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UM - GEO 101 - Class Notes - Week 1

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School: University of Montana
Department: Geoscience
Course: Intro to Physical Geology
Professor: James Sears
Term: Spring 2019
Tags: Geology
Name: An Introduction to Geology
Description: Key Terms for Chapter 1
Uploaded: 01/16/2019
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School: University of Montana
Department: Geoscience
Course: Intro to Physical Geology
Professor: James Sears
Term: Spring 2019
Tags: Geology
Name: An Introduction to Geology
Description: Key Terms for Chapter 1
Uploaded: 01/16/2019

Unformatted text preview: An Introduction to Geology ABYSSAL PLAIN-a very level area of the deep-ocean floor, usually lying at the foot of the continental rise. ASTHENOSPHERE- a subdivision of the mantle situated below the lithosphere This zone of weak material exists belowa depth of about 100 kilometers (60 miles) and in some regions extends as deep as 700 kilometers (430 miles). The rock within this zone is easily deformed. ATMOSPHERE- the gaseous portion of a planet, the planet. envelope of air. One of the traditional subdivisions of Earths physical environment. BIOSPHERE- the totality of life-forms on Earth CATASTROPHISM-the concept that Earth was shaped by catastrophic events of a short-term nature. CONTINENT-large, continuous areas of land that include the adjacent continental shelf and islands that are structurally connected to the mainland. CONTINENTAL MARGIN- the portion of the seafloor that is adjacent to the continents. It may include the continental shelf, continental slope, and continental rise. CONTINENTAL RISE- the gently sioping surface at the base of the continental slope. CONTINENTAL SHELF - the gently sloping submerged portion of the continental margin, extending from the shoreline to the continental slope.CONTINENTAL SLOPE - the steep gradient that leads to continental shelf deep-ocean floor and marks the seaward edge of th CORE - the innermost layer of Earth. It is thought to oxygen, silicon, and sulfar. Targely an iron-nickel alloy, with minor amounts of CRATON - the part of the continental crust that has attain stability; that is, it has not been affected by significant tectonic activity cluring the Phanerozoic eon. it consists of the shield and the stable platform. CRUST- the very thin, outermost layer of Earth DEEP-OCEAN BASIN - the portion of seafloor that lies between the continental margin and the oceanic ridge surface system. This region comprises almost 30 percent of Earth's seafloor. DEEP-OCEAN TRENCH - a narrow, elongated depression of the EARTH SYSTEM SCIENCE - an interdisciplinary study that interacting parts or subsystems. seeks to examine Earth as a system composed of numerous GEOLOGY- the science that examines Earth, its form and undergoing. composition, and the changes that it has undergone and is GEOSPHERE the solid Earth; one of Earth's four basic spheres.logy that cleals me crystallization of magma HISTORICAL GEOLOGY- a major division of geology that with the origin of Earth and its development through time, Usually involves the study of fossils and their sequence in rock beds. HYDROSPHERE- the water portion of our planet; one of the traditional subdivisions of Earth's physical environment. HYPOTHESIS - a tentative explanation that is then tested to determine if it is valid IGNEOUS ROCK - rock formed from the crystallization of INNER CORE the solid innermost layer of Earth, about 1216 kilometers (754 miles) in radius. LITHOSPHERE- the rigid outer layer of Earth, including the crust and upper mantle. LOWER MANTLE- set mesosphere MANTLE - one of Earth's compositional layers. The solid rocky shell that extends from the base of the crust to a depth of 2900 kilometers (1800 miles). IMETAMORPHIC ROCK-rock formed by the alteration of preexisting rock deep within Earth (but still in the solid state) by neat, pressure, and/or chemically active fluids. IMID- OCEAN RIDGE- a continuous mountainous ridge on the floor! of all major ocean basins and varying in width from 500 to 5000 kilometers (300 to 3000 miles). The rifts at the crests of these ridges represent divergent plate boundaries. Also called mid-ocean rise, oceani