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KSU / OTHER / ARTH / how did the artists visually distinguish the duke of berry in the illu

how did the artists visually distinguish the duke of berry in the illu

how did the artists visually distinguish the duke of berry in the illu

Description

Fifteenth-Century Art in Northern Europe.  


Who is Melchior Broederlam?



15th Century Europe saw emergence of wealthy merchants whose raise to power was fueled by  individual accomplishment, rather than hereditary succession within Nobel families.

(19-1) Jan van-Eyck Double Portrait of Giovanni Arnolfini and his wife, 1434 

• Wealth and connections put him to commission such a precious picture, in which both  patron and painter are identified with such conspicuous clarity.  

• Even within its secular setting, however, the picture resonated with sacred meaning. (The  crystal bead hanging next to the mirror imply the couple’s piety; the mirror itself is a  symbol of all-seeing eye of God; the figure of St. Margret, protector of women in child birth- is carved at the top of the post in the high-backed chair beside the bed.)  

• The couple was quite wealthy was what scholars know for certain about Jan van Eyck's  Double Portrait of Giovanni Arnolfini and His Wife  


Petrus Christus became the citizen of Bruges, in when?



The Northern Renaissance  

• Revitalized civic life and economic growth in the late 14th century gave rise to a  prosperous middle class that supported scholarship, literature and arts.  

• Their patronage resulted in the explosion of learning and creativity that we refer to as  Renaissance.

• Major Trait of Renaissance in Northern Europe was a growing, newly intense interest in  the natural world.  

Art for the French Ducal Courts

• The most powerful rulers in the Northern Europe for the most of 15th century: The Dukes  of Burgundy.  

• Especially influential was Jean. Duke of Berry, who commissioned many works from  Flemish and Netherlandish painters in the fashionable international gothic style/  • This new, composite style emerged in the late 14th century from the multicultural papal  court in Avignon in Southern France, where artists from Italy, France, and Flanders  worked side by side.  


Who is Rogier van der Weyden?



We also discuss several other topics like What makes this element oxygen?
Don't forget about the age old question of toxicology study guide

• The International Gothic style became the prevailing manner of the late 14th century  Europe.  

• It characterized by slender, gracefully posed figures whose delicate features are framed  by masses of curling hair and extraordinarily complex headdresses.  If you want to learn more check out david waxler

• Nobel men and women wear rich brocaded and embroidered fabrics and elaborate  jewelry.  

• Landscape and architectural setting are miniaturized; however, details of nature, flowers,  insects, birds- are rendered in breathtaking detail.  We also discuss several other topics like sinclair community college salaries

• Spatial recession is represented by rising tiled floors in rooms that are like stage sets;  • Fanciful meadows and mountains with high horizon lines

• Progressive diminution in the size of receding objects.

• Atmospheric perspective.  

• Artists and patrons preferred light bright colors and a liberal use of gold in manuscripts  and panel paintings, tapestries and polychromed sculpture.  We also discuss several other topics like gordon arnold utd
If you want to learn more check out math 115 umd

Painting and Sculpture for the Chartreuse de Champmol

One of the Philip the Bold’s most lavish projects was the Carthusian monastery, or chartreuse  (“charterhouse”) at Champmol, outside Dijon, his Burgundian capital city.  

 Melchior Broederlam

• The duke ordered a magnificent carved and painted altarpiece for the Chartreuse de  Champmol.  

• The interior of the altarpiece, carved and glided by Jacques de Baerze, depicts the scenes  of Crucifixion flanked bt the adoration of Magi and the Entombment.  

• The exteriors of the protective shutters of this triptych were covered by two paintings by  Melchior Broederlam (active 1381-1410) showing scenes from the life of the Virgin and  the infancy of Chris.  

• His lavish use of brilliantly seductive colors demonstrates one of the feature that made  International Gothic so popular.  

• In International Gothic fashion, both interior and exterior of the building are shown, and  the floors are titled up to give clear views of action.

(19-2) Melchior Broederlam ANNUNCIATION, VISITATION, PRESENTATION IN THE  TEMPLE, AND FLIGHT INTO EGYPT, Exterior of the wings of Chartreuse de Champmol.  1393-1399 

ART AND ITS CONTEXTS  

Altars and Altarpieces

▪ The altar in the Christian church symbolizes both the table of Jesus’s Last Supper and the  tombs of Christ and the Saints,  

▪ As a table, altar is the site where priests celebrate mass.

▪ Altarpieces are painted or carved constructions placed at the back of or behind the altar  so that altar and altar piece appear to be visually joined.  

▪ By 15th century, important altarpieces evolved into large and elaborate architectural  structures filled with images and protected by movable wings that functions like shutters.  ▪ An altarpiece can sit on a base called Predella. A winged altarpiece can be a diptych, in  which two pieces are hinged together; a triptych, in which two wings fold over a center  section, forming diptych when closed; or a polyptych, consisting of more than three  panels.  

CLAUS SLUTER

• Flemish sculptor Jean de Marville (c.1366 – 1389) initially directed with the  decoration of the Chartreuse, and when he died in 1389, he was succeeded by his  talented assistant Claus Sluter (c. 1360-1406) , from Haarlem, in Holland.  

• Sluter’s distinctive work survives in a monumental WELL OF MOSES carved for  the main cloister, begun in 1395 and left unfinished at his death.  

