×
Log in to StudySoup
Get Full Access to KSU - Class Notes - Week 2
Join StudySoup for FREE
Get Full Access to KSU - Class Notes - Week 2

Already have an account? Login here
×
Reset your password

KSU / Science / ENVS 1101 / What are the six steps of the scientific method?

What are the six steps of the scientific method?

What are the six steps of the scientific method?

Description

School: Kennesaw State University
Department: Science
Course: Science, Society & Environ I
Professor: Jonathan stanley
Term: Spring 2019
Tags: Environmental Ethics and Science
Cost: 25
Name: Science 1101: Chapter One 1 ; Part two
Description: These notes are from the book. Please add in additional notes from the actual lecture.
Uploaded: 01/23/2019
8 Pages 53 Views 2 Unlocks
Reviews

clopez43 (Rating: )



SCI 1101- Fall 2018


What are the six steps of the scientific method?



Chapter 1: Science and Sustainability: An Introduction to Environmental  Science (Part Two)

Lecture Objectives:  

- Describe the field of environmental science

- Compare renewable and nonrenewable resources, and explain the  importance of natural resources and ecosystem services to our lives - Discuss population growth, resource consumption, and their  consequences.

- Explain what is meant by an ecological footprint

- Describe the scientific method and the process of science - Identify and illustrate major pressures on the global environment.  - Discuss the concept of sustainability, and cite sustainable solutions  being perused on campuses and in the wider world.


State the difference between a hypothesis and a theory.



Don't forget about the age old question of Define pitch matching.

The Nature of Environmental Science (cont’d)

Science (definition): A systematic process for learning about the world and testing our understanding of it.  

Observational (descriptive) science vs. hypothesis-driven science

- Observational Science:

Example:

- Hypothesis-driven Science: Research that proceeds in a more targeted  and structured manner, using experiments to test hypotheses within a  framework traditionally known a scientific method.  

Example: When scientist know enough about a subject, the scientist  can begin posing questions that seek deeper explanations about how and  why things are the way they are.

What are the differences/similarities between the two?

Scientific Method is a traditional approach to research  


What is a technique for testing ideas with observations?



Scientific Method (definition): Is a technique for testing ideas with  observations.

Page 1

SCI 1101- Fall 2018

Chapter 1: Science and Sustainability: An Introduction to Environmental  Science (Part Two)

A scientist makes an _________observation___ and asks  Don't forget about the age old question of Who developed the petri dish?

_______questions_____ about some phenomenon.  

Page 2

SCI 1101- Fall 2018

Chapter 1: Science and Sustainability: An Introduction to Environmental  Science (Part Two)

Observations

Questions

Hypothesis

 Fail to reject hypothesis.  Test new prediction.

Predictions

Test

 Reject hypothesis. Form  a new one.

Results

Don't forget about the age old question of What are some typical questions you will encounter when you have an anxiety disorder?

Page 3

SCI 1101- Fall 2018

Chapter 1: Science and Sustainability: An Introduction to Environmental  Science (Part Two)

What are the six steps of the scientific method?

Observations, questions, hypothesis, predictions, test, results

Experiment: An activity designed to test the validity of a prediction or a  hypothesis. We also discuss several other topics like Which macromolecule is deoxyribonucleic acid?
Don't forget about the age old question of How is gene expression related to cell differentiation and specialization?

Page 4

SCI 1101- Fall 2018

Chapter 1: Science and Sustainability: An Introduction to Environmental  Science (Part Two)

Variable: conditions that can change.

- Independent variable: a variable the scientist manipulates,  o Examples If you want to learn more check out Does arrhenius constant change with temperature?

- Dependent variable: a variable is dependent on the manipulation of the independent variable.

o Examples:

Controlled Experiment: keeping conditions the same to analyze the  effects/impacts of a variable. No changes occur in a controlled experiment.

Control: The portion of an experiment in which a variable has been left  unmanipulated, to serve as a point of comparison with treatment.

Treatment: The portion of an experiment in which a variable has been  manipulated in order to test its effect. Compare with control.

During an experiment, a scientist records/collects data. Data is information  gathered from their studies.  

Qualitative data: is information about qualities; information that  can't actually be measured. 

- Examples: the softness of your skin, the grace with which you run, and  the color of your eyes. 

Quantitative data: Information expressed using numbers

- Examples: Area of Water surface covered by algae in each pond or  measurement of the dry weight of algae in a certain volume of water.

Visualizing Data: the representation of information in the form of a chart,  diagram, picture, etc. 

Manipulative Experiment:

An experiment in which the researcher actively chooses and manipulates the independent variable.  

Page 5

SCI 1101- Fall 2018

Chapter 1: Science and Sustainability: An Introduction to Environmental  Science (Part Two)

- A manipulative experiment provides strong evidence because it can  reveal casual relationships, showing that changes in an independent  cause changes in a dependent variable.

Natural Experiment:

Compare how dependent variables are expressed in naturally occurring, but  different, contexts

- In such experiments the independent variable varies naturally and  researchers test their hypothesis by searching for correlation.

- Correlation: Statistical association among variables

The scientific process continues beyond the scientific method.  

- Peer Review: Asking several other scientist who speacialize in the same subject area to examine the work and provide comments and criticism.

- Publication and Repeatability:  

A careful scientist will test his hypothesis repeatedly in various ways.  - Following publication, may attempt to reproduce the same results in  their own experiments.

- Theory: a widely accepted- well tested explanation validated by a  great amount of research.  

o Example:  

- Paradigm shift: A fundamental change in approach or underlying  functions of a dominant view

o Example: Plate tectonics in the 1960’s  

- Wicked problems: Problems complex enough that have no simple  solution  

Page 6

SCI 1101- Fall 2018

Chapter 1: Science and Sustainability: An Introduction to Environmental  Science (Part Two)

o Example:

QTNA: What is the difference between a hypothesis and a theory? A hypothesis is a statement that attempt to explain a phenomenon or a  scientific question. A theory is a widely accepted, well-tested  explanation of one or more cause-and-effect relationships that has been  extensively validated by extensive research.

Sustainability and Our Future

Sustainability: avoidance of the depletion of natural resources in order to  maintain an ecological balance. 

Currently, we are drawing from the earth’s natural capital

Think of the earth’s resources as a bank account. We are withdrawing funds  faster than we are depositing = deficit.  

Examples:  

Conserving earth’s resources, developing solutions that work long term.

QTNA: What are some examples of sustainable behavior? How can  society become more sustainable?

Sustainable solutions abroad  

Environmental Literacy  

- is the desired outcome of environmental education which strives to  provide learners with: Sound scientific information. 

Page 7

SCI 1101- Fall 2018

Chapter 1: Science and Sustainability: An Introduction to Environmental  Science (Part Two)

End of Chapter Practice Problems pg. 19

1,2,3,4,5,6, 8, 9 and 10

Page 8

Page Expired
5off
It looks like your free minutes have expired! Lucky for you we have all the content you need, just sign up here