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Virginia Commonwealth University - ANTH 103 - ANTH 103 - Class Notes

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Virginia Commonwealth University - ANTH 103 - ANTH 103 - Class Notes

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background image Molecular anthropology ​ is the use of genetic analysis of dna sequences to assess  evolutionary links 
Timeline of ideas about the nature of life 
-instantaneous creation 
-linnaeus (1750) 
-lamarck (1800) 
-darwin (1850) 
-lyell (1850) 
Inheritance of acquired characteristics 
​(lamarck)  -Individuals develop new features during their lifetime by striving toward some goal 
-giraffe stretches neck reaching for food 
-acquired characteristics passed onto offspring 
​ (lyell)  -the idea that natural forces at work today also explain past events 
-deep time 
Darwin's initial observations 
1.individuals in a population differ from each other 
2. These differences are 
​heritable​- passed from parent to offspring   3. Population growth outstrips resources 
Alfred Russell wallace
​ (1823-1913)   -contacted darwin in 1858 
-darwin was encouraged to publish… 
-on the origins of species by means of natural selection (1859) 
Darwin's inferences 
1. There will always be competition over resources: most offspring will not survive to  reproduce  2. Individuals w features that allow them to outcompete others for limited resources will  have more  ​successful​ offspring  3. Offspring will look like their parents, and the population will change through time to  resemble the individuals that are best equipped  4. Given enough time, new species will evolve    Darwin's mechanism for producing adaptation 
natural selection  - ​adaptation​: anatomical, physiological or behavioral response of organisms/ populations to the  environment  
background image Kettlewell moth experiment 
1.variation in moth population 
2. Some individuals blended in better 
3. Those moths lived to reproduce more 
4. The population of moths changed over time 
5. Natural selection -> evolution 
Adaptation to 
​current​ conditions is the only  Adaptive today, gone tomorrow: hyper-specialization danger  
Which of the below options needs to be present first for natural selection to occur? 
Natural selection acts on 
The variation on an 
​individual ​but then might lead to the evolution to a new species   
Somatic cells
​: liver cells, nerve cells, muscle cells  Gametes ​: ovum, sperm  Chromosome: coiled up dna 
Humans: 46 chromosomes 
The structure of dna 
-Deoxyribonucleic acid 
-Watson and crick 
Nucleotide (side of ladder (sugar, phosphate)) 
Base pair (ladder rungs (T,A,,C,G)) 
Hemoglobin: oxygen transport 
Collagen: connective tissue 
Actin / myosin: muscles 
Dna: sequence of 4 different bases  
Protein: chain of amino acid building blocks 
Codon: sequences of three (example: C,A,A)  
​: any error that occurs in the process of copying dna that can be transmitted to  daughter cells 

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School: Virginia Commonwealth University
Department: Evolutionary Anthropology
Course: Intro to Anthropology
Professor: Amy Verrelli
Term: Spring 2019
Tags: Anthropology
Name: ANTH 103
Description: These notes are from week 2 of class on 1/22!
Uploaded: 01/30/2019
6 Pages 54 Views 43 Unlocks
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