• The design of this work was complex.  

(19-3) Claus Sluter WELL OF MOSES, DETAIL OF MOSES AND DAVID. The  Chartreuse de Champmol, 1395-1406 

• Forming a pedestal for this Crucifixion group at the viewers eye level are life-size  stone figures from the Hebrew Bible who Christians believe foretold the coming of  Christ: Moses, David, and the prophets Jeremiah, Zachariah, Daniel, and Isaiah.  

• The concept may have been inspired by contemporary mystery plays, in which  individual prophets foretell and explain events of Christ’s passion.

• The element the individualized figures of Claus Sluter's Well of Moses (Fig. 19-3)  signaled a break with the International Gothic style. 

MANUSCRIPT ILLUMINATION

• Besides religious text, wealthy patrons treasured richly illuminated secular writings,  such as herbals, health manuals and works of history and literature

• Only the most lavish books would have a full-page miniature painting set off with  frames.  

(19-4) PAGE WITH A MINIATURE PAINTING PF THAMYRIS 

From Giovanni Boccaccio’s De Claris Mulieribus (Concerning Famous Women) 1402. Ink and  Tempera on vellum. 

THE LIMBOURG BROTHERS  

• Among the finest Netherlandish painters at the beginning of the century were three  brothers- Paul, Herman and Jean Limbourg- their last name referring to their home region • Trés Riches Heures (“Very sumptuous book of hours”) : Included prayers and readings  used in daily devotion, calendar of holy days.  

• Created a full page of illustrations for the calendar in the book. For each month, subjects  including both peasant labors and aristocratic pleasures appeared in a framed lower field  while elaborate calendar devices, with the chariot of the sun and zodiac symbols, filled a  semicircular area on the upper part of the page.

• Most European artists of the time showed the working class in a light acceptable to  aristocrats- i.e.; either happily working for the nobles’ benefit or displaying an uncouth  lifestyle for aristocratic amusement.  

• Peasants are depicted as happily working or amusingly uncouth. 

• The artists employ several International Gothic conventions: the high placement of  Horizon Line, the small trees and buildings in relation to people, cutaway view of the  house showing both the interior and exterior. The muted palette is sparked with touches  of yellowish-orange, blue and bright red including the turban of the man.  

(19-5) Paul, Herman and Jean Limbourg FEBRUARY: LIFE IN THE COUNTRY, TRES  RICHES HEURES 1411-1416. Colors and Ink on Parchment 

(19-6) Paul, Herman and Jean Limbourg JANUARY: THE DUKE OF BERRY AT TABLE,  TRES RICHES HEURES 1411-1416. Colors and Ink on Parchment. 

• The banner with heraldic arms above him helped the artists visually distinguish the duke  of Berry in the illustration for the calendar page for January in the Très Riches Heures  

THE MARY OF BURGUNDY PAINTER

• Mary of Burgundy Painter- so called because he painted a Book of Hours for Mary of  Burgundy (1457-1482), the only child of Charles the Bold.  

• Mary of Burgundy appears twice. She is seated in the foreground by the window reading from, or contemplating a picture within, her Book of Hours, held carefully and protected  by lush green cloth. She appears again in the background, within the representation of  personal vision inspired by her private meditations.

TEXTILES

• In 15th and 16th centuries, the best European tapestries came from Flanders.  • Major weaving centers at Brussels, Tournai and Arras produced intricately woven wall  hangings for royal and aristocratic patrons across Europe, important church officials  including the pope, and even town councils.  

• Among common subjects were foliage and flower patterns, scenes from the lives of the  saints and themes from classical mythology and history, such as Battle of Troy • Tapestries provided both insulation and decoration for stone walls of castle halls,  churches, and municipal buildings and because they were much more expensive than wall  or panel paintings, they showed off the owner’s wealth.

• They were also portable, a valuable quality as courts moved from residence to residence.  • The price of a tapestry depended on the artist involved, the work required, and the  materials used.

The Unicorn Tapestry  

• Tapestries were often produced in series.  

• One of the best known is the 1495-1505 “Hunt of the Unicorn”. Four of the seven  surviving hangings present scenes of people and animals set against a dense field of trees  and flowers. With a distant view of castle.  

• In tapestry, designs are woven directly into the fabric.  

• The Unicorn tapestries seem to have been woven on huge, horizontal looms, where  weavers interwove fine weft yarn of wool and silk – dyed a multitude of colors from the

creative combination of there vegetal dyes- onto the parallel strands of coarser wool  wrap.  

• Unicorn became both a symbol of incarnation (Christ is the unicorn captured by the  Virgin Mary) and also a metaphor for romantic love.  

• The capture and killing of the unicorn was equated with Christ’s death on the cross to  save humanity.  

(19-8) UNICORN IS FOUND AT THE FOUNTAIN From the “Hunt the Unicorn”  tapestry series. c.1495-1505. Wool, silk, and silver- and gift- wrapped thread. 

COPE OF THE ORDER OF THE GOLDEN FLEECE  

• Surviving vestments of the Order of the Golden Fleece are examples of Flemish textiles.  • The Order of the Golden Fleece was an honorary fraternity founded by Duke Philip the  Good of Burgundy in 1430 with 23 knights chosen for their moral character and bravery.  

