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UVU - PRLG 1000 - Class Notes - Week 4

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UVU - PRLG 1000 - Class Notes - Week 4

School: Utah Valley University
Department: OTHER
Course: Introduction to American Law
Professor: Scott Smith Smith
Term: Fall 2018
Tags: property, contracts, and Tort Law
Name: PRLG Contracts, Property, Tort notes
Description: These notes cover contracts, property and tort law.
Uploaded: 01/16/2019
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background image Elements of a contract  Requirements of a valid contract  1. Agreement (offer and acceptance) 
2. Consideration: bargained for exchange 
3. Contractual capacity  
4. Legality: Purpose of contract must be legal at the time of execution 
 
Defenses to the enforceability of a contract: v
​oluntary consent  Form:  ​some types of contracts must be in writing.  Statues of fraud:  ​can’t be performed within a year   UCC:  ​$500 or more     Type of contracts    
Bilateral: 
​A promise for a promise.    Unilateral:  ​A promise for an act  Offeree can accept the of  Formal: ​ Requires a special form for creation (Must be in writing)   Informal: ​ requires no special form for creation  Express:  ​Formed by words (oral or written)  Implied (in fact):  ​Conduct creates and defines the terms of the contract.   Requirements:  1. Plaintiff furnished good or service 
2. Plaintiff expected to be paid 
3. Defendant had chance to reject and did not 
Executed ​: A contract that has been fully performed by both sides  Executory: ​ A contract that has not been fully performed on either side  Contract Enforceability. 
Valid :
​ agreement, consideration, contractual, capacity, and legality  Voidable: ​ Option of one of the parties.   
Unenforceable contracts:
​ Can be avoided or rescinded based on certain legal defenses  Quasi-Contracts are implied in law 
Not an actual contract 
Limitations on quasi-contractual remedy: enriched party is not held liable in certain situations. 
 
INTERPRETATION  
background image Plain meaning rule ​: courts will enforce contracts whose meanings are clear from the face of the  instrument 
If terms are clear and unambiguous, court will not admit extrinsic testimony or evidence 
However if the terms are ambiguous court may admit extrinsic evidence. 
Other rules of interpretation:  
● Contracts are interpreted as a whole  
● Terms that are negotiated separately given greater weight 
● Words given ordinary common meaning 
● Specific wording given greater weight than general language 
● Written or typewritten given greater weight than pre-printed 
● Ambiguous terms interpreted against the drafter  
● Trade usage, (industry standards), prior dealings, course of performance.  
Statute of frauds  ● Cannot be performed within one year 
● For the sale of real property 
● To pay the debt of another  
● In contemplation of marriage 
● Involves $500 or more  
Performance of contracts  ● conditions  ○ Breach of contract 
○ Unenforceable contracts 
○ Sateriale V R.J. reynolds tobacco company 
Third party contract rights   Assignment  Transfer of one’s rights under a contract  Delegation  The transfer of obligations under a contract  CASE: Caruso V Natl. City Mortg. Co.    The Uniform Commercial Code  ● A uniform set of laws dealing with contracts for the sale of goods 
● Adopted by most states 
   
background image Tort law in general  Tort:  ​A non contractual civil wrong  Tortfeasor  One who commits a tort  TORT CATEGORIES 
(Intentional, Negligence, Strict Liability) 
Intentional:   Definition:  ○  A willful act done with the knowledge that the act will cause harm    Defenses:  ○  Privilege, Consent, Immunity  Examples: ​ assault, battery, false imprisonment, defamation, invasion of privacy,  intentional infliction of emotional distress,  
 
 
Negligence: 
Definition:  ○ Failing to act as a reasonable prudent person would act in the same or  similar circumstance    Defenses  ○ Contributory Negligence, comparative negligence, assumption of the risk,  immunity  Strict liability:   Definition  ● Liability for injury even though the injury was not caused by an intentional  or negligent act; liability without fault.   Defenses  ● Assumption of the risk, comparative negligence (in some jurisdictions)   
 
 
 
background image Assault and Battery:  Elements of assault:   1. An intentional act 
2. Causing fear or apprehension of an immediate harmful or offensive touching 
Elements of battery  1. An intentional act 
2. Causing a immediate harmful or offensive touching 
Defense to assault and battery: 
(Koffman V Garnett-Football training) 
Assumptions of risk  
 
False Imprisonment and false arrest 
Elements of false imprisonment 
1. Intentional confinement of a person 
2. non-consensual , complete and known 
3. Without lawful privilege  
(Kidnapping) 
Elements of false arrest 
1. A false imprisonment 
2. Under claim of right to arrest 
3. Without legal right to make the arrest 
Defenses    Libel  1. Unprivileged written publication 
2. Publication is a factual statement  
3. Statement is untrue 
4. Statement is injurious to the person’s reputation  
Damages are presumed  Slander   1. Unprivileged spoken publication 
2. Publication is factual statement 
3. Statement is untrue 
4. Statement is injurious to the person’s reputation 
Damages must be proven 
Absolute privilege:  
Governmental immunities.  

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School: Utah Valley University
Department: OTHER
Course: Introduction to American Law
Professor: Scott Smith Smith
Term: Fall 2018
Tags: property, contracts, and Tort Law
Name: PRLG Contracts, Property, Tort notes
Description: These notes cover contracts, property and tort law.
Uploaded: 01/16/2019
16 Pages 14 Views 11 Unlocks
  • Better Grades Guarantee
  • 24/7 Homework help
  • Notes, Study Guides, Flashcards + More!
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