An important feature of cognitive psychology is that it is evidencebased. For this reason, I have discussed some experimental evidence in each lecture. You should expect a fair number of lecture questions based on these experiments. In particular, you should pay close attention to the following studies and know what the researchers did, what they found, and what those results mean.
1. Roediger & Karpicke’s (2006) original testing effect study (01/17 lecture) a. Evaluated the success of 2 different types of study methods; study → study & study → test
b. Timing of final test: 5min, 2 days, or 1 week later
c. Study → test Was better for longterm retention (exams)
2. Karpicke & Blunt’s (2011) testing vs. concept maps study (01/17 lecture) a. Is creating maps more effective long term than testing?
Don't forget about the age old question of What is ethnocentric fallacy?
b. Four groups: Study, Repeated Study, Concept Maps, Testing
c. Most Confident: Repeated Study Group Least Confident: Testing Group d. Most Successful: Testing Group (Both verbatim and inference questions) 3. Levels of processing study, illustrated by an inclass demo (01/22 lecture) a. Retention Depends on the kind of processing you do during encoding. Deeper Processing during encoding = Better later recall. Focus on meaning. Deep > Active > Elaborative If you want to learn more check out What were the problems under the article of confederation?
b. Deep understanding and focuses on meaning and understanding i. Retention depends on the kind of processing you do while
encoding. Understanding the semantics and meaning of the content rather than focusing on visual or auditory information provided.
c. Active, personal engagement with a clear purpose.
i. The generation effect: What you generated on your own is
remembered better than what you read or hear.
ii. The idea you ‘create’ is processed better. However, make sure you generate something that is accurate
d. Elaborative, establishing new connections. Linking concepts or adding to previously existing knowledge
i. Promotes deeper/active processing and facilitates later retrieval. ii. Elaborative Rehearsal:
iii. Ex. Connecting two words through imagery or creating
4. A series of studies demonstrating experimental (causal) evidence about the negative effect of media multitasking (Hembrooke & Gay, 2003; Sana, Weston, & Cepeda, 2013) (01/22 lecture)
a. Evaluated the effects of leaving the laptop open & closed as well as multitasking habits during the encoding process
b. Found that having an electronic device open and multitasking not only negatively affect the person doing it, but the people surrounding who can Don't forget about the age old question of What does emic perspective mean?
We also discuss several other topics like How does one compute for heats of rxn (enthalpy)?
c. “Attentional Residue”: your brain continues to process the information even if you stop.
5. Statedependent learning studies: Diver study and alcohol study (01/22 lecture) a. The state they learn things in effects the success rate of retrieval. This includes mood, area (visuals and noise), intoxication ect.
b. Ex. If you encode while you are sober, you are more successful at recalling sober. Vs. if you study intoxicated you will be more successful recalling the information intoxicated.
c. Don't forget about the age old question of What is the composition of atoms?
6. Hellas et al.’s (2018) study about students’ estimation of exam grades (01/24 lecture)
a. Examined peoples’ understanding of their learning and comprehension
7. Mueller and Oppenheimer’s (2014) notetaking experiments (01/24 lecture) a. Pen and Paper is the most effective form of note taking If you want to learn more check out How may atoms do monatomic elements have?
i. Showing benefits for conceptual (rather than factual) questions
ii. Writing fewer words → but more attentive to what is being written → Deeper and active encoding for important
b. Whereas typing notes leads to copying lecture notes verbatim
You should focus on understanding each article’s main points
1. What you can do or should avoid to maximizing your learning (Optimizing Learning in College):
i. Study a little bit every day (Spaced Studying) helps to
ii. Quiz myself: Test what I know and don’t know
iii. Be organized/Prepare for the upcoming class
i. Use technology during class
ii. Multitask: Put all of your focus on what your learning to get the
most out of it
iii. Read/reread content mindlessly
2. Effective or ineffective ways to implement commonly used study strategies (Five Popular Study Strategies).
rereading is not enough
Spacing out the time you reread the chapter
efficiently (Spaced Reading)
- If immediate
testing is coming (massed reading) -Inference
and short answer
little or non
- Marking must be taught
remember marked words
marking until after an initial read
allows the learner to use the first
read to identify the
- Multiple-choice tests, Free recall, short
answer, fill in the blank, and essay questions
- Factual but not applicational Tests
key points to be marked, thus
eliciting active, elaborative
processing of the text.