(19-9) COPE OF THR ORDER OF THE GOLDEN FLEECE 

Flemish. Mid 15th Century. Cloth with gold and colored silk embroidery 

PAINTING IN FLADERS  

• Throughout most of the 15th century, Flemish art and artists were greatly admired across  Europe.  

• Artists from abroad studied Flemish works, and their influence spread to Italy.  • Flemish panel painters preferred using oil medium rather than the tempera paint that was  standard in the works of Italian artists.

• Since it was slow to dry, oil paint provided flexibility and it had a luminous quality.  

The Master of Flémalle 

• Some of the earliest and most outstanding artists using the new Flemish style were  painters in the workshop of an artist known as the Master of Flémalle, (1406-1444)  • From about 1425 to 1430, these artists painted the triptych now called the Mérode Altarpiece, after its later owners.  

(19-10) Workshop of the Master of Flémalle Mérode ALTARPIECE (OPEN), (TRIPTYCH  OF THE ANNUNCIATION) c.1425 – 1430s Oil on wood panel 

• “The opened door” indicates that the scene of the Annunciation is a religious vision of  the donors.

(19-11) Workshop of the Master of Flémalle A FLEMISH CITY (Detail of the right wing of the  Mérode altarpiece 

JAN VAN EYCK  

• In 1425, Jan van Eyck (1420s-1411) became court painter to Duke Philip the Good of  Burgundy (ruled 1419-1467), who was the uncle of the king of France and one of the  most sophisticated men in Europe.  

(19-12) Jan van Eyck MAN IN A RED TURBAN. 1433. Oil on wood panel  THE GHENT ALTARPIECE

• One of the famous works by Jan van Eyck was a huge polyptych with a very complicated  and learned theological program that he painted (perhaps in collaboration with his brother  Hubert) for a chapel is piece what is now known as GHENT ALTARPIECE

(19-13) Jan and Huber (?) van Eyck GHENT ALTARPIECE (OPEN), ADORATION OF  THE MYSTIC LAMB. Completed 1432. Oil on panel 

(19-13) Jan and Huber (?) van Eyck GHENT ALTARPIECE (CLOSED), ANNUNCIATION  WITH DONORS. Completed in 1432. Oil on panel 

THE ARNOLFINI DOUBLE PORTRAIT  

• The double portrait is Jan’s best-known painting.  

• Early interpreters saw this fascinating work as depicting a wedding or betrothal.  • The true meaning of this piece remains a mystery.  

Rogier van der Weyden (1400-1464)

• Rogier established himself in 1432 as an independent master in Tournai; at the peak of  his career he maintained a large workshop in Brussels, where he was the official city  painter, attracting apprentices and shop assistants from as far away as Italy.  

• To establish the stylistic characteristics of Rogier’s art, scholars turned to a painting of  DEPOSITION.

(19-15) Rogier van der Weyden DEPOSITION. From an altarpiece commissioned by the  crossbowmen’s guild, Louvain, Belgium. Before 1443, possibly c.1435-1438. Oil on Wood  panel. 

• The Deposition was a popular theme in the 15th century because of its potential for  dramatic, personally engaging portrayal.  

• Rogier’s choice of colour and pattern balances and enhances his composition.  

(19-16) Rogier van der Weyden ST. LUKE DRAWING THE VIRGIN AND CHILD. C.1435- 1440. Oil and Tempera on wood 

• The Virgin is pre-occupied with nursing her baby, who has pulled away from her breast,  smiling and flexing his hand- familiar gestures of actual nursing babies.  

• Luke, half-kneeling, captures the scene in a silverpoint sketch, a common preliminary  step used by 15th century Flemish painters in the planning of their paintings, especially  portraits.  

• The portrait like quality of Luke’s face here has led scholars to propose that this image of  the saint is a self-portrait of the artist himself.  

A CLOSER LOOK 

A GOLDSMITH IN HIS SHOP 

(19-17) Petrus Christus A GOLDSMITH IN HIS SHOP. 1449. Oil on oak panel. Signed: “Master Petrus made me in the year 1449”  

• Contains a lot of symbolism that is non-secular.

• Mirror was the feature used to unite the interior and exterior spaces and draw the viewer  into the painting in Petrus Christus's A Goldsmith in His Shop. 

PAINTING AT MID CENTURY: The Second Generation  

• The work of second generation of Flemish painters may be simpler, more direct, and  often easier to understand than that of their predecessors, but they still produced  extraordinary works of great emotional power.  

Petrus Christus (active 1444-1475/1476)  

• He became the citizen of Bruges in 1444 and signed and dated six paintings in the career  that extended over three decades.  

Dieric Bouts (active c.1444-1475)  

• The best known among Flemish painters as a storyteller, and he exercised those skills in a  series of large altarpieces with narrative scenes drawn from the life of a Christ and the  lives of the saints.

• He also created more intimate pictures, such as tender rendering of the VIRGIN AND  CHILD.  

(19-18) Dieric Bouts VIRGIN AND CHILD. c.1455-1460. Oil on wood panel Hugo van der Goes (c.1440-1482) and Hans Memling ()

Hugo van der Goes, dean of the painters’ guild in Ghent (1468-1475), united the intellectual  power of Jan van Eyck with the emotional sensitivity of Rogier van der Weyden to create an  entirely new personal style.  

Hugo paints meadows and wood meticulously, and he uses atmospheric perspective to  approximate distance in the landscape.  

