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JMU / Evolutionary Anthropology / ANTH 196 / What produces an adaptive change in population?

What produces an adaptive change in population?

What produces an adaptive change in population?

Description

School: James Madison University
Department: Evolutionary Anthropology
Course: Biological Anthropology
Professor: Joshua linder
Term: Spring 2019
Tags: anthropologybiological
Cost: 50
Name: ANTH 195 Exam 1 Study Guide!
Description: This Study Guide covers everything that is gonna be on the first test!
Uploaded: 01/26/2019
19 Pages 57 Views 4 Unlocks
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ANTH 196 


What produces adaptive change in population?



Exam #1 Study Guide!  

Chapter #1  

1. What is Anthropology? 

a. Cultural Anthropology

i. Largest of the 4 subfields

∙ 2:1 ratio

∙ Studying living populations in terms of their culture

ii. Ethnology

∙ Documentation of societies of how they were raised  

and what their culture is.

a. Studying living culture.

b. Linguistic Anthropology

i. Smallest field

∙ Interested in language in culture

a. Technical ways of analyzing

c. Archaeology

i. Looking at past humans cultures

∙ Look at material remains


What are the basics of inheritance?



a. Trying to understand past behaviors

ii. Ethnoarchaeology

1

∙ Learn more about how archaeology sites are formed 

d. Genetic Anthropology

i. Gene frequencies across populations

∙ Mitochondrial DNA and Y-chromosome studies

a. Molecular clouds

ii. Ancient human DNA

∙ Extracting DNA from skeletal remains If you want to learn more check out What are some examples of state devolution?

e. Biological Anthropology

i. Very diverse

∙ Taking techniques in theoretical approach of humans  

with biology

a. Skeletal remains, human evolution

f. The Scope of biological anthropology

i. Geographic variation

∙ Adaptations to cold heat, high altitude


What the dna wraps/winds itself around?



ii. Genetic adaptation in physiological plasticity

∙ Growth and development

∙ Evolutionary medicine

g. Archaeology and Ancient human Variation

i. Human osteology

∙ Paleodemography  

a. Age, sex, profices

2

∙ Paleopathology 

a. Disease in past populations

ii. Discrete traits

∙ Characteristics that are present or absent.

Chapter #2

2. What is Science? The History through Evolutionary Thought  part 1. 

A. Primatology

a. Study of non human primates

B. Paleoanthropology

a. Human evolutionary studies

i. Lots of information comes from archeological techniques C. Six Attributes of Science

a. Natural We also discuss several other topics like What are the three major groups of archaea?

i. Natural world

b. Observable

c. Predictable

i. Falsifiable

d. Testable

e. Consistent

i. repeatability

f. Tentative

3

D. The Scientific Method 

a. Observation

b. Hypothesis

i. Testable predictions

c. Hypothesis testing

i. Experiment or further observations

d. Reject or provisionally accept hypothesis

e. Theory

i. Not just a hypothesis; but multiple

E. Plato(400s BCE)

a. Eidos or ideal types

b. Made observations of plant and animal species around him and  he determined that there was variation

c. Developed the theory of forms

i. Allegory of the cave

ii. The forms would be the essence of many objects

F. Aristotle(400s BCE)

a. Plato's student

b. Fixity of Species

c. First to notice that there is no continued variation in nature i. Unchanging nature We also discuss several other topics like What are the composition and function of the cell membrane?

d. Essential fixed status of behavior

4

e. Noticed that organisms are more complex than others f. Scala naturae

i. Scale of nature

1. How we organized organisms

g. Had a material reality

h. The Great Chain of Being

i. Immutable and unchanging

1. A lot like scala naturae Don't forget about the age old question of What is a lattice structure?

2. Angels are at top of chain

3. Organisms were ranked according to similarity  

because humans are made in the image of God

G. Young Earth

a. Bishop Usher(1581-1656)

i. Came up with the 1st representation of the age of the  Earth

1. Determined the Earth was about 6,000 years old.

H. 17th -19th Century Naturalists

a. The wanted to better understand God's Plan

b. Study of nature; a Godly pursuit

c. Great chain of being was still very influential to people I. John Ray

a. Contributed the concept of reproductive

5

i. 1691 was his most famous publication 

ii. Species concept creator  

iii. 1st person to use this

J. Linnaeus(1707-1778)

a. Figured out how to identifying species based on a “killing  feature”  

i. Species classification creator

ii. Systema naturae

1. First classification of organisms

iii. Created the idea of binomial naming clature Don't forget about the age old question of What resources need to be available in the exchange of data?
We also discuss several other topics like What are the parts of personality and how do they relate?

iv. The combination of the name has to be unique

v. Conceptualized higher levels of classification

1. Classes, order, kingdoms, etc

vi. First to place animals in to a genus of humans

K. Comte De Buffon(1707-1788)

a. Uniformitarianism thought

i. Ambitious naturalist

ii. He was interested in ancient Earth

1. Took on ideas from Newton to determine a physical  

way of how the Earth was formed

iii. He argues that the earth was more the 70,000 years old. L. Fossils

6

a. It was initially just another type of rock and geological formation 

i. Then naturalists began to make connections between  fossils and living organisms due to many similarities

