies concentrates (such as secretory  products) and is associated with formation of proteins and other  substances

What is the major function of histones?

Endoplasmic reticulum- extensive network of membrane enclosed tubules in the cytoplasm  

Rough ER - produces certain proteins

Smooth ER - produces lipids  

Lysosomes- takes part in intracellular digestion  

Centrosomes- contains centrioles, which take part in cell division  

Inclusions- temporary: non functioning units; examples are the  stored nutrient glycogen in the liver cells and melanin in epithelial cells

Peroxisomes contain oxidases capable of reducing oxygen to  hydrogen peroxide and hydrogen peroxide to water Don't forget about the age old question of What are the qualifications of a scientific hypothesis?

Cytoskeletal elements form a network of protein structures DNA 

● Found in the chromosomes of the cell

● Carries genetic information and provides the blueprint for  the protein synthesis

● Composed of two long, twisted chains of phosphate, sugar

molecules (deoxyribose), purines, and pyrimidines RNA 

● Controls protein synthesis  

● Serves as the genetic material for many viruses (it is also  found in the cytoplasm)  

Cell division 

● Cells reproduce through division  

● Divide by mitosis and meiosis  

Dna Ligase fills in the gaps between the new stretches of DNA  formed” DNA ligases are very important in “fixing” breaks that  occur and thus prevent mismatched strands of DNA. DNA  polymerases can correct mismatched base pairs or replace  mutated ones.

Histones (protein) of chromatin RNA polymerase cause the  double helix of DNA to unwind (let’s simplify to histones cause the DNA molecule to unwind).

Despite the complexity of the process, each DNA polymerase  works at an impressive rate of about 100 base pairs per second  and there are thousands of polymerase molecules at work such  that all 46 chromosomes can be replicated in a mere 6 to 8 hours. If you want to learn more check out How many atoms are in 228.0 grams of lead?
Don't forget about the age old question of What is descartes’ dreaming argument?
We also discuss several other topics like How does structure affect function in cells?

Nucleolus- a dark staining body within the nucleus that lacks  membrane and contains ribosomal RNA and proteins; produces  ribosomes

Plasma membrane is only 7 nm to 8 nm thick, has a

semipermeable membrane and has a double layer of  phospholipids with proteins molecules and serves as the cell’s  external boundary.  

Cell division 

● Cells reproduce through division  

● Divide by Mitosis and Meiosis  We also discuss several other topics like What is dimensionless formula?

Electrolytes- when ions become dissociated into charged  particles (with a+ and - charge)

Cytosol- viscous, semi transparent fluid consisting of 70% to 90% water; contains salts, sugars, and soluble proteins

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