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colorado - CLAS - Class Notes - Week 3

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colorado - CLAS - Class Notes - Week 3

School: University of Colorado at Boulder
Department: Classical Studies
Course: Ancient Egyptian Art and Archaeology
Term: Spring 2019
Tags:
Name: Egyptian Art and Archeology, Week 3 Notes
Description: These notes discuss the transition from villages to states in Egypt. This transition includes the similarities and differences of both Lower and Upper Egypt with different burial ceremonies and the development of culture, art and archeology during this time period.
Uploaded: 01/30/2019
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background image 1­28­19  6 theories of Egyptian Statehood  o Agriculture created food surplus necessitating state bureaucracy  o “Hydraulic Hypothesis”  states emerged to construct and manage irrigation system  o Population growth to increase complexity  o Trade  between Egypt and Near East  State concept imported from Mesopotamia  o Ecosystems Efficient adaptations to the environment  o “Circumscription Theory” by Carneiro (1970)  Not peaceful with manipulation of farmers  Limiting agricultural territory  Egyptian’s agricultural land  the most restricted in the world  People are forced to stay in the Nile Valley  Result  farmers can be exploited  Example: Peru  Robert Carneiro  State forms when run out of agricultural territory  Controlling Labor  o Egypt is under populated  Free land  Mobile population 
background image Rent + taxes low  o Solution  forcibly limit labor mobility  Dry land trend (3400 BC)  Cant from from the valley to the desert  Emerging state (Upper Egypt)  Expand to control territory  Cut off movement of farmers  Circumscribed  forced to pay taxes and laborers  Hypothetical Scenario o State forms where population density is high among foragers  State arises people still foraging  o State cannot be sustained by foraging  transformation to agriculture o Agriculture imposed on rest of the Nile as Upper Egyptian proto­state expands  Increasing economic base  Controlling land  “Cutting off escape”  Rise in Military  o Labor exploited for military purposes  expansion  o Increased conflict (3500­3200)  Naqada II  o Weapons used  arrows, axes, spears o They had community walls  Keep the natural disasters  Protection from people 
background image o State emergence  violent conflict  o War of conquest  Scorpion Macehead (3200­3000)  o Macehead  was a tool/weapon like a hammer and said could kill people  o No suggestion of war or conquest  o Emergence of statehood  sign of coming up culture  o Drawings on the Macehead indicate irrigation scene  o Ending of foraging  o Signs of white crown  indicates kingship of Upper Egypt  Pre­State/Proto­State Wars o Naqada II  Upper Egypt  o Oscillations of state irrigation  States among communities go into and out of existence o Hierakonpolis (oldest community)  Population of 5,000  Had enough soldiers to dominate  o States emerge in framework of conflicts to monopolize goods  Trying to control surplus food  Final Sequence  o Focus shifts to north of Delta  There is close contact with Syria/Palestine  Evidence of ceramics and metal  o 4 th  millennium 
background image Egyptians live in small community oval huts  o Subsistence to having full agriculture  Full irrigation is yet to come  Evidence of Nucleation  o Graves  Occurring but with regional division  Development difference between North and South Difference in grave goods Similarities in class structure  different classes had different goods inside
their grave 
Delta communities were becoming specialized  from what archeologists 
found in the graves 
o Lack of evidence of Mesopotamia as instigator  o Chiefdoms become kingship  Egypt’s Stone Age  o Egyptian ape  Aegyptopithecus  Dated back 30 million years ago  Found in Fayum Oasis  Small animal  weighted 9 lbs.  Paleolithic  o First tools were discovered  100,000 years ago  Tools were associated with Neanderthals  100,000­50,000 years  Mining for flint  33,000 BC o Sites in Upper Egypt (21,000­12,000) 
background image Dry climate  More fishing  Starting to cook with fire  o Human activity  11,000­8,000 BC Badari (Upper Egypt)  o 5 th  millennium  o Polished pottery with texture surfaces  o Male graves  Didn’t have houses, linens or bone needles  o Dead burials were in separated cemeteries Burial practices  o Put in fetal position  o Goods around them  sometimes included food and beer  o Humans wrists or ankles were bound  Where the concept of the afterlife came to  they were bound so they 
wouldn’t follow the “live” humans 
o Wrapped in garments or linen  mummification   1­30­19 Early Egyptian Statuary  o Mother goddess cult  early unification of people?  Fertility of women  o Feature of early human interaction  o Great power of women in early human culture 

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School: University of Colorado at Boulder
Department: Classical Studies
Course: Ancient Egyptian Art and Archaeology
Term: Spring 2019
Tags:
Name: Egyptian Art and Archeology, Week 3 Notes
Description: These notes discuss the transition from villages to states in Egypt. This transition includes the similarities and differences of both Lower and Upper Egypt with different burial ceremonies and the development of culture, art and archeology during this time period.
Uploaded: 01/30/2019
22 Pages 70 Views 56 Unlocks
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  • Notes, Study Guides, Flashcards + More!
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