1. Brought up the idea that a change must have  

happened

M.Extinction

a. This was not supposed to happen under the Great Chain of Being

i. So this brought up a challenge because it challenged the  fixity of species

1. Scientists responded with Catastrophism

a. Cuvier (1769-1832)- 1st person to point to  

fossils as evidence of extinction; he studied  

elephant fossils

N. Inheritance of Acquired Characteristics

a. Lamarck(1744-1829); came up with a frame work that is known  as evolutionary change today

i. Inheritance of acquired characteristics was also known as  the use with use hypothesis.

O. Uniformitarianism

a. James Hutton (1726-1797) and Charles Lyell (1797-1875)

i. Processes have been happening many years, influenced  Lyell's theory

b. 1830- Charles Lyell published 1st edition of Principles of Geology i. Catastrophism Idea

ii. “The present is the key to the past”

7

iii. Geological science should limit itself to natural world P. Evolutionary Theory: Development of Natural Selection a. Evolution= change through time  

i. Descent with modification

b. Species here today were not always in existence  

c. Species share common ancestors

Q. Charles Darwin (1809- 1882)

a. Natural Selection

b. Wanted to be loved by the outdoors/nature

c. Boarded the Beagle at the age of 22 to be the boats naturalist R. Natural Selection Influences:

a. Beagle voyage

i. 1831-1836

1. Easily intended to be a 2 year voyage, but ended up  

taking 5 years

ii. When he first started encountering fossils and certain  patterns that went along where species lived

iii. Most famous observations were on the different kinds of  finches

iv. Gave the idea that there was change within lineage

b. Breeding of Domestic Animals:Pigeons

i. Breeding show pigeons

1. Offspring tended to resemble their parents

8

c. Malthus: “Essay on Population” 

i. Struggle for survival or existence

1. Most extensive, influential view of this idea

ii. Populations tend to expand to outstrip resources 1. Brought the idea of competition in evolution

S. 3 Key Patterns from Darwin’s Observations of Natural  Selection

a. Variation is the Norm

i. Beagle voyage

b. Variation is inherited; artificial selection

i. Domestic animal breeding

c. Overproduction of offspring

i. Malthus

T. Kinds of Natural Selection

a. Directional Selection

i. What produces adaptive change in population

1. When the environment favors one variant of a  

particular trait over the rest (situational).

2. Ex. pigmentation in peppered moths

b. Stabilizing Selection

i. Decreases diversity, acts against extremes

ii. In favor of typical or average trait, not the extremes 9

1. Ex. a four-chamber heart in humans and animals 

c. Disruptive Selection

i. Favoring extremes; acting against the norm

1. Sexual dimorphism

U. Sexual Selection

a. Selection driven by competition for mates

i. Acts on an animal's ability to obtain a male

b. Darwin: the descent of man and selection in Relation to  Sex(1871)

i. Sexual selection can produce extreme results

Chapter #3

3. Is Evolution on Trial? (Scientific and Nonscientific) a. Microevolution

i. Gradual evolutionary change within a lineage or population b. Macroevolution

i. Emergence of a new species and extinction

∙ Large-scale events

c. On The Origin of Species

i. 1st major work on evolution by Darwin

ii. Was rushed to publish material by John Wallace

∙ Provided a large amount of data demonstrating the  

fact of evolution

∙ Proposed natural selection as the mechanism by  

10

which evolution occurs

d. Thomas Henry Huxley

i. 1st to discover evolution in humans

∙ Evidence as to man’s place in nature

∙ Trying to expand on what Linnaeus had implied

∙ Made the argument that the living apes and humans  

come from same ancestor

ii. Darwin then picked up on human evolution in his second  publication  

∙ Felt that our early ancestors should be found in Africa

a. Applying evolution to humans was very  

controversial

e. Non-scientific ways of humans evolved

i. Biblical: Genesis

∙ God created man and woman out of man

∙ Humans were created in the image of God

ii. Yanomami -South America

∙ Consists of 4 layers

a. Empty

b. The sky- 1st beings and yanamono souls

c. The earth

d. Village of spirit-men

iii. Maya-Central America

11

∙ Creator gods(polytheistic), fashioned all wild animals  

into their specific place in nature

a. 1st attempt was to make man out of mud

b. 2nd attempt involved use of wood(not good)

