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EMU / Chemistry / CHEM 121 / What are the classifications of the periodic table?

What are the classifications of the periodic table?

What are the classifications of the periodic table?

Description

School: Eastern Michigan University
Department: Chemistry
Course: General Chemistry 1
Term: Spring 2019
Tags: periodic table, Ionic Compound Formulas, nomenclature, and polyatomic ions
Cost: 25
Name: General Chemistry
Description: These notes cover week 3 of class. This includes the following: The Periodic Table, Predicting the Charge, Molecules, 3 Forms of Chemical Formulas, Ionic Compounds, Nomenclature, Polyatomic Ions, and Polyatomic Cations etc.
Uploaded: 01/28/2019
7 Pages 21 Views 5 Unlocks
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CHAPTER 2


What are the classifications of the periodic table?



Classifying the Periodic Table 

● Metals: conduct heat and electricity well

● Nonmetals: do not conduct heat and electricity well ● Metalloids: properties in between both metals and nonmetals

● Metalloids include the following:

Predict the charge based on Periodic Table 


How do you identify an ionic compound?



Don't forget about the age old question of What organization was the largest contributor to the first earth day?
If you want to learn more check out What is the role of people and organizations?

- Column - Charge

- 1A - 1 (+)

- 2A - 2 (+)

- 5A - 3 (-)

- 6A - 2 (-)

- 7A - 1 (-)

- 8A - “0”

Ex.

- 10 Ne 9 F 8O 11 Na - P (+): 10 - P(+): 9 - P(+): 8 - P(+): 11 - E (-): 10 - E(-): 9 - E(-): 8 - E(-): 11

Molecules 

Molecules: two or more atoms combined (bonded)

- Molecular compounds

- Generally both nonmetals

Diatomic Molecules: two atoms only

- Most simple molecules

- O2, HCl, NO etc.

Homonuclear: Both are the same (O2)

Heteronuclear: Different atoms (CO)


What is molecular compound?



● Homonuclear examples (the most stable forms):

○ N2, O2, F2, Cl2, Br2, I2, H2 Don't forget about the age old question of What is behavioral theory?

H- Hydrogen atom

H2 (g) - Hydrogen gas (dihydrogen)

O- Oxygen atom

O2 (g) - Oxygen gas (dioxygen)

O3 (g) - Ozone

Chemical Formulas: (3 Forms) 

1. Empirical Formula (simple) 

a. Gives atoms + smallest ratio (could be: C2H4, C3H6, C4H8, etc. b. Ex. CH2 one C : two H

2. Molecular Formula 

a. Atoms & how many of each

b. Ex. C2H4 [emp: CH2]

3. Structural Formula 

a. Atoms that are present, how many, and how are they attached. b. Ex.

Convert to Empirical Formula 

● H2O2 → HO

● C2H6 → CH3

● CO2 → CO2

○ It is possible for the conversion to be the same formula as the original.

Ionic Compounds 

● Have ions that are combined

○ M+ (positive) charge = cations - generally metals If you want to learn more check out What is performed to achieve behavior modification?

○ X- (negative) charge = anions - generally non metals

● Formula Unit 

○ How many of each ion are present?

○ Ex.

■ 39 K → 39 K +

18 19

P+: 19 P+: 19

E-: 19 E-: 18

N: 20 N: 20

- In order for the charge to be positive there has to be one less electron.

Figure 2.17 

● Common charges (cation + anion)

● Many have > 1 charge

○ Generally metal

○ Ex. Cu +1 Cu+2

■ Look at page 56 under ionic/molecular compounds

Section 2.7 Naming (Nomenclature) 

● Molecular compounds 

○ No charges to figure out how many there are of each.

● Greek prefixes 

1. Mono

2. Di

3. Tri

4. Tetra

5. Penta

6. Hexa

7. Hepta

8. Octa

9. Nona

10. Deca If you want to learn more check out What is the dilution effect?
We also discuss several other topics like Explain the difference between health and wellness.

● Ex.

○ CO2 Carbon dioxide

○ CO Carbon monoxide

○ H2O Dihydrogen oxide

○ PCl3 Phosphorus trichloride

○ PCl5 Phosphorus pentachloride

○ N2O4 Dinitrogen tetraoxide (properly name tetroxide - drop the a) ○ HCl (g) Hydrogen chloride

○ HCl (aq) Hydrochloric acid

■ (aq) - H2O solution “aqueous”

Ionic Compounds 

● Cation and anion

● Metal cation name is the same as the elemental name

○ Ex. Na (Sodium metal) & Na+ (Sodium ion)

● Anion 

○ Name ending changes to “ide”

○ Ex. O (Oxygen atom) & O2- (Oxide Ion)

○ Ex. F- (Fluoride) & H- (Hydride)

● Multiple elements with overall charge = polyatomic anions (cations)

- NaCl

- Metal and Nonmetal (Na+ & Cl-)

- Ionic

- Sodium chloride

- BaCl2

- Metal and Nonmetal (Ba^2+ & 2Cl-)

- Ionic

- Barium chloride

- MgO

- Mg^2+ & O^2-

- Metal and Nonmetal

- Magnesium Oxide

- Name ionic compound made from Mg & N

- Mg^2+ N^3-

- 3Mg^2+ 2N^3-

= Mg3N2 → Magnesium nitride

Polyatomic Ions (Table 2.3) 

● CN- Cyanide

● CO3 ^ 2- Carbonate

● SO4 ^2- Sulfate

● PC4 ^3- Phosphate

● NO3- Nitrate

● OH- Hydroxide

● O2 ^2- Peroxide

● N3- Azide (not N^3- nitride)

● N ^ 3- Nitrate

● NO2- Nitrite

● ClO3- Chlorate

● ClO2- Chlorite

● ClO- Hypochlorite

● ClO4- Perchlorate

Polyatomic Cations 

2+

- Hg 2 Mercury I

- NH 4+ Ammonium Ion

- H+ + CO3^2- HCO3^- Hydrogen carbonate (old carbonate) - H+ + PO4^3- HPO4 ^2- Hydrogen phosphate

- 2H+ + PO4^3- H2PO4^- Dihydrogen phosphate

- Also:

- CrO4^2- Chromate

- Cr2O7^2- Dichromate

- Some solid salts (ionic compounds) take in H2O

- Use the name hydrate at the end to show the H2O and how many prefixes. - Ex. name BaBr2 x 2H2O

- Ba^2+ Barium bromide dihydrate

CHAPTER 3 (Chemical Reactions)

3.1 Chemical Equation 

- Ex. 2H2(g) + O2(g) → 2H2O (L)

- Reactants - Products

- Starting materials - What’s produced

- CH4(g) + 2O2(g) → CO2(g) + 2H2O(g) (unbalanced)

- Count atoms - need a large number

- 1 mol = 6.022 x 10^23

- Ex. 1 mol of A = 6.022 x 10^23 atoms

Avogadro's Number 

- 1 mol of H2O molecules have 6.022 x 10^23 H2O molecules

- 1 mol of CO3^2- ions is 6.022 x 10^23 CO3^2- ions

- Ex. 0.45 mol NA atoms is how many Na atoms?

- 1 mol NA atoms = 6.022 x 10^23 NA atoms

Molar mass - mass for 1 mol of a substance

Molecular mass - mass of one molecule

- Ass mass of atoms (amu) ← weighted average mass

Mass one CO2 molecule: mass C = 2 mass “O”

- 12.011 amu + 2(15.9994 amu) always 2 decimal places

= 44.01 amu

Mol scale all same just amu → g - 1 mol CO2 = 44.01g CO2

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