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TEXAS A&M / OTHER / POLS / A system where powers are shared by the state and the national governm

A system where powers are shared by the state and the national governm

A system where powers are shared by the state and the national governm


School: Texas A&M University
Department: OTHER
Course: State and Local Government
Term: Spring 2019
Tags: pols, stateandlocal, POLS1010, Studyguide, and TexasA&MUniversity
Cost: 50
Name: POLS Study Guide for Exam 1
Description: This includes chapter 2,3,4 which are going to be on Exam 1
Uploaded: 01/29/2019
15 Pages 4 Views 6 Unlocks

giselle (Rating: )

POLS State and Local Government Study Guide for Exam 1

A system where powers are shared by the state and the national government.

● Federal System & Background 

● Federal System: A system where powers are shared by the state and the national 


● Federalism: The state and the national government have powers delegated to both as well as  share powers together

● Background information before Federalism 

­ Prior to federalism, the Confederal System was in place. 

­ Confederal System → Each state has its own money and way of  

regulating congress, this was under the Articles of Confederation  

­ Articles of Confederation → a set of laws that created a weak  

central government and did not have enough power to rule and

control the people. Shay’s Rebellion proved this true.  

­ Annapolis Convention → The meeting was held in 1786 in order to  

revise the articles of confederation which led to the convention  

Who is David Whitley?

If you want to learn more check out What is federalism and how does it work?

­ Constitutional Convention → in 1787 the state representatives got  

together and tried to create a form of government with the 3  

branches (Legislative, Executive, and Judicial) which happen to be the  

first 3 articles of the constitution.  

­ Upon drafting the constitution, there was dispute of federalists’ vs 

antifederalists which competed because of the anti­federalist desire to put a 

bill of rights in the constitution before it was official. The federalist newspapers 

were trying to convince the people to vote for the new constitution which 

required 2/3rds of the states to approve the act.

This is a table of the way that powers in the United States government are laid out to states in the US  and federal government. This also is a representation of how our government runs today under the  constitution, the supreme document of the land. 

What are the ballot types used in general elections?



Expressed/ Don't forget about the age old question of How is deterrence different from defense?



Implied Powers 

Inherent Powers 





Def: Powers

given to the


Government by the constitution

Powers that are directly stated in the constitution

that express

powers given to

Powers that are

essentially up for interpretation in the constitution,

meaning they're not

Powers that are

delegated to

congress and the president mostly for national

Powers that are reserved to the states 



Powers shared by the national and state


POLS State and Local Government Study Guide for Exam 1

under the

Necessary and Proper Clause, also known as

the Elastic


the states but

usually the



directly expressed but implied that the national If you want to learn more check out What is Aspirin?

government has an indirect authority

emergencies but

can bypass


agreement for the betterment of the

current situation in question

backed it up) 

Ex: Article 1

Section 8

Necessary &

Proper Clause

Ex. Article 1

Section 8 that



expressed powers

Ex: Coining money,  declaring war, 

adding states etc.  and Necessary and  Proper Clause

Ex: Article 2 Section 1

Martial Law,


decrees, executive orders

Ex: elections,



providing a

local/state gov, police powers, public health

and safety.

(Federalist 32) borrowing

money, taxes,

enforce/ make laws)

● McCulloh vs Maryland → Court case about how

McColloch (owner of the 2nd bank) refused to Don't forget about the age old question of What is amicus curiae?

pay taxes (as the bank) to the state of

Maryland and the Chief Justice John Marshall

disagreed → defined the Necessary and Proper

Clause as well as highlighted implied powers

that congress had to regulate interstate

commerce and banks.

→ Article 6: Clause 1: Debt that existed before

the constitution, is still valid after the

constitution. Clause 2: The government may do anything it deems necessary and  proper in order to uphold the constitution and the land. Clause 3: All judges and  

government officials swear oath to the country, constitution, and loyalty to its laws. Don't forget about the age old question of Phytochemicals

● Types of Federalism  

­ Dual Federalism → The state and national government have separate powers,

each executing its own portion of power onto the people without cooperation

with each other

­ Cooperative Federalism → the state and national government have powers  

together and the line between where power stops being invested in the  

states and starts in the national government is hazy  

● Redefining Federalism 

­ 1798 The Alien and Sedition Acts

POLS State and Local Government Study Guide for Exam 1

­ Alien Friends Act → president can deport / imprison non-citizens  deemed dangerous  

­ Alien Enemy Act → president can deport / imprison non-citizens from  hostile nations

­ Naturalization Act → made it harder to become a naturalized citizen ­ Sedition Act → False statements against the government was now  illegal  

● Jefferson and Madison Respond   

­ Kentucky and Virginia Resolution → deemed the alien and sedition acts a  violation of parts of the constitution  

­ Madison and Jefferson took different sides as individuals though  If you want to learn more check out What are the four types of law?

