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Penn State - MUSIC - Study Guide - Midterm

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Penn State - MUSIC - Study Guide - Midterm

School: Pennsylvania State University
Department: Music
Course: Evolution of Jazz
Term: Spring 2019
Tags: Music
Name: Music 007 Study Guide, Unit 1 Test
Description: This is what the Unit 1 test exam will cover.
Uploaded: 01/26/2019
This preview shows pages 1 - 3 of a 12 page document. to view the rest of the content
background image Music 007  Unit 1: Jazz Foundations
Lesson 1: Music Basics
Keyboard  o Piano has total of 88 keys with recurring pattern of 12 white and  black keys  o Keys are identified by the notes they represent, using the 1 st  7  letters of the Alphabet, A to G.  Usually begin with the letter C Black keys = sharp (#) or flat (b), depending on whether 
they are a half-step above (#) or below (b) the letter name 
note. 
Half-step, or semitone is the distance between two adjacent  keys.  Example C to C# (white to black) or C# to D (black to 
white) or E to F (white to white) 
o A whole-step, or whole tone  = to two half-steps Example C to D (white to white), C# to D# (black to black, 
E to F# (white to black), and Bb to C (black to white) 
Octave  o The repeating pattern of notes on the keyboard represents an  octave.  o An octave is the span of 8 letter-name notes
o The first note of a 7 note scale and the 8
th  note have an  arithmetic relationship of 2:1 in terms of pitch frequency.  o Two notes an octave apart sound so similar that we call those  notes by the same name.  Diatonic Scales: Seven-Note Scales  o Beginning on the note C and continuing with each successive  letter-name note up to the note B. These notes correspond to the
solfege syllables with do, re, mi, fa, sol, la, ti, do. 
o The 8 th  note of the scale – the second “do” is an octave above  the starting pitch.  o 2 principal types of diatonic scales (7 note scales)  Major scale (for example C to C on the white keys)  Minor Scale (for example A to A on the white keys) o Music composed using the major scale is in a major key 
o Music composed using the minor scale is a minor key
o W = whole steps 
o H = half steps 
The C major scale – and every other major scale – consists 
of the following succession WWHWWWH
The A minor scale – as well as every other minor scale – 
consists of the succession WHWWHWW 
background image o Chromatic Scale  Complete succession of semitones along the span of an 
octave. 
Example, the ascending chromatic scale starting on 
C would be C – C# - D – D# - E – F – F# - G – G# - A – 
A# - B – C
Every successive pitch has that same semitone 
relationship to the previous one. 
Staff: Clefs o A staf is a set of five horizontal lines used in music notation
o At the beginning of each staff is a clef, which indicates the range 
of pitches to be played  o A treble clef indicates a higher range of notes
o A bass clef indicates a lower range of notes. 
o The grand staff combines the treble and bass clefs and is 
typically how piano music is notated Staff: Pitch o The location of notes on the staff indicates its pitch – the higher  up the note is located on the staff, the higher its pitch will be.  Rhythm o The beat is the pulse that we feel in the music 
o The Tempo is the speed at which the beats pass
A note is an actual musical sound
Rhythm is created by the notes we hear. 
The rhythm is the succession of articulated durations from 
one note to the next, to the next, and so on. 
o All the grouping of the beats = Meter Meter o Each group of beats is recognized because the first beat of each  group is accented o Typically a group of beats fills one measure.  measure, or bar, is indicated by a vertical line on the 
staff that divides one group of notes from the next
o Grouping of beats can be in 2s (duple), 3s (triple), and 4s  (quadruple) o The type of meter is indicated in the Time Signature which  appears at the beginning of the staff next to the clef The top number of the time signature indicates how many 
beats are in each measure, and the bottom number 
indicates the type of note that carries the beat. 
The quarter note – signified by the number 4 – will be the 
type of note that gets one beat
Simple Meters Duple meter is heard as alternating strong and weak beats  2/4 is the most common duple meter
background image Triple meter is heard as strong-weak-weak.  ¾ is the most common triple meter Quadruple meter combines two duple groups, where there is a  greater accent, or emphasis, on the first beat, and a slightly 
lesser accent on the third beat. 4/4 is the most common 
quadruple meter
Pickup o Not all melodies begin on the downbeat – that is, on the first beat of the first measure. Often there is a note, or group of notes, 
leading to the downbeat – what we refer to as “the pickup” 
o The “pickup” is also known as the “upbeat” or “anacrusis”.  Syncopation  o Occurs when the accent on a note is placed somewhere  unexpected, such as on a weak beat, or between beats Lesson 2a: What is Jazz?  Essential Features o Improvisation – performances that are made up on the spot by  one or more of the players o Rhythms that create a Swing Feeling
o Bluesy Flavor
Improvisation  o Improvisation means that the performer is spontaneously  composing the music that he or she is playing at that very 
moment. 
o The principal way that we as listeners identify when a player is  improvising is by recognizing that he or she is no longer playing 
the melody 
Swing Feeling o Often achieved as a result of three components “Swing eighth-notes”  An abundance of syncopations Frequent polyrhythms  Swing Eighth-Note o The first component of the Swing Feeling = swing eighth-note
o A quarter note is ordinarily divided into 2 equal eighth-notes, 
what jazz musicians refer to as “straight eighth-notes” or 
“straight eighths”
o With “swing eighth-notes” the quarter-note is divided into two  unequal eighth-notes o The first eighth-note receives slightly more than half of the beat,  the second eighth-note, the remainder  o Swing eighth-notes create a rhythmic lilt that possesses a  forward momentum.

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School: Pennsylvania State University
Department: Music
Course: Evolution of Jazz
Term: Spring 2019
Tags: Music
Name: Music 007 Study Guide, Unit 1 Test
Description: This is what the Unit 1 test exam will cover.
Uploaded: 01/26/2019
12 Pages 87 Views 69 Unlocks
  • Better Grades Guarantee
  • 24/7 Homework help
  • Notes, Study Guides, Flashcards + More!
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