He shifts figure size hierarchically for emphasis.  

(19-19) Hugo van der Goes PORTINARI ALTARPIECE (OPEN). c-1474-1476. Tempera and  oil on wood panel. 

HANS MEMLING  

The artist who seems to summarize and epitomize painting in Flanders during the second half of  the 15th century.  

Memling combines the intellectual depth and virtuoso rendering of his predecessors with a  delicacy of feeling and exquisite grace, a “prettiness” that made his extremely popular.  

(19-20) Hans Memling DIPTYCH OF MAARTEN VAN NIEUWENHOVE. 1487. Oil on  Wood.  

FRANCE  

• Flemish art- with its complex symbolism, visionary subjects, atmospheric space,  luminous colors, and sensuous surface textures- delighted wealthy patrons and well educated courtiers both inside and outside Flanders

• A “reserved detachment among figures” feature was the characteristic of French painting  in the 15th century.  

Jean Fouquet and Jean Hey  

Jean Fouquet (c.1425-1481) was the leading court artist of the 15th century France.  

Fouquet drew from contemporary Italian Classicism, especially in rendering architecture, and he  was also strongly influenced by Flemish illusionism.  

(19-21) Jean Fouquet ETIENNE CHEVALIER AND ST. STEPHEN, VIRGIN AND  CHILD. The Melun Diptych. c. 1452-1455. Oil on Oak Panel 

Jean Hey, The Master of Moulins

• Perhaps the greatest French follower of Jean Fouquet is an artist who for many years was  known as the master of Moulins after a large triptych he painted at the end of the 15th  century under the patronage of Duke Jean II of Bourbon, for the Burgundian cathedral of  Moulins.  

(19-22) Jean Hey PORTRAIT OF MARGARET OF AUSTRIA. c. 1490. Oil on wood panel  

• This charming portrait may have been one half of a devotional diptych.  • Margaret of Austria (1480-1498), daughter of Emperor Maximilian I, who had been  betrothed to the future French king Charles VIII at the age of 2 or and was being brought  to her father in 1493 after Charles decided to pursue another, more politically expedient  marriage.

FLAMBOYANT ARCHITECTURE

• The great age of cathedral building that had begun in the second half of the 12th century  was essentially over by the end of the 14th century- but growing urban populations  needed houses., city halls, guild halls and more parish churches.  

• It was in buildings such as these that late Gothic architecture took form in a style we call  “FLAMBOYANT” because of its repeated, twisted flamelike tracery patterns.  • The CHURCH OF SAINT-MALCOU in Rouen, was begun after a fund-raising  campaign after 1432 and dedicated in 1521 is an outstanding example of Flamboyant  Gothic.  

• Crockets – small, knobby, leaflike ornaments that line the steep gables and slender  buttresses.  

(19-23) Pierre Robin (?) CHURCH OF SANIT-MACLOU ROUEN. Normandy, France. West  Façade, 1432-1521 

• The house of Jacques Coeur, a wealthy merchant in Bourges, reflects the Flamboyant  style for secular architecture.  

(19-24A) PLAN OF JACQUES COEUR HOUSE. Bourges, France, 1443-1451.  

(19-24B) INTERIOR COURTYARD OF JACQUES COUER HOUSE. Bourges, France,  1443-1451.

THE GERMANIC LANDS

Painting and Sculpture

• Germanic 15th century painters worked in two different styles. Some clustered around  Cologne, continued the International Gothic Style with increased prettiness, softness and  sweetness of expression.  

• Other artists began an intense investigation and detailed description of the physical  world.  

• The major exponent of this style was Konrad Witz (active 1434-1446)  

(19-25) Konrad Witz MIRACULOUS DRAFT OF FISHES From an altarpiece of the  Cathedral of St. Peter. 1444. Oil on wood.  

(19-26) Michael Pacher ST. WOLFGANG ALTARPIECE Church of St. Wolfgang. Austria.  1471-1481. Carved, painted, and gilt wood; wings are oil on wood 

TECHNIQUE  

Woodcuts and Engravings on Metals.  

Woodcuts are made by drawing on the surface of the block of fine-grained wood, then cutting all  the area around the lines with a sharp tool called gouge, leaving lines on high relief.  

Engraving on metal requires a technique called intaglio, in which sharp lines are cut into the  plate with tool gravers or burins. The engraver then carefully polishes the plate to ensure clean,  sharp image.

Printing large numbers of identical prints of a single version, called edition, was usually a team  effort in a busy workshop.  

THE GRAPHIC ARTS

Printmaking emerged in Europe at the end of the 14th century with the development of  printmaking presses the increased local manufacture and wider availability of paper.  

The techniques used by printmakers during the 15th century were woodcut and engraving on  metals.  

The Buxheim St. Christopher  

Devotional images were sold as souvenirs to pilgrims at holy sites.  

The Buxheim St. Christopher was found in the Carthusian monastery of Buxheim, glued to  inside of back cover of a manuscript.  

(19-27) The Buxheim St. Christopher Mid 15th century. Hand-colored woodcut. 

MARTIN SCHONGAUER  

(19-28) Martin Schongauer THE TEMPTATIONS OF ST. ANTONY. c. 1470-1480.  Engraving

PRINTED BOOKS

The earliest printed books were block books.  

With fast way to make a number of identical books, the intellectual and spiritual life of Europe – and with the arts – changed forever.  