­ Madison → Interposition (states interpose itself between the  

national government to object a law)  

­ Jefferson → Nullification (states can invalidate federal laws)  

­ John C Calhoun 

­ Strong states’ rights defender 

­ Defended slavery and the theory of state nullification (Which we saw in 1830s  with South Carolina and the Nullification Crisis) 

­ Pushing for a concurrent majority (unanimous opinion or forced to start over) 

● States’ Rights Vs Civil Rights  

­ Plessy Vs Ferguson → Plessy was fighting the unconstitutional laws in place  that did not allow whites and black to be in the same train, this is when he  sat on the whites only train and was convicted. He lost the case and was  convicted as the supreme court then ruled for the Separate but Equal  doctrine.

­ Sweatt vs Painter → Sweatt was applying for law school in Texas and was  denied because he was an African American

­ Brown vs Board of Education → undid separate but equal in Plessy vs  Ferguson  

● Cooperative Federalism and Federal Aid  

­ Federal Aid 

­ Categorical Grants → telling the state exactly what to do with the  grant and the state has no say in how the grant in spent in the state.

POLS State and Local Government Study Guide for Exam 1

­ Block Grants → state has the most control over how to spend the  government money given to them.

● Federal Government and Coercive Federalism  

­ Preemption Laws 

­ “Occupied Fields” → states cannot encroach upon the governments  occupied fields which are enumerated items that the government  

already has authority to do  

­ Article 2 Sec. 2: Supremacy Clause 

­ Unfunded Mandates → federal government tells states to do something in  the state but does not fund them  

● Incorporation Doctrine & 14th Amendment  

­ 14th (1868)   of the Civil War Reconstruction Documents  ⅓

­ “All persons born or naturalized in the United States, and subject to the jurisdiction thereof, are  citizens of the United States and of the state wherein they reside. No state shall make or enforce any law which shall abridge the privileges or immunities of citizens of the United States; nor  shall any state deprive any person of life, liberty, or property, without due process of law; nor  deny to any person within its jurisdiction the equal protection of the laws.”

­ The Incorporation Doctrine → is a constitutional doctrine that states that the Bill of  Rights are applied to the states through Due Process and 14th Amendment. (Prior to  this, the BOR was only applicable to the Federal Gov. and Fed. court cases) 

­ Selective Incorporation → SCOTUS incorporates certain parts of certain amendments,  rather than incorporating the entire amendment (e.g. the 9th and 10th amendment is not fully there, plus SCOTUS rarely relies upon the 9th amendment to settle cases, this avoids a lot  of problems when dealing with court cases)

● Article IV: Full Faith and Credit & Privileges and Immunities 

­ Section 1: “Full Faith and Credit shall be given in each State to the public Acts, Records, and  judicial Proceedings of every other State. And the Congress may by general Laws prescribe the  Manner in which such Acts, Records and Proceedings shall be proved, and the Effect thereof.”  

­ Section 2: “The Citizens of each State shall be entitled to all Privileges and Immunities of  Citizens in the several States.”

­ These clauses protect the rights of recognizing other states laws in other states (e.g. same sex  marriage laws decided by the states (like having a significant other as the same sex and then  going to another state that pronounces that as illegal to do in their state, the couple has their 

POLS State and Local Government Study Guide for Exam 1

rights protected because the state must recognize that they are not from the state they are in  now.) 

● Origins of the Constitution  

­ Originally, Texas used to be a part of Mexico, so a lot of values from Mexico and the US when  Texas became a state, clashed.  

­ Catholicism vs Protestantism  

­ Mexico was mostly catholic whereas the US had deviated away and adopted a lot of  Protestantism with new immigrants coming in  

­ Clergy were not allowed to hold office in Mexico  

­ Anti­Slavery vs Slavery  

­ Texas (being part of the confederacy) was very for slavery whereas Mexico was anti slavery (at least against blacks) 

­ Texas denied freedom rights for slaves (unless the legislature approved)  

­ Texas also denied citizenship to slaves and Native Americans (a reminder that this is  prior to the Civil War and prior to the creation of a constitution) 

­ Powerful Executive vs Weak Executive  

­ 3­year term and no consecutive terms 

­ Mexico had a very powerful executive who abused his power more than used it for  good, so Texas tried to avoid that by making a weak executive for the state to run  

smoothly and be less corrupt.   

­ Important figures arose  

­ Sam Houston (union supporter, opposed to the confederacy, eventually becomes  governor of Texas) 

­ Mirabeau B Lamar (strong education advocate, eventually vice president of Texas,  didn't like native Americans)  

­ Margaret Borland (led a cattle drive across Texas to Wichita Kansas and was a driven  rancher for much of her adulthood)  

● Forces that shaped each Texas constitution (Pre­Civil War and Reconstruction)  ­ The Republic of Texas 

­ First Constitution for Texas 

­ Was based on the US Constitution and the Constitution of Tennessee.

