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OU - GEOG 1114 - Class Notes - Week 2

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OU - GEOG 1114 - Class Notes - Week 2

School: University of Oklahoma
Department: Geography
Course: Physical Geography
Professor: Hernan Moreno
Term: Spring 2019
Tags: geography, physical geography, Meteorology, and Atmosphere
Name: Physical Geography 1114 Week 2 Notes
Description: These notes cover the topics that our class discussed during week 2 of the Spring Semester.
Uploaded: 01/25/2019
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background image Jan. 22-24 - Week 2: Chapter 1 Continued  System - a set of components that function together to act as a whole.  •  Any ordered, interrelated set of things and their attributes linked by flows of energy and  matter.  •  Two Different kinds of systems:  Open System - inputs of energy or matter and outputs of energy or matter.  §   Ex. Earth - it does not generate its own energy.  Closed system - shut off from the surrounding environment =self-contained  §   Ex. Earth - in terms of physical matter and resources.  §   Closed systems are rare in nature.  •  System Feedback  Feedback Loop - outputs of a system influence the system’s operation  §   Negative Feedback - feedback discourages change in the system  •  Stabilizes system  •  Ex. Predator-Prey: more population of prey, more food for  predator, predators multiply, less food, predators die off.  §   Positive Feedback - feedback encourages change in the system.  •  Destabilizes system  •  Ex. Arctic Sea Ice Melting - the ice is melting, ocean water is  darker than regular water, water absorbs sunlight and heat, more  ice melts.  •  Modern Tools and Techniques for Geoscience  Global Positioning System (GPS) - uses radio signals from satellites to find your  location. 
background image §   Have three satellites to triangulate your location.  Remote Sensing - refers to obtaining information about something without having  direct contact.  §   Often visible imagery, but can be other data  •  Infrared or UV wavelengths  •  Temperature  •  Levels of chemicals (CO2, air, pollution)  Geospatial Data Analysis  §   Geographic Information Systems (GIS)  •  Spatial data (where is it?)  •  Attribute data (what is it?)  §   Maps can contain multiple data layers  •  Physical features  •  Cultural features  §   Layers can be added to create composite overlays.  Chapter 2: Solar Energy to Earth & the Seasons  Earth’s Orbit  •  Average distance from Earth to the Sun is 93 million miles  •  Perihelion - closest point to the Sun (January 3rd, 91 million miles away from the Sun).  •  Aphelion - farthest point from the Sun (July 4, 94.5 million miles away from the Sun).  Solar Energy: From Sun to Earth  •  Speed of light = 300,000 kmps (186,000 mps)  •  Light reaches Earth from the Sun in about 8 minutes and 20 seconds.  •  Solar Energy is radiant light and heat energy from the Sun. 
background image •  The Sun emits shortwave energy (Gamma Rays, X-Rays, UV, high frequency waves)  •  The Earth emits longwave energy. (low-frequencies)  Solar Activity  •  Sunspots - caused by magnetic storms on the Sun.  Average activity cycle of about 11 years.  Their temperatures are lower than the temperatures of their surroundings.  Solar Flares - surface explosions on the Sun caused by magnetic storms.  •  Solar Wind - clouds of electrically charged particles  Takes about 3 days to reach Earth  •  The Magnetosphere  Deflects the solar wind toward both of Earth’s poles.  Generated by rotation of the Earth.  Only a small portion of it enters the atmosphere and creates auroras (Northern  Lights).  The Earth’s Energy Balance  •  Energy to drive the atmosphere comes from the Sun.  •  Radiation - energy from the Sun travels through space in electromagnetic waves.  •  Wavelength - distance between corresponding points on two successive waves.  •  Frequency - the number of waves passing a fixed point per unit time.  •  Insolation - solar radiation that reaches Earth.   INcoming SOLar radiATION Solar Constant: the average amount of solar radiation received at the top of  Earth’s atmosphere.  Earth only receives one two-billionth of Sun’s total energy output. 

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School: University of Oklahoma
Department: Geography
Course: Physical Geography
Professor: Hernan Moreno
Term: Spring 2019
Tags: geography, physical geography, Meteorology, and Atmosphere
Name: Physical Geography 1114 Week 2 Notes
Description: These notes cover the topics that our class discussed during week 2 of the Spring Semester.
Uploaded: 01/25/2019
7 Pages 55 Views 44 Unlocks
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  • 24/7 Homework help
  • Notes, Study Guides, Flashcards + More!
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