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WSU - NFS 2030 - Class Notes - Week 2

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WSU - NFS 2030 - Class Notes - Week 2

School: Wayne State University
Department: Nutrition and Food Sciences
Course: Nutrition and Health
Professor: Eno Latifi
Term: Winter 2019
Tags: nutrition and health
Name: Nutrition and Health Notes (Week 2)
Description: These notes cover the remaining information from Chapter 1 and Chapter 2 information- from lecture and extra information from the book.
Uploaded: 01/20/2019
5 5 3 72 Reviews
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background image Continuation of Chapter 1… Types of Studies I. Case study a. Simple, observational study
b. Helpful because it may lead to possible avenues of research
II. Epidemiological study a. Large sample size -> more people in the study -> more power  you have to be able to detect differences between groups i. Subcategorization with larger sample size b. Look for correlations in large populations III. Intervention study a. Change something (eating patterns, etc.) and assess before and  after that change i. Alter people’s eating habits and examine effects IV. Laboratory study a. Pinpoint mechanisms by which nutrition acts i. Dealing with chemicals in the body, etc. Individual Case Study I. Usually one to two people II. Results of some aspect on individual a. Observational
b. Interventional
III. Good for rare events a. Genetic mutations IV. Single subject has low predictive power a. Could be a lot of unique things about that individual that may not translate over to other individuals i. Good for the generation of hypothesis, not good for making generalizations V. This is considered one of the most remedial forms of research design Epidemiological and Observation I. John Snow: British researcher, referred to as the father of epidemiology a. Approach was to take a map of the area and pinpoint where  people died from cholera and found there was a well that most 
people were getting their water from
Case-Control Study I. Example: use of cod liver oil during the first year of life is associated 
with lower risk of childhood-onset type 1 diabetes- a large population-
base, case-control study
II. Subject of epidemiological research III. Observational
background image IV. Two groups that differ in outcome compared on basic of suspected 
causal factor
V. Usually retrospective: something has already happened, and you go 
back and look at records and files
a. Looking at natural progression of things in the environment Epidemiological Studies I. Study large population a. Create subgroups i. Allows to categorize if you have a large enough sample and see how all the factors are taking some effect and impact 
on the factors
1. Statistical power b. Examine variables of interest in subgroups i. Can collect a number of different variables; are  observational 1. Height, weight, education, etc. c. More confident that you are looking at an effect relevant to the  population studied (and not specific to the sample) i. Large and inclusive -> more representative of the  population II. A major caution is that these studies provide correlation not causation a. Causation and correlation are not the same thing i. Just because two things are associated with each other and are correlated does not mean that it is cause and effect 
type of situation
b. Beware of spurious correlation i. Spurious correlation: by chance look like they are related Spurious Correlation I. Can be an external third factor that is impacting the variables Intervention Study I. Change some aspect, or variable, of an individual’s lifestyle a. Medication, diet, physical activity, stress management II. Directly applicable to human health (caveat) a. Caveat: a correlation, not a causality i. Depends on what the sample size was III. Expensive, difficult to do well, technical and ethical aspects limit what 
is feasible in humans
What makes a good experiment? I. Single-blind study: subjects do not know which treatment they are 
receiving
a. Experimental group and control group -> active compound and  placebo
background image II. Double-blind study: neither the subjects nor the investigators know 
which treatment is being received
a. Requires a third party who makes a code of treatment (labeling  them A or B, for example) and will come back at the end to break
the code to figure out the results and asses if the treatment was 
effective
i. It may be clear which is the treatment group or there may  be adverse consequences and it isn’t ethical to continue III. Peer review a. Has it been published in a reputable journal? i. Have other scientists read this, picked it apart, and has it  made it through assessment Laboratory study I. Utilize animal, cell, or synthetic models II. Highly controlled conditions III. Not directly generalizable to human health a. Gene expressions between human and mice are different Which ones are best? I. Case and epidemiological studies are good for identifying patterns, 
generating hypothesis
II. Intervention and laboratory studies are good for determining causality 
and mechanism
III. We need both forms to develop knowledge a. Okinawa: community of individuals living past 100
b. Mediterranean diet: seeing if this diet is linked to long life
c. Omega-3: something our body needs that it cannot produce on 
its own d. Eicosapentaeonic acid (EPA): involved in producing pro- inflammatory responses in the body IV. We need people that are interested in the research and have the funds 
to be able to produce the research
National Nutrition Research I. National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys (NHANES) a. Asking people what they eat
b. Recording measures of their health status
i. Health status: height, weight, etc. The Media and Nutrition Research I. People believing things they see in the media and news a. “Vitamin C produces collagen in our skin”
b. Taking a lot of vitamin c does not do you any good. As long as 
you are getting the required amount for your body, you are 
good.

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School: Wayne State University
Department: Nutrition and Food Sciences
Course: Nutrition and Health
Professor: Eno Latifi
Term: Winter 2019
Tags: nutrition and health
Name: Nutrition and Health Notes (Week 2)
Description: These notes cover the remaining information from Chapter 1 and Chapter 2 information- from lecture and extra information from the book.
Uploaded: 01/20/2019
12 Pages 113 Views 90 Unlocks
  • Better Grades Guarantee
  • 24/7 Homework help
  • Notes, Study Guides, Flashcards + More!
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