POLS State and Local Government Study Guide for Exam 1

­ Sam Houston → led troops to the Alamo and lost against Mexican forces, later ambushed Mexican troops at San Jacinto and won, officially declaring Texas  as part of the US and not Mexico.  

­ Remaining citizens elected Sam Houston to be the governor of Texas  

­ Constitution of 1845  

­ Sam Houston pushes for Texas to enter the Union → Texas joins the Union ­ Biennial Legislature 

­ The Executive Branch is no longer appointed 

­ Limited the debt states could have 

­ Constitution of 1861 

­ Texas becomes part of the Confederacy and more complications arose with Mexico  (This is also around the same time that the Civil War started)  

● Forces that shaped each Texas Constitution (Post Civil War & Midst Reconstruction) ­ Year and Constitution of 1866 (Around the same time that Abraham Lincoln was assassinated)  ­ Nullified secession 

­ Abolished slavery  

­ Renounced confederate war debt   

­ Year and Constitution of 1869 

­ Centralized power in governor 

­ Banned confederates from voting 

­ Year and Constitution of 1875 (A year before Rutherford B Hayes election year)  

­ The Grangers Movement → A movement started by Oliver Hudson Kelley  because of US grain farmers being charged obnoxious prices to transport  

their crop and grain across the US due to railroad monopolies getting  

economically out of hand.  

­ Limited the power of executive as much as possible 

● The Texas Bill of Rights adds protections the US Constitution does not ­ Forbade discrimination based on sex 

­ Victims’ rights 

­ Public beach access

­ Forbids imprisonment from debt 

­ Giving the mentally ill a chance for a proper jury trial 

­ NO monopolies (The Granger movement succeeded)

­ Outlaws suspension of writ of habeas corpus (in US Constitution it is overridden if there is a  national event) 

­ Protects homesteads

POLS State and Local Government Study Guide for Exam 1

­ Prohibits garnishment of wages (except if owed child support)

● Separation of Powers  

­ Theory 

­ Legislative, Executive, Judicial in different bodies 

­ Article 2

­ Prevents the concentration of power in to one institution (this is what they were trying to  accomplish when Texas made the executive weak) 

­  Practice

­ Legislative (Bicameral) → makes laws that define crime, civil lawsuits, taxes,  setup for government agencies  

­ Executive (Governor) → Carries out laws, arrest criminals, collect state taxes,  public services, handling government employment











POLS State and Local Government Study Guide for Exam 1












Overr di

es Ve ot

wi ht

Vetoes Bills

el g si

al t vi e app



Checks and Balances & Separation of Powers

­ Creation and passing of Bi

­sets u


POLS State and Local Government Study Guide for Exam 1 ● Texas Legislative Branch

Texas Government Positions

POLS State and Local Government Study Guide for Exam 1


(plural ex

Governor, Attorney General, Controller of Public Accounts, C

Lieutenant Governor,


House of Representatives & SenateT

­ Biennial Legislature (140­day sessions/ special sessions are 30 days) 

­ Bicameral Legislature 

­ Senate

­ 31 people

­ 4­year terms 

­ Citizen of the US (26 years old)

­ Residing in the state for 5 years and district 1 year 

­ House of Representatives 

­ 150 people 

­ 2­year terms from single member district 

­ Citizen of the US (21 years old)

­ Resided in the state for 2 years and District for 1

­ Part Time Legislature

­ $7200/year 

­ 190/diem 

● Texas Executive Branch  

­ Plural Executive → executive powers divided among several independent  officers and a weak chief executive  

­ Governor

POLS State and Local Government Study Guide for Exam 1

­ Serves unlimited 4­year terms 

­ 5­year state resident 

­ 30 years old

­ Other agencies are appointed by the governor

­ 6­year staggered terms

­ ⅔ support from senators to appoint (and to fire) 

­ Board appoints director 

­ Cannot remove people appointed by previous governor 

● Texas Judicial Branch (Article 5)  

­ 2 Courts of final appeal 

­ Texas Supreme Court 

­ Texas Court of Criminal Appeals

­ Under courts of final appeal 

­ Court of Appeals 

­ District Court 

­ County Courts

­ Justice of Peace

­ County judges and justices do not need to be lawyers 

● State Election Process 

­ Voter registration 

­ Primary elections → first round of elections with the candidates chosen by  both parties ran by the parties  

­ Majority rule → more than ½ (<50%)  

­ Runoff primary → if no one wins the majority, this is how they break  the tie

­ General Elections 

­ Plurality rule → the most voting percentage (higher percentage than all  other candidates despite its number

● Voting Requirements → 18 years or older, registered to vote, US citizens,  resident of the state, complete sentence if you’re a felon, a proper Texas  ID (driver’s license, gun license, military ID, proof of citizenship,  passport)  

­ Restrictions that used to be in place that restricted voting 

­ Poll taxes

­ Gender restriction (males only) & Race restriction (White primaries and racist  towards African Americans)

­ Military weren't allowed to vote

­ Longer residency requirement in the SMD

­ Property ownership to vote in bond elections

POLS State and Local Government Study Guide for Exam 1

­ Annual registration deadlines

­ Jury duty participation

­ These Amendments helped develop the voting process the way it is today:  ­ 15th Amendment → eliminated discrimination of race based on color,  race, or ethnicity.