The Nuremburg Chronicle  

(19-29) Michael Wolgemut, Wilhelm Pleydenwurff, and workshop The City of Nuremburg.  Nuremburg Chronicle. Published by Anton Koburger in 1493. Woodcut within a printed book,  hand colored after printing, each page

Fifteenth-Century Art in Northern Europe.  

15th Century Europe saw emergence of wealthy merchants whose raise to power was fueled by  individual accomplishment, rather than hereditary succession within Nobel families.

(19-1) Jan van-Eyck Double Portrait of Giovanni Arnolfini and his wife, 1434 

• Wealth and connections put him to commission such a precious picture, in which both  patron and painter are identified with such conspicuous clarity.  

• Even within its secular setting, however, the picture resonated with sacred meaning. (The  crystal bead hanging next to the mirror imply the couple’s piety; the mirror itself is a  symbol of all-seeing eye of God; the figure of St. Margret, protector of women in child birth- is carved at the top of the post in the high-backed chair beside the bed.)  

• The couple was quite wealthy was what scholars know for certain about Jan van Eyck's  Double Portrait of Giovanni Arnolfini and His Wife  

The Northern Renaissance  

• Revitalized civic life and economic growth in the late 14th century gave rise to a  prosperous middle class that supported scholarship, literature and arts.  

• Their patronage resulted in the explosion of learning and creativity that we refer to as  Renaissance.

• Major Trait of Renaissance in Northern Europe was a growing, newly intense interest in  the natural world.  

Art for the French Ducal Courts

• The most powerful rulers in the Northern Europe for the most of 15th century: The Dukes  of Burgundy.  

• Especially influential was Jean. Duke of Berry, who commissioned many works from  Flemish and Netherlandish painters in the fashionable international gothic style/  • This new, composite style emerged in the late 14th century from the multicultural papal  court in Avignon in Southern France, where artists from Italy, France, and Flanders  worked side by side.  

• The International Gothic style became the prevailing manner of the late 14th century  Europe.  

• It characterized by slender, gracefully posed figures whose delicate features are framed  by masses of curling hair and extraordinarily complex headdresses.  

• Nobel men and women wear rich brocaded and embroidered fabrics and elaborate  jewelry.  

• Landscape and architectural setting are miniaturized; however, details of nature, flowers,  insects, birds- are rendered in breathtaking detail.  

• Spatial recession is represented by rising tiled floors in rooms that are like stage sets;  • Fanciful meadows and mountains with high horizon lines

• Progressive diminution in the size of receding objects.

• Atmospheric perspective.  

• Artists and patrons preferred light bright colors and a liberal use of gold in manuscripts  and panel paintings, tapestries and polychromed sculpture.  

Painting and Sculpture for the Chartreuse de Champmol

One of the Philip the Bold’s most lavish projects was the Carthusian monastery, or chartreuse  (“charterhouse”) at Champmol, outside Dijon, his Burgundian capital city.  

 Melchior Broederlam

• The duke ordered a magnificent carved and painted altarpiece for the Chartreuse de  Champmol.  

• The interior of the altarpiece, carved and glided by Jacques de Baerze, depicts the scenes  of Crucifixion flanked bt the adoration of Magi and the Entombment.  

• The exteriors of the protective shutters of this triptych were covered by two paintings by  Melchior Broederlam (active 1381-1410) showing scenes from the life of the Virgin and  the infancy of Chris.  

• His lavish use of brilliantly seductive colors demonstrates one of the feature that made  International Gothic so popular.  

• In International Gothic fashion, both interior and exterior of the building are shown, and  the floors are titled up to give clear views of action.

(19-2) Melchior Broederlam ANNUNCIATION, VISITATION, PRESENTATION IN THE  TEMPLE, AND FLIGHT INTO EGYPT, Exterior of the wings of Chartreuse de Champmol.  1393-1399 

ART AND ITS CONTEXTS  

Altars and Altarpieces

▪ The altar in the Christian church symbolizes both the table of Jesus’s Last Supper and the  tombs of Christ and the Saints,  

▪ As a table, altar is the site where priests celebrate mass.

▪ Altarpieces are painted or carved constructions placed at the back of or behind the altar  so that altar and altar piece appear to be visually joined.  

▪ By 15th century, important altarpieces evolved into large and elaborate architectural  structures filled with images and protected by movable wings that functions like shutters.  ▪ An altarpiece can sit on a base called Predella. A winged altarpiece can be a diptych, in  which two pieces are hinged together; a triptych, in which two wings fold over a center  section, forming diptych when closed; or a polyptych, consisting of more than three  panels.  

CLAUS SLUTER

• Flemish sculptor Jean de Marville (c.1366 – 1389) initially directed with the  decoration of the Chartreuse, and when he died in 1389, he was succeeded by his  talented assistant Claus Sluter (c. 1360-1406) , from Haarlem, in Holland.  

• Sluter’s distinctive work survives in a monumental WELL OF MOSES carved for  the main cloister, begun in 1395 and left unfinished at his death.  

• The design of this work was complex.  

(19-3) Claus Sluter WELL OF MOSES, DETAIL OF MOSES AND DAVID. The  Chartreuse de Champmol, 1395-1406 

• Forming a pedestal for this Crucifixion group at the viewers eye level are life-size  stone figures from the Hebrew Bible who Christians believe foretold the coming of  Christ: Moses, David, and the prophets Jeremiah, Zachariah, Daniel, and Isaiah.  

