WEEK 2: PART 2 Europe: Chapter 2
North Atlantic Ocean to the west
Russia, up to the Ural Mountains to the east
The Arctic ocean creates a natural boundary to the north
Mediterranean rounds off the southern border
With Europe being such a waterbased continent, the climate is unusually warm its northern base. This is especially so in the western regions, due to the Gulf Stream. Much of Europe lies above the United States. Also, since rivers are abundant, transportation has never been an issue for European travel and trade. The majority of Europe is accessible through waterways.
Introduction into the Realm:
Europe’s pattern of development is the epitome of all regional geography
The Realm is favored because of its physical geography and cultural factors. The key players in the development of the Realm are the Greeks, Romans, and Vikings
From the transformation of the Roman Empire, to the European Union, Europe has changed its “appearance” from a series of nationstates to a multicountry union.
The impact of European colonialism is still felt today, even though its main impact was during the Industrial Revolution, in developing countries around the world. If you want to learn more check out What were the situation of people in greece back in 1945?
Four Main European Landforms:
Alpine Region, Central Uplands, Northern Lowlands, and Western Highlands; each of these landforms represents a different region of Europe. Because of these landforms, Europe is a very biodiverse continent.
Due to the many landforms and excess of biodiversity, Europe has access to many raw materials and natural resources. A downfall of this is its attraction to human populous which is ultimately straining Europe’s natural environment, causing deforestation and a decrease in biodiversity.
Alpine Region: range from Eastern France to Slovenia
Includes Pyrenees, which border France and Spain
Apennines, run the length of Italy
Carpathians, go around Romania and Slovakia If you want to learn more check out How is naturalistic observation facilitated?
Dinaric Alps, located in the former Yugoslavia
These mountain ranges act as a natural separation for cultural groups
Central Uplands: borders main Alps to the north (southern Germany) and to the east
Great source of raw materials (forest products and coal) which
boom industrial activities
Popular for dairy farming and raising cattle
Has 4 distinct seasons with moderate, yearround, precipitation
Northern Lowlands: extends through northern Europe, southern France, north through Germany, and into the Ural Mountains of Russia
Excellent farmland with major agricultural activity the provides
for a large European population
Western Highlands: extend through Norway, parts of Britain, and some of the Iberian Peninsula in Portugal and Spain
Not a very popular farming area, mainly designated to grazing
Physical geography in relation to cultural factors are the reason Europe became the world leader with high living standards
Greeks: Southern Europe, Greeks were innovative with ideas, philosophy and organizationthe Greeks are where we got the basis for democracy. We also discuss several other topics like What is the geometrical meaning of det(a)?
Romans: The Romans are the ones who carried empire to a whole new level. They morphed my ideas into one and took control of a very large portion of Europe and North Africa. They also introduced infrastructure to Europe. They built roads, aqueducts, bridges, and port facilities. Their ability to all of this gave them an understanding on how to rule and empire, which created the specialization of goods and the introduction to a market economy.
Vikings: farmers, skilled craftsmen, and traders. Used Europe’s waterways as their main form of transportation. Their colonies included: Iceland, Greenland, and Canada. Vikings were even hired by the Byzantine Empire as mercenaries. Vikings used trade to connect Europe during the Dark Ages.
Columbus was the beginning factor in European colonialism which died down after WWII. Mercantilism was the “fuel to the fire” with colonialism; which is the belief that trading can produce large profits. This caused the government to try and control all trade by promoting the acquisition of wealth by the gaining of gold and silver from the colonies it conquered. We also discuss several other topics like What are the most common monosaccharides?
Began in England in the 1700s. This revolution changed how people produced products by using coal as energy source, steam engines for power, smelting iron, and mass production changed how goods were made and distributed. The rural to urban shift came into play with all of the booming businesses. People began to drop the old way of living and turned to the more industrialized society for a better chance for a higher standard of living. Don't forget about the age old question of In chemistry, what is the function of bond polarity?
Four Motors of Europe: these cities include Stuttgart, Germany, Lyon, France, Milan, Italy, and Barcelona, Spain. These four cities were especially popular because of their promotion of business and industry for Europe’s community and economy. Don't forget about the age old question of What is the kingdom plantae?
NationState and Devolution:
Political revolution that transformed Europe laid ground work for a sense of nationalism that began the transition to NationStates. Dictatorship and Monarchial rule was beginning to diminish with this revolution due to the increased amounts of treaties that shifted power more towards the people instead of the royal.
Nationa group of people that share a same language, heritage, religion, and/or political views
State refers to the government of a particular area
When both come together it is referred to as a NationState because most of the populace shares the characteristics of a nation and has the same governmental views.
Devolution: “refers to the process whereby regions or people within a state demand independence and autonomy at the central government’s expense” this refers to when an ethnic group wants to separate from a larger state.
Centrifugal and centripetal forces:
Centrifugal: are forces that pull/put negative pressure on a country Centripetal: are forces that bring a nation together
table 2.9 in our book shows examples of both forces
Religion and Language in Europe:
Religion: Europe is known to be a Christian Realm; three main branches of Christianity are found in almost all parts of Europe: Roman Catholic, Protestant, and Eastern Orthodox. Catholicism has been a main religion in southern Europe for over 1,500 years. Protestant has been northern Europe’s dominant religion for years and Eastern Orthodox has become the primary for the Slavic lands of Eastern Europe and Russia.
Germanic language is found mainly in Northern Europe
Romance is Latin based and found in Southern Europe
Slavic is found primarily in Eastern Europe
Regions of Western Europe:
Northern Europe: Iceland, Finland, and the three Scandinavian countries of Norway, Sweden, and Denmark aka Nordic countries. Viking influence was strong in these countries; their capital cities are also major port cities.
Priorities of the governments of northern Europe include: education, human rights, and social concerns, which leaves these qualities ranked highly around the globe. Because of this, Denmark is ranked the highest standard of living in the world.
Northern European countries have an economic advantage due to their rich natural resources.
Kingdoms and royal families are highly regarded in the northern countries.
Southern Europe: Iberian Peninsula (Portugal and Spain). As stated earlier, southern countries are closely related to the Roman Catholic Church.
The Iberian Peninsula is separated from France by the Pyrenees mountain range. Greece is the southern most country on the Balkan Peninsula.
The urbanrural shift is not strong in the southern countries, nearly half of the population is still rural.
The GDP has a history of being lower in the southern region versus northern and central Europe
Spain is the most ethnically diverse of southern Europe.
Central Europe (Western Europe): Germany and France dominate all of the other central states, with Belgium, Netherlands, and Luxembourg consisting of Benelux countries. France is the only country to have borders to both the Atlantic Ocean and the Mediterranean Sea. These countries are right in the middle of Europe’s economic region and have fully stable democratic governments and have a high standard of living versus the world
Germany: its own cultures, language, religion, and traditions have influenced the strong German identity. It has the largest economy with strong exports and goods.
France: second largest European country behind Russia. 211 by 209 square miles. It is a major naval power and held colonies around the world during the colonial era. France is a major contributor in European Affairs, the EU (European Union) and the UN (United Nations).
Some of the most densely populated countries, sitting right below sea level. They are collectively known as the Low Countries. There are many cultural differences among these countries, but they have overcome them and excelled in creating a common economic objective.