­ 19th Amendment→ allowed women to participate in voting  

­ 24th Amendment → abolished poll taxes

­ 26 Amendment → made the legal age to vote 18  

­ Voting Trend Explanations  

­ (Education) Better educated people → vote most (older and tend to  vote republican)

­ (Income) Higher income people tend to vote more 

­ (Age) Ties back with education, those with a higher education tend to vote more ­ Political Efficacy → The belief that people have actual influence in  their government’s actions.  

● Participation in Politics 

­ Things people can do to be active in their government and politics  

­ Voting, letters to lawmakers, protesting, volunteering on campaign, discussion  on politics, and social media influence.

● The Primary

­ Direct Primary:  a method of selecting nominees from a political party where party  members elect candidates who represent them in general election 

­ Candidates must have more than 20% or more to participate in general elections ­ Less: list 1% of total votes in the last gubernatorial general election 

­ Filing fee: 5k Signatures and 2% of votes cast in last election for the candidate’s party in governor’s race (>500)


­ Country Chair and Executive Committee: Republican Adrienne Pena and Democrat  Norma Ramirez 

­ Determine the order of names on the ballot

­ Certify the ballot, select election judges, voting devices, voting places, and  printing, canvass the votes to certify results

POLS State and Local Government Study Guide for Exam 1

Primaries General Elections

Voters can participate in their respective districts 

Held in November 

Held in March 

Requires a plurality of vote to move on

20% or more votes to participate in elections

Held every 2 years

Open, closed, or nonpartisan primary is held

After if needed is a runoff election

Administered by County Chair and Executive Committee

Varies per state when they are held

● Special Elections

­ Used to ratify constitutional amendments or to fill a vacancy 

Presidential and midterm elections 2nd Tuesday after 1st Monday in NoveAll voters

­ Non­partisan elections so no primary and majority vote is required 

● Texas Secretary of State

­ David Whitley

­ State's chief election officer 

­ Interprets legislation

­ Issues guidelines

­ Disbursing funds to state and county executive committees to pay for primary  elections (from filing fees and taxes)

­ Keep election records 

­ Prepare ballots for statewide offices

­ 3­member board participation the canvass election returns

Option 1

Option 2

Option 3

POLS State and Local Government Study Guide for Exam 1

Clerk (elected) 

Certify and create the ballot with the secretary of state  Board of Elections & Arrange Polling Places (elected) County judge 



Chair of democratic and republican parties 

Tax Assessor Collector (elected) 

Processes all voter apps

Updates voting roles 

County Commissioners (elected) 

Draws precinct voting lines 

Appoints election judges 

Selects voting devices 

Canvassed votes 

Authorizes payments of all election expenses

County Clerk does its’ job and the job of the  Tax Assessor

­ Create and certify candidates 

­ Process voter application 

(Everything else from Option 1 still holds true) 

● Ballot Types Used in General Elections

­ Office Block Ballot → offices are listed across the top of the ballot  ­ Party Column Ballot → candidates from each party are listed in parallel  columns (will be abolished after 2020 to promote research on candidates  instead of “blind voting”.)  

● Election Campaigns in Texas 

­ Primary Voters vs General Voters 

­ General Elections

­ Party ID

­ Incumbency (someone/position who is currently in office) 

­ Mobilizing Voters (shuttling people to voting stations to promote voting)

● Money in Texas Politics

­ Governor's Race

­ 75.8$ G.B

­ 1.68$ L.V

­ Texas State Senate

­ $500K ­ $1M

­ Texas House 

­ $100K­200K

● Texas Campaigning and Funding Rules

­ NO LIMITS on the amount of money raised 

­ Candidates may NOT raise or spend money until an official campaign treasurer is  appointed 

All positithe peopelectionCounty tax colleAll appoi

POLS State and Local Government Study Guide for Exam 1

­ Candidates and PACs may not accept cash of more than $100 but infinite in checks is  approved. 

­ (Political Action Committees: raising money to spend independently of the  campaign) 

­ Direct contributions from unions or corporations are forbidden 

­ Candidates ad treasurers are required to file all contributions

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