• The concept may have been inspired by contemporary mystery plays, in which  individual prophets foretell and explain events of Christ’s passion.

• The element the individualized figures of Claus Sluter's Well of Moses (Fig. 19-3)  signaled a break with the International Gothic style. 

MANUSCRIPT ILLUMINATION

• Besides religious text, wealthy patrons treasured richly illuminated secular writings,  such as herbals, health manuals and works of history and literature

• Only the most lavish books would have a full-page miniature painting set off with  frames.  

(19-4) PAGE WITH A MINIATURE PAINTING PF THAMYRIS 

From Giovanni Boccaccio’s De Claris Mulieribus (Concerning Famous Women) 1402. Ink and  Tempera on vellum. 

THE LIMBOURG BROTHERS  

• Among the finest Netherlandish painters at the beginning of the century were three  brothers- Paul, Herman and Jean Limbourg- their last name referring to their home region • Trés Riches Heures (“Very sumptuous book of hours”) : Included prayers and readings  used in daily devotion, calendar of holy days.  

• Created a full page of illustrations for the calendar in the book. For each month, subjects  including both peasant labors and aristocratic pleasures appeared in a framed lower field  while elaborate calendar devices, with the chariot of the sun and zodiac symbols, filled a  semicircular area on the upper part of the page.

• Most European artists of the time showed the working class in a light acceptable to  aristocrats- i.e.; either happily working for the nobles’ benefit or displaying an uncouth  lifestyle for aristocratic amusement.  

• Peasants are depicted as happily working or amusingly uncouth. 

• The artists employ several International Gothic conventions: the high placement of  Horizon Line, the small trees and buildings in relation to people, cutaway view of the  house showing both the interior and exterior. The muted palette is sparked with touches  of yellowish-orange, blue and bright red including the turban of the man.  

(19-5) Paul, Herman and Jean Limbourg FEBRUARY: LIFE IN THE COUNTRY, TRES  RICHES HEURES 1411-1416. Colors and Ink on Parchment 

(19-6) Paul, Herman and Jean Limbourg JANUARY: THE DUKE OF BERRY AT TABLE,  TRES RICHES HEURES 1411-1416. Colors and Ink on Parchment. 

• The banner with heraldic arms above him helped the artists visually distinguish the duke  of Berry in the illustration for the calendar page for January in the Très Riches Heures  

THE MARY OF BURGUNDY PAINTER

• Mary of Burgundy Painter- so called because he painted a Book of Hours for Mary of  Burgundy (1457-1482), the only child of Charles the Bold.  

• Mary of Burgundy appears twice. She is seated in the foreground by the window reading from, or contemplating a picture within, her Book of Hours, held carefully and protected  by lush green cloth. She appears again in the background, within the representation of  personal vision inspired by her private meditations.

TEXTILES

• In 15th and 16th centuries, the best European tapestries came from Flanders.  • Major weaving centers at Brussels, Tournai and Arras produced intricately woven wall  hangings for royal and aristocratic patrons across Europe, important church officials  including the pope, and even town councils.  

• Among common subjects were foliage and flower patterns, scenes from the lives of the  saints and themes from classical mythology and history, such as Battle of Troy • Tapestries provided both insulation and decoration for stone walls of castle halls,  churches, and municipal buildings and because they were much more expensive than wall  or panel paintings, they showed off the owner’s wealth.

• They were also portable, a valuable quality as courts moved from residence to residence.  • The price of a tapestry depended on the artist involved, the work required, and the  materials used.

The Unicorn Tapestry  

• Tapestries were often produced in series.  

• One of the best known is the 1495-1505 “Hunt of the Unicorn”. Four of the seven  surviving hangings present scenes of people and animals set against a dense field of trees  and flowers. With a distant view of castle.  

• In tapestry, designs are woven directly into the fabric.  

• The Unicorn tapestries seem to have been woven on huge, horizontal looms, where  weavers interwove fine weft yarn of wool and silk – dyed a multitude of colors from the

creative combination of there vegetal dyes- onto the parallel strands of coarser wool  wrap.  

• Unicorn became both a symbol of incarnation (Christ is the unicorn captured by the  Virgin Mary) and also a metaphor for romantic love.  

• The capture and killing of the unicorn was equated with Christ’s death on the cross to  save humanity.  

(19-8) UNICORN IS FOUND AT THE FOUNTAIN From the “Hunt the Unicorn”  tapestry series. c.1495-1505. Wool, silk, and silver- and gift- wrapped thread. 

COPE OF THE ORDER OF THE GOLDEN FLEECE  

• Surviving vestments of the Order of the Golden Fleece are examples of Flemish textiles.  • The Order of the Golden Fleece was an honorary fraternity founded by Duke Philip the  Good of Burgundy in 1430 with 23 knights chosen for their moral character and bravery.  

(19-9) COPE OF THR ORDER OF THE GOLDEN FLEECE 

Flemish. Mid 15th Century. Cloth with gold and colored silk embroidery 

PAINTING IN FLADERS  

• Throughout most of the 15th century, Flemish art and artists were greatly admired across  Europe.  

• Artists from abroad studied Flemish works, and their influence spread to Italy.  • Flemish panel painters preferred using oil medium rather than the tempera paint that was  standard in the works of Italian artists.