i. Caused the creation of monkeys

c. Last attempt was to use corn

i. These were the best creation animals

iv. Maasai-East Africa

∙ Creator God made people from a tree that was split  

into 3 pieces

a. Made 3 fathers of different neighboring groups

Chapter #4

4. What are the Basics of Inheritance? 

a. Darwin’s Missing Piece

i. Traits that are unhelpful or detrimental to individuals  

ii. Don’t understand how individuals inherited traits

iii. Homunculus

∙ Tiny person inside a sperm

b. Lamarck

i. Inheritance of acquired characteristics

ii. Taking notes on structures being used and discussed

iii. Passed down into sex sperms

c. Blending Inheritance

12

i. Idea that offspring are blended with mother and father  traits

∙ Can observe in offspring

ii. Only occurs, if natural selection is not possible

iii. Populations begin to look uniform over time

iv. Traits would skip over generations

∙ Doesn’t happen with blending inheritance

d. Gregor Mendel(1823-1884)

i. “The Gardening Monk”

ii. Conducting plant breeding characteristics

∙ Key principles of basic inheritance

∙ Not recognized during his time

∙ Experimental organism was a pea plant

iii. Parents pass on discrete heritable factors-genes

∙ Not blending

iv. Traits are inherited independently

∙ Doesn’t tell you how it will express another trait

e. Mendel's Experiments

i. Experimental organism:Peas

∙ Able to control sexual behavior

a. which plants are the parents

∙ Traits are simple-two possibilities

13

ii. Control of fertilization

∙ Brush pollen on target plant

∙ Data somewhat cleaner

iii. True-breeding lines

∙ 7 traits

∙ Can breed over generations, to the express that trait  

overtime

∙ Plants he was breeding only had one variant that he  

was intended in

iv. Kept basic statistical records

∙ Discrete traits

a. Discontinuous; observe traits

∙ Opposite is continuous trait

a. Height in humans

∙ Phenotype

a. Physical trait produced

i. Particles of inheritance separate from  

each other

v. Gene Variants

∙ Alleles

vi. Genotype

∙ Alleles present for a given; there will always be two  

alleles per gene in each individual  

14

vii. Gametes

∙ Sex cells

viii. Heterozygous

∙ Different genes (dominant and recessive)

ix. Homozygous

∙ Same genes (dominant and dominant or recessive  

and recessive)

x. Mendelian traits

∙ Traits being inherited in a single fashion

f. Two important mendelian principles

i. Law Segregation

∙ Each trait is determined by two alleles, one from  

mother and one from father, which are inherited  

separately

a. Parallel alleles (on chromosomes) segregate  

randomly into gametes

ii. Law of Independent Assortment

∙ Each allele pair is inherited independently  

a. They are assorted independently during  

gamete formation

i. This only holds true for genes on  

different chromosomes

g. ABO Blood Groups

i. Type A

15

∙ Plasma antibodies (anti-B)

ii. Type B

∙ Plasma antibodies (anti-A)

iii. Type AB

∙ Plasma antibodies (none)

iv. Type O

∙ Anti A and Anti B

h. Codominance

i. A and B alleles in blood type

i. Recessive

i. O alleles in blood type

j. Beyond Medel

i. Polygenic traits

∙ Continuous traits

ii. Pleiotropic genes

∙ Gene with multiple effects of phenotypes

a. Ex. achondroplasia and marfan syndrome

iii. Heritability and environmental influence

∙ Polygenic traits

a. Height and BMI

∙ Mendelian Traits

a. PKU, G6PD deficiency (X-linked)

16

Chapter #5

5. What is DNA and Inheritance? 

a. T.H. Morgan(1910)

i. Did experiements on fruit flys

∙ “You can have evolution or genetics, and I have  

genetics in my lab”

b. H.J. Muller(1890-1967)

i. Also worked with fruit flys

∙ He would x-ray them and noticed interesting things  

about their offspring

ii. He indused mutations in fruit flys

∙ A source of unpredictable variation

a. Noticed that the number and shape of eyes  

varied

c. The Modern Synthesis:

i. Medelian genetics+ mutation+natural selection

d. 1940s-1950s:

i. Structure of DNA

∙ Rosalind Franklin produced micrographic images  

showing what DNA would look like

a. But failed to get credit because of the time  

period

∙ Watson and Crick got all the credit and won a noble  

peace prize in 1943

17

ii. Haploid:

∙ 23 single chromosomes(gametes)

iii. Diploid

∙ 23 chromosomes pairs(nucleus)

e. Human Chromosomes

i. We organize and number them from biggest ot smallest ∙ Karotype:

a. The structure of chormosomes in a human and  

what they look like

∙ Autosomes

a. Chromosomes 1-22

f. DNA Structure:

i. Made up of chains; like aladder

∙ A double helix

ii. Four bases

∙ Adenine

∙ Guanine

∙ Cystonine

∙ Thymine

iii. Backbone

∙ Sugar+phosphate

a. Adenine+ Thymine (A+T or T+A)

18

b. Guanine +Cystosine (C+G or G+C)

iv. Nuclesomes:

∙ What the DNA wraps/winds itself around

g. Genes

i. A sequence of DNA that codes for a protein or part of a  protein

h. DNA Function

i. Replication

∙ Faithful transmission of genetic information during  

cell division

a. Two situations

i. Mitosis and meiosis

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