- Not good for audio and visual presentation of Content;
movement may be interfering with
-Useful of later review - potentially
- Taking note by hand enhances performance on the final conceptual test
- Those who type are more likely to recall critical topics, making them better for exams
- Greater quantity of notes benefits; - learners are engaging in generative
processing of the material
(a) summarize, (b) paraphrase (c) outlining
outlines (unless there is prior
understanding on how)
beforehand helps with
organization of the text (saving time) - skeletal outlines (given with headers to fill out info)
learners to engage in active learning through
identification and structured
organization of key information
- Comprehension - Factual and
- ‘dropping’ cards
too early; we
believed they are
Repeated practice in recalling answers Spaced studying Don’t drop
- Exam Scores
- Recollection of
learned but they are
metacognition& gain additional practice)
- More difficult to implement
other than vocabulary and answerable
questions - not used for critical thinking
- Mixing flashcards for different topics unless category and math learning
retention. Although a good deal of
evidence suggests that mixing is
- Factual but not applicational Tests
3. Use the summary table in each article effectively for your reviewing of these assigned readings.
a. Table 1 on p. 658 for the Optimizing Learning article:
b. Table 2 on p. 400 for the Five Strategies article
Introspection: “looking within,” to observe and record the content of our own mental lives and the sequence of our own experiences. How we are doing on the inside.
Behaviorist: Believe that our responses to environmental stimuli shape our actions.
Transcendental method: Begin with the observable facts and then work backward from these observations. In essence, you ask: How could these observations have come about? What must be the underlying causes that led to these effects? We use this to study objects or events that can’t be observed directly
- Ex. Never seen an electron, but we know a great deal about it from things it is related to
Cognitive neuroscience: The effort towards understanding humans’ mental function through close study of the brain and nervous system
Clinical Nueropsychology: The study of brain function that uses, as its main data source, cases in which damage or illness has disrupted the working of some brain structure.
Textbook Test Yourself Questions
1. What aspects of H.M’s life were disrupted as a result of amnesia? a. Amnesia = memory problems where the person cannot create new memories
b. With no memory development, he lost the ability to live with bad and good news and adjust to it. He had no recollection of
whether the time had passed or not.
2. Why is introspection limited as a source of scientific evidence? a. There are thoughts that are unconscious and untold - limiting research
b. There is no way to ‘test’ these interceptions, making it difficult to separate truth from lies and correct from incorrect.
c. Ex. “My headaches are worse than yours.” How can we prove this?? We can’t give the other person my headache or vice versa 3. Why do modern psychologists agree that we have to refer to mental states (what you believe, what you perceive, what you understand) in order to explain behavior?
a. Because we are not only focusing on a physical stimulus. In order for us to understand people’s motivations and understandings, they must have a sort of background knowledge.
b. Ex. Your friend says “Pass the Salt” and you do so easily, knowing what they want. However, another person may not
understand the phrase because they don’t have a background in such habits. It is not a physical stimulus having us pass the salt, it’s the understanding that someone else needs it and we are sitting closest.
4. Describe at least one historical development that laid the groundwork for the cognitive revolution
a. (1) Structuralism: Study conscious mental events to uncover the structure of the mind developed by Wudnt
i. Rely on introspection as the (flawed) method
1. Too subjective; only about conscious processes.
Leads to inaccurate observations
b. (2) Behaviorism: Focused on objectively observable behaviors and stimuli
i. Lead to discoveries of conditioning. Wanted to focus on mental processing
ii. A complete ban on mentalistic notions (beliefs, goals, expectations)
iii. Focus on the relationship between stimulation and behavior
c. (3) Cognitive psych: Studying mental processes to understand the behavior
i. Open for the possibility to look at the mind objectively and scientifically
5. Describe at least three types of evidence that cognitive psychologists routinely rely on.
a. Response Time: How long someone needs to make a particular response
b. Observations of the Brain and nervous system: the Chemical release of the body can help determine what we are experiencing c. Neuroimaging Techniques: Allow us to view the structure of the brain and what parts are activated to what stimuli
6. Some critics of Darwin’s theory of evolution via natural selection argue this way: “Darwin’s claims can never be tested because of course, no one was around to observe directly the processes of evolution that Darwin proposed.” Why is this assertion misguided, resting on a false notion of how science proceeds?
a. It is not necessary that we need to witness a scientific phenomenon to make it correct. Science is proved by other facts that cannot be literally ‘shown’, however, evidence can stack up and lead to one idea.
b. This is where the “Transcendental Method” is very useful. Working backward with the data presented can provide a conclusion that isn’t before our eyes