Lesson IV: We are getting more sensitive to these characteristics
Zoli Osaze: sound mixer; designer
● Changes baffles to “Bo’s” apartment
Improvements in movie and home theatre sound; music recordings Yasuhisa Toyota: Architectural Acoustician
● Competes against CD-quality; closely miked instruments
● Uses ‘vineyard’ designs
○ Allows to emulate clarity through cd quality recording
○ Provides exceptional clarity, intimacy
Lessons from Hollywood (and research)
Lesson I: We are exquisitely sensitive to how rooms structure sound Lesson II: We are sensitive to the sound of different room positions Lesson III: We are sensitive to when and how sounds are obstructed Lesson IV: We are getting more sensitive to these characteristics
Beep Baseball (blind baseball)
Invented in 1964
Now 16 teams in the US
Players visual impaired; teens--50’s
● Pitcher and catcher are sighted
Batter and pitcher on same team
● Rhythmic coordination
Fielding and running is where sound is most crucial
● Time diving to stop ball
● Time arm extension for base hitting
● acoustic cues:
○ Intensity, complexity, Doppler shift, interaural, reflectances
■ The rate of change informs about arrival time
If you want to learn more check out Who developed the petri dish?
● Accuracy: blind > sighted
○ Everyone over-anticipates
● Increasing intensity activates areas associated with attention and motor reactivity ● Higher proportion of brain cells reactive to increasing intensity The Prius Problem:
● Blind and sighted pedestrians report difficulty hearing hybrid; many near-misses ● Prius vs. Camry (ICE) measured for intensity
○ Very little dB difference at normal traffic speeds
■ ‘Silent but deadly zone’: < 20 mph; electric mode
● Cars approach a ‘listener’ at 5 mph Don't forget about the age old question of What are phobia causes?
If you want to learn more check out What is attached to the two carbon of deoxyribose?
● From which direction is the car coming?
● 2006 Prius vs 2004 Accord (background engines)
○ Greater accuracy with Accord; much faster
● 2009 NHTSA injury results
○ Statistically proven more pedestrian injuries from silent hybrid cars than with normal cars We also discuss several other topics like What causes cell differentiation during an organism's development?
We also discuss several other topics like Does stoichiometry affect equilibrium constant?
● Warning sound now optional on: Don't forget about the age old question of What are some examples of cultural syncretism?
○ Tesla, Prius, Nissan, Leaf
Achieving and maintaining a produced target pitch
● Pitch matching : trained singers superior (.5 vs. 1.3 semitones: barbershop ensemble) What about ‘free’ pitch?
● 40 park goers sing Quebec folk tune
● Very little pitch variability: 1 semitone
● Tempo consistency as accurate as professionals
● When asked to sing slowly, pitch consistency as good as professionals (.3 semitones) ● Two singers were truly bad with pitch, not tempo
○ Showed no perceptual deficit
● 17% of population self-reported
○ Extremely poor at producing pitches, not perceiving
Amusia - 4%
You Have Good Pitch & Rhythm Memory
Memories of specific pieces and performances of music are of nearly the same pitch as those heard
1. Singing tasks
a. Most subjects within 1 or 2 semitones of remembered recording
b. Moms sing lullabies in same pitch after a week
2. Listening tasks
a. Adults judge whether TV themes are in correct key or shifted 1 or 2 semitones i. Most correct for 2 semitone task
b. Infants (7 months) ‘recognize’ familiar pitch of lullabies within 4 semitones Similar findings hold for Rhythm memory
Episodic memories - speech, text, visual objects, etc.
● Remember things better with the specific “circumstances” recreated again ○ I.e. hearing professor’s voice, seeing same font, etc.
○ Incorporate details into the memory we learn something
○ We remember the general type of tiem along with its details
You Know Musical Intervals
You implicitly know pitch intervals
● Octaves = “somewhere” (over the rainbow)
You Know Music’s Deep Structure
Variations on a theme
‘Key’ of piece and resolutions
Atonal (twelve-tone) themes and ‘rules’