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UNT - GEOG 1710 - PSCI 2305 - Week 1 - Class Notes

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UNT - GEOG 1710 - PSCI 2305 - Week 1 - Class Notes

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Review Questions:  
 
● What Do Political Scientists Do?  
● Hypothesis, Theory, Method 
● Inference 
● Power vs. Authority 
● Define Public Policy 
● What is a democracy?  
- 3 characteristics of a democracy    
 
BIG QUESTIONS FOR THIS WEEK 
 
● What is this class about?   - Power, who yields it when & how.  
 
●  What is a democracy?   - Ruled by the people     ● Influences on the Founding and the Framers  - The founding fathers and the constitution  
 
● What is an institution?  
-
A set of rules and roles (ex. Marriage, handshakes, slavery, segregation)    
 
   
 
 
 
 
 
 
What is Political Science? 
- The empirical study of the political world; the study of what  is ​, not what it should  be.    
background image What Do Political Scientists Do?  - Describe, classify and explain events relating to the political world  - Try to draw inference from what we see to what we do 
↓ 
How is This Done?  - Develop and test hypotheses based on theory   
Hypothesis-
  a relational statement   between two or more variables that is theoretically  plausible and  empirically verifiable.  ( a statement that connects 2 or more things/  when they are related).     (Can be tested repeatedly with same outcome, can be  proven with numbers, emotions.  Based off of 5 senses). (Ex. If X then Y, if X 
increases, Y increases, can be experienced).  
 
What is a Theory? 
- Explanations for how the world works based on experience and observation.    
So...where’s the Science?  
- What makes this process scientific?  1. The goal is inference 
2. The procedures are public 
3. The conclusions are uncertain 
4. The content is the method 
 
Inference: 
Making statements about what we do not see from what we do not see from  what we do see.  - Or making statements about what we could not know from what we do know.    
 
Two Types of Inference
​:   ● Descriptive Inference   -  What, Who, Where, When 
- Help us identify and organize what we know.  
● Causal Inference  - How and why  - Explain how and why things work the way they do  METHODS: 
What methods/tools do Political Scientists use?  
 
1. Experimental 
background image 2. Quantitative evidence (mostly statistics)   The collection and organization of evidence (data) using particular facts (or  often cases).   3. Qualitative evidence                 The collection and organization of evidence (data) using numbers and 
statistics).  
  - These tools allow us to detect relationships too small for us to notice based on 
simple observation.  
 
 
Summary: 
Where’s the Science?   -  Most of what we do is about systematically drawing inferences about how the 
political world operates.  
 
Power vs. Authority:  
 
Power: 
​the ability to influence somebody to do something that he/she would not have  done.  
 
Authority: 
​a claim of legitimacy, the justification and right to exercise ​power.     ● This class is about power  - Who (attempts) to exercise power  - How it is exercised in American government  
 
 
Public Policy:  
● Policy:  ​A choice government makes in response to a public concern   ● In American democracy, people express policy concerns  - Through  ​linkage​ institutions (parties, media, etc.)   institution that links us to the government     
   - Taken action on by policymaking institutions ( Congress, president, 
bureaucracy, courts)   
Democracy:   - What is democracy?    rule by the people    
background image - What makes a country democratic?  
 
 American Democracy:   - Participation   - Equality:   ● Procedural equality: should be equal for all (how things  work for you).     ● Substantive equality: (the things you get; people having  equal resources)  ● Majority Rule: (if 50%+ of people agree, it goes)      Thinking about politics:   ● Politics can be viewed in terms of power: 
-
Coercive = force  - Enabling = based on cooperation  
 
 
 
● Government   - Direct Democracy vs. Indirect Democracy   - Republican Form of Government   
 
THE FOUNDING OF CONGRESS 
 
● Liberal Democracy:   - Rooted in the 17th century Enlightenment   - Modern/western democracy with representative government, 
constitutional freedoms and liberties.  
  ● Turn away from the Reformation 
-
The world could be improved through reason, science, and religious 
tolerance  
 
 
HOBBES & LOCKE:  
● Hobbes (State of Nature - we need government )   - “Without government , man lived in a “state of nature”  

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School: University of North Texas
Department: Geography
Course: Earth Science
Professor: Kenneth Iles
Term: Spring 2019
Tags: political science, USGOV, and American Government
Name: PSCI 2305 - Week 1
Description: These notes cover the first unit of Political Science 2305
Uploaded: 01/28/2019
16 Pages 54 Views 43 Unlocks
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