GEOGRAPHY 101 EXAM 1 STUDY GUIDE
This study guide includes anything Dr. Norrell said was important over these chapters
Different climate types:
Type A: tropical or equatorial (South America, Central Africa, New Zealand)
Type B: dry or arid (Western United States, Northern and Southern Arica, Australia)
Type C: moderate temperature (Eastern United States, SE South America, SE Asia)
Type D: cold or continental (Canada and most of Russia)
Type E: polar extreme climates (Antarctica, Greenland, far North Russia)
Traits that people are born with, things that do not change over time (genetics, birthplace, and physicality)
Things that tend to change as a person grows and gets older. Culture is based on things people learn and adopt into their ever day lives (language, religion, customs, and traditions)
WEEK 2 cont:
NationState and Devolution:
Political revolution that transformed Europe laid ground work for a sense of nationalism that began the transition to NationStates. Dictatorship and Monarchial rule were beginning to diminish with this revolution due to the increased amounts of treaties that shifted power more towards the people instead of the royal.
Nationa group of people that share a same language, heritage, religion, and/or political views
State refers to the government of a particular area Don't forget about the age old question of What is the most abundant dissolved element in seawater?
When both come together it is referred to as a NationState because most of the populace shares the characteristics of a nation and has the same governmental views.
Devolution: “refers to the process whereby regions or people within a state demand independence and autonomy at the central government’s expense” this refers to when an ethnic group wants to separate from a larger state.
Don't forget about the age old question of What is the function of a biological membrane?
Centrifugal and centripetal forces:
Centrifugal: are forces that pull/put negative pressure on a country
Centripetal: are forces that bring a nation together
table 2.9 in our book shows examples of both forces Language: Don't forget about the age old question of What are the 3 types of intermolecular forces?
Germanic language is found mainly in Northern Europe
Romance is Latin based and found in Southern Europe
Slavic is found primarily in Eastern Europe
Some of the most densely populated countries, sitting right below sea level. They are collectively known as the Low Countries. There are many cultural differences among these countries, but they have overcome them and excelled in creating a common economic objective.
Reforms in Europe after the fall of the Soviet Union: Communism to Democracy
Central Planning to Open Market
Government Control to Private Citizens
Soviet Union to European Union
Perestroika- allowing multiparty elections and encouraged economic reform
Glasnost- societal openness
Soviet leader, Mikhail Gorbachev, encouraged both of these principals when he began to transition the Soviet Union into a capitalist society, although his efforts were strong, the Soviet Union still collapsed.
Ethnic Cleansing by Serbia:
After the Soviet Union collapsed and Tito died, the former Yugoslavia began to break apart. Those two forces were the only thing keeping Yugoslavia together and once both were gone, civil war broke out between Serbia, Croatia, and Bosnia. This led to ethnic cleansing initiated by the Serbs and the teaming up of Bosnia and Croatia to stop Serbia. Now, the Balkan Islands are called the shatterbelt because of the conflicts that divided them. We also discuss several other topics like What guest speaker noted that influencers are a great tool for brands on social?
WEEK 3 cont:
Ural Mountains and the Volga River are the most important boundaries because they separate European Russia and Asian Russia Don't forget about the age old question of What are the parts of personality and how do they relate?
The Volga River is where the majority of the population lives.
Southern border: Caucasus Mountains with Georgia and Azerbaijan
Black Sea and the Caspian Sea create natural boundaries on either side of the Caucasus Mountains
Main borders with Eastern Europe are the countries of Ukraine and Belarus To the north, Russia borders Latvia, Estonia, Finland, and Norway
Pacific Ocean is to the east with the Bering Strait separating Russia from North America
Arctic Ocean creates the entire northern boundary of Russia stretching all the way from Norway to Alaska
Because of Russia’s massive size, it has always been difficult to govern for both the Russian Empire and the Soviet Union. Both have had troubles with ethnic and cultural quarrels
Outline of Russia’s Historical Geography
21st century Russia is pseudo capitalist which replaced social, political, and economic system of the communist era We also discuss several other topics like What are the different chemical processes?
During Putin’s “reign” the economy grew
After the USSR collapsed, Russia’s population began to decline rapidly, falling from 149 million to 143 million in 14 years
Life expectancy is between 50 & 60 because of alcoholism, pollution and other health boundaries
After the economic collapse that followed the collapse of the Soviet Union, Russia has began rebounding by rebooting trade of natural resources with Europe and the rest of the world once more
Longest railway in the world
It runs from Moscow to Vladivostok, it is double tracked, and runs through the Ural Mountains, Moscow, Beijing, and Vladivostok (which are the most important cities because of their economic standing)
Mediterranean Sea, Baltic sea, and Atlantic Ocean act as outside water borders for Europe
Rhine River divides France and Germany
Danube River flows from the Black Sea to Germany
Volga River runs west of the Ural Mountains and is the source of the majority of water for European Russia, it is where the highest concentration of Russians is located
Oresund Bridge was built on a continental shelf, it connects Sweden and Denmark