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Lecture 4: Timbre, Form, and TextureThis will encompass chapters 5 and 6 of the readings of the textbook “World Music, Traditions and Transformations” by Michael Bakan Dynamics: • Refers to the volume of the music • Volume can be maintained in an entire section • Volume can change gradually or suddenly from loud to soft or vice versa o Crescendo: gradual increase in the volume o Diminuendo: gradual decrease in the volume o Dynamic Range: the range between the softest and loudest notes EX: “Requiem, Dies Irae” by Giuseppe Verdi EX: Balinese Gamelan Music Timbre• Timbre is the quality or “color” of tones • It is what makes a musical sound recognizable • Each instrument can have various timbres o For instance, acoustic guitar is unamplified and electric guitar is amplified • Ensembles: music groups • Music Instruments • Music instrument: any sound-generating medium used to produce tones in the making of music• Instrumentation: the types of instruments and the number of each (this dictates the timbral landscape of music) Instruments: Classification• Culture specific systems of classification o Each tradition has its own ways of classifying instruments o Some diverse criteria include: the role in each ensemble, size, level of difficulty of the pieces• There is a Universal system of classification
Hornbostel-Sachs System of Instrument Classification (1914)• Idiophones: the body of the instrument vibrates (the triangle or spoons) • Membranophones: a membrane vibrates (drums) • Chordophones: vibration of strings (guitar or violin)• Aerophones: air passing through a tube (clarinet or trumpet) • Electrophones (created in the 1940s) o Two types (pure and hybrid) o Digital Sampling: allows for a sound to be recorded and reproduced o Multitrack recording: produce multitrack sequences o Overdubbing: layer tracks Texture • Texture: the kind of relationships between the different instruments or voices in a piece of music• This usually changes over the course of a piece Kinds of Musical Textures1. Monophony: a single person sings or plays a melody ~Unison: perform the same sequence of pitches in the same rhythm EX: The song “Purisma” 2. Homophony: all parts sing the same rhythm but at different pitches ~Can also be a single melody accompanied by non-melodic harmonic accompaniment EX: The song “Desafinado” (this shows a singer with background instruments) 3. Heterophony: melodic instruments play their own versions of the same melody ~Heterophony is like a complex monophony EX: “Iraqi Café" 4. Polyphony: at least 2 parts play independent melodies EX: The song “Tale as Old as Time” (Duet) Call and Response • This means that there is an alternation between two parts that complement each other
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School: University of California - Davis
Course: Musics of the World
Professor: J Diaz
Term: Winter 2019
Name: Musics of the Worlds, Chapter 5 and 6 Class notes
Description: These notes cover chapters 5 and 6 from the textbook "World Music, Traditions and Transformations" by Michae Bakan.
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