• Since it was slow to dry, oil paint provided flexibility and it had a luminous quality.  

The Master of Flémalle 

• Some of the earliest and most outstanding artists using the new Flemish style were  painters in the workshop of an artist known as the Master of Flémalle, (1406-1444)  • From about 1425 to 1430, these artists painted the triptych now called the Mérode Altarpiece, after its later owners.  

(19-10) Workshop of the Master of Flémalle Mérode ALTARPIECE (OPEN), (TRIPTYCH  OF THE ANNUNCIATION) c.1425 – 1430s Oil on wood panel 

• “The opened door” indicates that the scene of the Annunciation is a religious vision of  the donors.

(19-11) Workshop of the Master of Flémalle A FLEMISH CITY (Detail of the right wing of the  Mérode altarpiece 

JAN VAN EYCK  

• In 1425, Jan van Eyck (1420s-1411) became court painter to Duke Philip the Good of  Burgundy (ruled 1419-1467), who was the uncle of the king of France and one of the  most sophisticated men in Europe.  

(19-12) Jan van Eyck MAN IN A RED TURBAN. 1433. Oil on wood panel  THE GHENT ALTARPIECE

• One of the famous works by Jan van Eyck was a huge polyptych with a very complicated  and learned theological program that he painted (perhaps in collaboration with his brother  Hubert) for a chapel is piece what is now known as GHENT ALTARPIECE

(19-13) Jan and Huber (?) van Eyck GHENT ALTARPIECE (OPEN), ADORATION OF  THE MYSTIC LAMB. Completed 1432. Oil on panel 

(19-13) Jan and Huber (?) van Eyck GHENT ALTARPIECE (CLOSED), ANNUNCIATION  WITH DONORS. Completed in 1432. Oil on panel 

THE ARNOLFINI DOUBLE PORTRAIT  

• The double portrait is Jan’s best-known painting.  

• Early interpreters saw this fascinating work as depicting a wedding or betrothal.  • The true meaning of this piece remains a mystery.  

Rogier van der Weyden (1400-1464)

• Rogier established himself in 1432 as an independent master in Tournai; at the peak of  his career he maintained a large workshop in Brussels, where he was the official city  painter, attracting apprentices and shop assistants from as far away as Italy.  

• To establish the stylistic characteristics of Rogier’s art, scholars turned to a painting of  DEPOSITION.

(19-15) Rogier van der Weyden DEPOSITION. From an altarpiece commissioned by the  crossbowmen’s guild, Louvain, Belgium. Before 1443, possibly c.1435-1438. Oil on Wood  panel. 

• The Deposition was a popular theme in the 15th century because of its potential for  dramatic, personally engaging portrayal.  

• Rogier’s choice of colour and pattern balances and enhances his composition.  

(19-16) Rogier van der Weyden ST. LUKE DRAWING THE VIRGIN AND CHILD. C.1435- 1440. Oil and Tempera on wood 

• The Virgin is pre-occupied with nursing her baby, who has pulled away from her breast,  smiling and flexing his hand- familiar gestures of actual nursing babies.  

• Luke, half-kneeling, captures the scene in a silverpoint sketch, a common preliminary  step used by 15th century Flemish painters in the planning of their paintings, especially  portraits.  

• The portrait like quality of Luke’s face here has led scholars to propose that this image of  the saint is a self-portrait of the artist himself.  

A CLOSER LOOK 

A GOLDSMITH IN HIS SHOP 

(19-17) Petrus Christus A GOLDSMITH IN HIS SHOP. 1449. Oil on oak panel. Signed: “Master Petrus made me in the year 1449”  

• Contains a lot of symbolism that is non-secular.

• Mirror was the feature used to unite the interior and exterior spaces and draw the viewer  into the painting in Petrus Christus's A Goldsmith in His Shop. 

PAINTING AT MID CENTURY: The Second Generation  

• The work of second generation of Flemish painters may be simpler, more direct, and  often easier to understand than that of their predecessors, but they still produced  extraordinary works of great emotional power.  

Petrus Christus (active 1444-1475/1476)  

• He became the citizen of Bruges in 1444 and signed and dated six paintings in the career  that extended over three decades.  

Dieric Bouts (active c.1444-1475)  

• The best known among Flemish painters as a storyteller, and he exercised those skills in a  series of large altarpieces with narrative scenes drawn from the life of a Christ and the  lives of the saints.

• He also created more intimate pictures, such as tender rendering of the VIRGIN AND  CHILD.  

(19-18) Dieric Bouts VIRGIN AND CHILD. c.1455-1460. Oil on wood panel Hugo van der Goes (c.1440-1482) and Hans Memling ()

Hugo van der Goes, dean of the painters’ guild in Ghent (1468-1475), united the intellectual  power of Jan van Eyck with the emotional sensitivity of Rogier van der Weyden to create an  entirely new personal style.  

Hugo paints meadows and wood meticulously, and he uses atmospheric perspective to  approximate distance in the landscape.  

He shifts figure size hierarchically for emphasis.  

(19-19) Hugo van der Goes PORTINARI ALTARPIECE (OPEN). c-1474-1476. Tempera and  oil on wood panel. 

HANS MEMLING  

The artist who seems to summarize and epitomize painting in Flanders during the second half of  the 15th century.  

