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University of Memphis - ESCI 1010 - ESCI 1010 Week 1 Notes - Class

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background image Week One Notes
Science of Geography
Geography= from geo “earth” and graphed “to write”
•studies relationships among natural 
systems, geographic areas, society, cultural activities &
their dependence on one another over 
physical space.
Scientific Method
Hypothesis
: tentative answer/explanation to a question/problem (must be testable + falsified)
Theory
: concept that has been highly tested and is in all likelihood true
Latitude
Angular distance north or south of the equator as measured from the center of the 
Earth
Parallel lines running west­east (parallels)
Longitude
angular distance east or west of a point on Earth’s surface measured from the 
center of the Earth
lines run north­south (meridians)
Meridian designated as 0 degrees is prime meridian
24 hour Clock
Midnight = 0000
4 AM = 0400
1 PM = 1300
5:30 PM = 1730
11:59 PM = 2359
Universal Time
Also known as:
Coordinated Universal Time (UTC)
Greenwich Mean Time (GMT)
Zulu Time (Z)
CST = Z
background image ­ 6 hours
CDT = Z ­ 5 hours
Maps
Cartography:
 science and art of map making, often blending
geography, engineering, 
mathematics, computer
science and art 
Representative fraction: ratio of map distance to real life distance
Smaller scale=less detail
large scale=more detail
Map Projection
Process of transforming the spherical Earth to a flat map
Global Positioning System (GPS)
comprise at least 27 orbiting satellites (“navigational beacons”)
Receiver senses signals from at least 4 satellites
 3 satellites needed for location
 4th to determine accurate time
Remote Sensing
Collective information about an object without
physical contact
Deriving accurate measurements from
photographs =
photogrammetry
Active remote sensing = direct a beam and measure reflectance (e.g., radar)
Passive remote sensing = energy radiated from a surface (e.g., satellite)
Geographic Information Systems (GIS)
GIS systems combine spatial and
attributed data
Maps can contain multiple data layers:
 physical features (rivers, streams, roads, etc.)
 cultural features (plotting neighborhoods, churches, etc),
Layers can be added to create composite overlay

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School: University of Memphis
Department: Earth Science
Course: Weather and Climate
Professor: Jose Pujol
Term: Spring 2019
Tags:
Name: ESCI 1010 Week 1 Notes
Description: These are the notes for week one.
Uploaded: 01/30/2019
5 Pages 31 Views 24 Unlocks
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School: University of Memphis
Department: Earth Science
Course: Weather and Climate
Professor: Jose Pujol
Term: Spring 2019
Tags:
Name: ESCI 1010 Week 1 Notes
Description: These are the notes for week one.
Uploaded: 01/30/2019