Memling combines the intellectual depth and virtuoso rendering of his predecessors with a  delicacy of feeling and exquisite grace, a “prettiness” that made his extremely popular.  

(19-20) Hans Memling DIPTYCH OF MAARTEN VAN NIEUWENHOVE. 1487. Oil on  Wood.  

FRANCE  

• Flemish art- with its complex symbolism, visionary subjects, atmospheric space,  luminous colors, and sensuous surface textures- delighted wealthy patrons and well educated courtiers both inside and outside Flanders

• A “reserved detachment among figures” feature was the characteristic of French painting  in the 15th century.  

Jean Fouquet and Jean Hey  

Jean Fouquet (c.1425-1481) was the leading court artist of the 15th century France.  

Fouquet drew from contemporary Italian Classicism, especially in rendering architecture, and he  was also strongly influenced by Flemish illusionism.  

(19-21) Jean Fouquet ETIENNE CHEVALIER AND ST. STEPHEN, VIRGIN AND  CHILD. The Melun Diptych. c. 1452-1455. Oil on Oak Panel 

Jean Hey, The Master of Moulins

• Perhaps the greatest French follower of Jean Fouquet is an artist who for many years was  known as the master of Moulins after a large triptych he painted at the end of the 15th  century under the patronage of Duke Jean II of Bourbon, for the Burgundian cathedral of  Moulins.  

(19-22) Jean Hey PORTRAIT OF MARGARET OF AUSTRIA. c. 1490. Oil on wood panel  

• This charming portrait may have been one half of a devotional diptych.  • Margaret of Austria (1480-1498), daughter of Emperor Maximilian I, who had been  betrothed to the future French king Charles VIII at the age of 2 or and was being brought  to her father in 1493 after Charles decided to pursue another, more politically expedient  marriage.

FLAMBOYANT ARCHITECTURE

• The great age of cathedral building that had begun in the second half of the 12th century  was essentially over by the end of the 14th century- but growing urban populations  needed houses., city halls, guild halls and more parish churches.  

• It was in buildings such as these that late Gothic architecture took form in a style we call  “FLAMBOYANT” because of its repeated, twisted flamelike tracery patterns.  • The CHURCH OF SAINT-MALCOU in Rouen, was begun after a fund-raising  campaign after 1432 and dedicated in 1521 is an outstanding example of Flamboyant  Gothic.  

• Crockets – small, knobby, leaflike ornaments that line the steep gables and slender  buttresses.  

(19-23) Pierre Robin (?) CHURCH OF SANIT-MACLOU ROUEN. Normandy, France. West  Façade, 1432-1521 

• The house of Jacques Coeur, a wealthy merchant in Bourges, reflects the Flamboyant  style for secular architecture.  

(19-24A) PLAN OF JACQUES COEUR HOUSE. Bourges, France, 1443-1451.  

(19-24B) INTERIOR COURTYARD OF JACQUES COUER HOUSE. Bourges, France,  1443-1451.

THE GERMANIC LANDS

Painting and Sculpture

• Germanic 15th century painters worked in two different styles. Some clustered around  Cologne, continued the International Gothic Style with increased prettiness, softness and  sweetness of expression.  

• Other artists began an intense investigation and detailed description of the physical  world.  

• The major exponent of this style was Konrad Witz (active 1434-1446)  

(19-25) Konrad Witz MIRACULOUS DRAFT OF FISHES From an altarpiece of the  Cathedral of St. Peter. 1444. Oil on wood.  

(19-26) Michael Pacher ST. WOLFGANG ALTARPIECE Church of St. Wolfgang. Austria.  1471-1481. Carved, painted, and gilt wood; wings are oil on wood 

TECHNIQUE  

Woodcuts and Engravings on Metals.  

Woodcuts are made by drawing on the surface of the block of fine-grained wood, then cutting all  the area around the lines with a sharp tool called gouge, leaving lines on high relief.  

Engraving on metal requires a technique called intaglio, in which sharp lines are cut into the  plate with tool gravers or burins. The engraver then carefully polishes the plate to ensure clean,  sharp image.

Printing large numbers of identical prints of a single version, called edition, was usually a team  effort in a busy workshop.  

THE GRAPHIC ARTS

Printmaking emerged in Europe at the end of the 14th century with the development of  printmaking presses the increased local manufacture and wider availability of paper.  

The techniques used by printmakers during the 15th century were woodcut and engraving on  metals.  

The Buxheim St. Christopher  

Devotional images were sold as souvenirs to pilgrims at holy sites.  

The Buxheim St. Christopher was found in the Carthusian monastery of Buxheim, glued to  inside of back cover of a manuscript.  

(19-27) The Buxheim St. Christopher Mid 15th century. Hand-colored woodcut. 

MARTIN SCHONGAUER  

(19-28) Martin Schongauer THE TEMPTATIONS OF ST. ANTONY. c. 1470-1480.  Engraving

PRINTED BOOKS

The earliest printed books were block books.  

With fast way to make a number of identical books, the intellectual and spiritual life of Europe – and with the arts – changed forever.  

The Nuremburg Chronicle  

(19-29) Michael Wolgemut, Wilhelm Pleydenwurff, and workshop The City of Nuremburg.  Nuremburg Chronicle. Published by Anton Koburger in 1493. Woodcut within a printed book,  hand colored after printing, each page

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